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INSTITUTES 


O F 

HINDU LAW: 

OR, THE 

ORDINANCES of MENU, 

ACCORDING TO THE 

GLOSS of CULLUCA. 

COMPRISING THE 

INDIAN SYSTEM OF DUTIES, 

RELIGIOUS AND CIVIL. 


VERBALLY TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL 
SANSCRIT. 

With a PREFACE, 

By Sir WILLIAM JONES. 


CALCUTTA: 

PRINTED BY ORDER OP THE GOVERNMENT. 
LONDON! 

RETRINTED FOR J. SEWELL, COR N HILL \ AND J. DE8RETT, 
PICCADILLY. 1796. 


[riatobncfc.J 









Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2008 with funding from 
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https://archive.org/details/institutesofhindOOmanu 



THE PREFACE. 


I T is a maxim in the fcience of legiflatioii 
aid government, that Laws are of no avail 
wit bait manners , or, to explain the fentence 
more fully, that the beft intended legiflative 
provifions would have no beneficial effedf even 
at firft, and none at all in a fhort courfe of 
time, unlefs they were congenial to the difpo- 
fition and habits, to the religious prejudices, 
and approved immemorial ufages of the peo¬ 
ple for whom they were enabled ; efpecially 
if that people univerfally and fincerely believed, 
that ill their ancient ufages and eflablifhed rules 
of ccndudt had the fandtion of an adtual revela¬ 
tion from heaven : the legiflature of Britain 
having fliown, in compliance with this maxim, 
an intention to leave the natives cf thefc Indian 
provinces in poffeffion of their own Laws, at 
leaft on the titles of contrails and inheritances , 
we may humbly prefume, that all future pro¬ 
vifions, for the adminiflration of juftice and 
government in India , will be conformable, as 
far as the natives are aftedled by them, to the 
manners and opinions of the natives themfelves; 
an objeft which cannot poflibly be attained, 
until thofe manners and opinions can be fully 
and accurately known. Thefe confiderations, 
Ui\d a few others more immediately within my 

A 2 prb- 




IV 


THE PREFACEj 


province, were my principal motives for wip¬ 
ing to know, and have induced me at length 
to publifh, that fyftem of duties, religious and 
civil, and of law in all its branches, which the 
Hindus firmly believe to have been promulged 
in the beginning of time by Menu, fo(i or 
grandfon of Brahma', or, in plain language, 
the firft of created beings, and not the oldeft 
only, but the holieft of legiflators ; a fyftem 
fo comprehenfive and fo minutely exaCt, that 
it may be confidered as the Inftitufes of Hindu 
Law, preparatory to the copious Dige/i , which 
has lately been compiled by Pandits of eminent 
learning, and introductory perhaps to a Code 
which may fupply the many natural defeCts 
in the old jurilprudence of this country, and, 
without any deviation from its principles, ac¬ 
commodate it juftly to the improvementslof a 
commercial age. 

We are loft in an inextricable labyrinth of 
imaginary aftronomical cycles, Tugas , Ma- 
hdj ugas^ Calpas , and Menwantaras , in attempt¬ 
ing to calculate the time, when the firft Menu, 
according to the Brahmens , governed this 
world, and became the progenitor of mankind, 
who from him are called Manavdh ; nor can 
we, fo clouded are the old hiftory and chrono¬ 
logy of India with fables and allegories, after- 
tain the precife age, when the work, now pre- 
fented to the Publick, was actually compofed ; 
but we are in pofleffion of fome evidence, 
partly extrinfick and partly internal, that it is 


THE PREFACE. 


V 


really one of the oldeft compofitions exifting. 
From a text of Parasara difcovered by Mr. 
Davis, it appears, that the vernal equinox had 
gone back from the tenth degree of Bharani 
to the firjl of Afwinl , or twenty-three degrees 
and twenty minutes , between the days of that 
Indian phiiofopher, and the year of our Lord 
499, when it coincided with the origin of the 
Hindu ecliptick; fo that Par a's ar a probably 
flourifhed near the clofe of the twelfth century 
before Christ; now Parasara was the 
graudfon of another fage, named Va'sisht’ha, 
who is often mentioned in the laws of Menu, 
and once as contemporary with the divine 
Bhrigu himfelf; but the charader of Bhrigu, 
and the whole dramatical arrangement of the 
book before us, are clearly fiditious and orna¬ 
mental, with a defign, too common among 
ancient lawgivers, of ftamping authority oil 
the work by the introdudion of fupernatural 
perfonages, though Va'sisht’ha may have 
lived many generations before the adual writer 
of it, who names higa, indeed, in one or two 
places as a phiiofopher in an earlier period. 
The flyle, however, and metre of this work 
(which there is not the fmallefl reafon to think 
affededly obfolete) are widely different from 
the language and metrical rules of Ca lida's, 
who unqueftionably wrote before the begin¬ 
ning of our era; and thedialedot Menu is even 
oblerved,in many paffages, to refemble that of 
the Veda, particularly in a departure from the 

A 3 more 


VI 


THE PREFACE. 


more modern grammatical forms; whence it 
mufl, at firft view, feem very probable, that the 
laws, now brought to light, were conliderably 
older than thole of Solon or even of Lycur- 
gus, although the promulgation of them, be¬ 
fore they were reduced to writing, might have 
been coeval with thefirft monarchies eftablifh- 
ed in Egypt or AJia: but, having had the 
lingular good fortune to procure ancient copies 
of eleven JJpaniJhads , with a very perfpicuous 
comment, 1 am enabled to fix, with more ex- 
aftntfs, the probable age of the work before us, 
and even to limit its highefl poffible age by a 
mode of reafoning, which may be thought 
new, but will be found, I perfuade mylelf, 
f tisfadtory ; if the Publick fhall, on this oc- 
calion, give me credit for a few very curious 
facls, which, though capable of ftrict proof, 
can at prefent be only afferted. The Sanfcrit 
of the three firft Vedas , (I need not here ipeak 
of the fourth) that of the Manava Dherma 
Saftra , and that of the Par anas, differ from each 
other in pretty exadt proportion to the Latin of 
Numa, from whofe laws entire fentences are 
preferved, that of Appius, which we fee in the 
fragments of the Twelve Tables, and that of 
Cickro, or of Lucretius, where he has not 
affedted an obfolete ftyle: if the feveral changes, 
therefore, of Sanfcrit and Latin took place, as 
we may fairly aflbme, in times very nearly 
proportional, the Vedas muft have been written 
about 300 years before thefe Inftitutes, aqd 

abou$ 


the preface. yii 

about 600 before the Puranas and Itihifas , 
which, I am fully convinced, were not the 
produdions of Vya'sa ; fc> that, if the foil of 
Para'sara committed the traditional Vedas 
to writing in the Sanfcrit of his father’s time, 
the original of this book muft have received its 
prefent form about 880 years before Christ’s 
birth. If the texts, indeed, which Vya'sa 
collected, had been adually written in a much, 
older dialed, by the fages preceding him, we 
muft inquire into the greateft poflible age of 
the Vedas themfelves : now one of the longed: 
and fineft TJpanifhads in the fecond Veda con¬ 
tains three lifts, in a regular feries upward?, 
of at moft forty-two pupils and preceptors, 
who fucceflively received and tranfmitted (pro¬ 
bably by oral tradition) the doctrines contained 
in that Upamfhad\ and as the old Indian priefts 
were ftudents at fifteen , and inftrudors at twen~ 
ty-fve , we cannot allow more than ten years, 
on an average, for each interval between the 
refpedive traditions; whence, as there are forty 
iuch intervals, in two of the lifts between 
Vya'sa, who arranged the whole work, and 
Aya'sya, who is extolled at the beginning of 
it, and juft as many, in the third lift, between 
the compiler and Ya'jnyawalcya, who 
makes the principal figure in it, we find the 
higheft age of the Tfur Veda to be 1580 
years before the birth of our Saviour, (which 
would make it older than the five books of 
Moses) and that of our Indian law trad about 

1280 


THE PREFACE. 


viii 

1280 years before the fame epoch. The for- 
rner date, however, feems the more probable 
of the two, becaufe the Hindu fages are faid 
to have delivered their knowledge orally, and 
the very word Sruta , which we often fee ufed 
for the Veda itfelf, means what was heard; 
not to infill that Cullu'ca exprefsly declares 
the fenfe of the Veda to be conveyed in the 
language of Vya'sa. Whether Menu or 
Menus in the nominative and Meno s in an 
oblique cafe, was the fame perfonage with Mi¬ 
nos, let others determine ; but he muft in¬ 
dubitably have been far older than the work, 
which contains his laws, and though perhaps 
he was never in Crete , yet fome of his infti- 
tutions may well have been adopted in that 
illand, whence Lycurgus, a century or two 
afterwards, may have imported them to Sparta . 

There is certainly a ftrong refemblance, 
though obfcured and faded by time, between 
our Menu with his divine Bull, whom he 
names as Dherma himfelf, or the genius of 
abflrafl: juflice, and the Mneues of Egypt with 
his companion or fymbol Apis ; and, though 
we fhould be conftantly on our guard againft 
the delufion of etymological conjedlure, yet we 
cannot but admit that Minos and Mneues, 
or Mneuis, have only Greek terminations, but 
that the crude noun is compofed of the fame 
radical letters both in Greek and in Sanjcrito 
* That Apis and Mneuis/ fays the Analyft 
pf ancient Mythology, ‘ were both reprefen- 

6 tations 


THE PREFACE. 


IX 


4 tations of fome perfonnge, appears fmm the 
4 teftimony of Lycophron and his fcholiaft; 
4 and that perionage was the fame, who in 
4 Crete was ft vied Minos, and who was alfo 
‘ reprefented under the emblem of the Mini- 
4 taur; Diodorus, who confines him to Egypt ^ 
4 fpeaksof him by thetitle of the bull Mneuis % 
4 as thefirft lawgiver, and fays, 41 That he lived 
44 after the age ot the gods and heroes, when 
44 a change was made in the manner of life 
44 among men; that he was a man of a mod 
44 exalted foul, and a great promoter of civil 
4t fociety, which he benefited by his laws; 
“ that thofe laws were unwritten, and receiv- 
44 ed by him from the chief Egyptian deity 
44 Hermes, who conferred them on the world 
44 as a gift of the higheft importance.” He 
4 was the fame, adds my learned friend, with 
* Menes, whom the Egyptians reprefented as 
4 their firft king and principal benefadtor, who 
4 firft facrificed to the gods, and brought about 
4 a great change in diet.’ If Minos, the fon 
of Jupiter, whom the Cretans , from national 
vanity, might have made a native of their own 
ifland, was really the fameperfon with Menu, 
the fon of Brahma', we have the good fortune 
to reftore, by means of Indian literature, the 
molt celebrated fyftem of heathen jurifpru- 
dence, and this work might have been entitled 
The Laws of Minos ; but the paradox is too 
fingular to be confidently afterted, and the 
geographical part of the book, with moft of 

the 


THE PREFACE. 


the allufions to natural hiftory, muft indubi¬ 
tably have been written after the Hindu race 
had fettled to the louth of Himalaya . We can¬ 
not but remark that the word Menu has no 
relation whatever to the Moon ; and that it 
was the feventh , not the firjl of that name* 
whom the Brahmens believe to have been pre- 
ferved in an ark from the general deluge : 
him they call the Child of the Sun , to diftin- 
guifh him from our legiflator ; but they affign 
to his brother Yama the office (which the 
Greeks were pleafed to confer on Minos) of 
yudge in the Jhades below . 

The name of Menu is clearly derived (like 
menes , mens , and mind ) from the root men to 
under ft and ; and it lignifies, as all the Pandits 
agree, intelligent , particularly in the doctrines 
of the Veda, which the compofer of our Dher¬ 
nia Sajira mu ft have ftudi ed very diligently; 
fince great numbers of its texts, changed only in 
a few iyllables for the fake of the meafure, are 
interfperfed through the work, and cited at 
length in the commentaries: the Publick may, 
therefore, allure themfelves, that they now pof- 
fefs a conliderable part of the Hindu fcripture, 
without the dullnefs of its profane ritual or 
much of its myftical jargon. Dara Shucu h 
was perfuaded, and not without found reafon, 
that the firft Menu of the Brahmens could be 
no other perfon than the progenitor of man¬ 
kind, to whom yews , Chrijiians , and MuJel- 
mans, unite in giving the name of Adam ; but, 

who- 


THE PREFACE. 


XI 


whoever he might have been he is highly ho¬ 
noured by name in the Veda itfelf, where it is 
declared, that 4 whatever Menu pronounced, 

4 was a medicine for the foul,’ and the fiage 
Vr nr asp ati, now fiuppofed to prefide over 
the planet Jupiter , fays in his own law tradf, 
that 4 Menu held the firit rank among legifla- 
4 tors, becaufe he had ex prefled in his code the 
4 whole fenfe of the Veda ; that no code was 
4 approved, which contradicted Menu ; that 
4 other SaflraSy and treatiles on grammar or lo- 
4 gick, retained fplendour fo long only, as 
4 Menu, who taught the way tojuft wealth, to 
4 virtue and to final happinefs, was not leen in 
4 competition with them Vya'sa too, the 
foil of Para'sara before mentioned, has de¬ 
cided, that 4 the Veda with its Angas , or the 
4 fix compofitions deduced from it, the reveal- 
4 ed fyftem of medicine, the Puranas , or fa- 
4 cred hiftories, and the code of Menu were 
4 four works of lupreme authority, which 
4 ought never to be lhaken by arguments 
4 merely human.’ 

It is the general opinion of Pandits , that 
Brahma' taught his Jaws to Menu in a hun¬ 
dred thoufand ver/es, which Menu explained 
to the primitive world, in the very words of 
the book now tranflated, where lie names him- 
felf, after the manner of ancient fage^, in the 
third perfon, but in a fhort preface to the law 
tradt of Na'red, it is aflerted, that 4 Menu, 
* having written the laws of Brahma 7 in a 

4 hundred 


Xll THE PREFACE. 

4 hundred thoufand Jlocas or couplet?, arrange 

* ed under twenty-four heads in a thoufand 
4 chapters, delivered the work to Na'red, 

* the fage among gods, who abridged it, for 
4 the ufe of mankind, in twelve thoufand verfes, 
4 and gave them to a fon of Bhrigu, named 
4 Sumati, who, for greater eafe to the hu- 
4 man race, reduced them to four thoufand ; 
4 that mortals read only the fecond abridge- 
4 ment by Sumati, while the gods of the 
4 lower heaven, and the band of celeftial mufi- 
4 cians, are engaged in ftudying the primary 
4 code, beginning with the fifth verfe, a little 
4 varied, of the work now extant on earth ; 
4 but that nothing remains ofNARED’s abridge- 
4 ment, except an elegant epitome of the ninth 
4 original title on the adminijlration of jufiicef 
Now, fince thefe inftitutes confift only of 
two thoufand fix hundred and eighty five verfes, 
they cannot be the whole work afcribed to 
Sumati, which is probably diftinguiftied by 
the name of the Vrtddha , or ancient Mdnava 9 
and cannot be found entire; though leveral 
pafiages from it, which have been preferved by 
tradition, are occafionally cited in the new 
digeft. 

A number of gloffesor comments on Menu 
were compofed by the Munis , or old phi- 
lofophers, whofe treatifes, together with that 
before us, conftitute the Dherm )djira , in a cob- 
led ive lenie, or Body of Law ; among the 
more modern commentaries, that called Med- 

hat if hi 9 



THE PREFACE. xiii 

hatit'hi, that by Go'vindara/ja, and that by 
Dharani'-Dhera, were once in the greatetfc 
repute; but the firft was reckoned prolix and 
unequal; the iecond concife but oblcure ; and 
the third often erroneous. At length appeared 
Cullu'caBh att a; who,after a painful courfe 
of ftudy and the collation of numerous manu- 
fcripts, produced a work, of which it may, 
perhaps, be faid very truly, that it is the (hort- 
eft, yet the rnoft luminous, the leaft oftenta- 
tious, yet the moft learned, the deepeft, yet 
the moft agreeable, commentary ever compoled 
on any author ancient or modern, European or 
AJiatick . The Pandits care fo little for genu¬ 
ine chronology, that none of them can tell me 
the age of Cullu'ca, whom they always 
name with.applaufe ; but he informs us him- 
ielf, that he was a Brahmen of the Fdrendra 
tribe, whofe family had been long fettled 
in Gaur or Bengal , but that he had chofen his 
refidence among the learned, on the banks of 
the holy river at Cd/i. His text and interpreta¬ 
tion I have almoft implicitly followed, though 
I had myfclf collated many copies of Menu, 
and among them a manufcript of a very ancient 
date : his glofs is here printed in Italicks ; and 
any reader, who may choofe to pafs it over as 
if unprinted, will have in Reman letters an exadl 
verfioti of the original, and may form fome idea 
of its charafter and ftrufture, as well as of the 
Sanfcrit idiom which mud neceftarily be pre- 
ferved in a verbal tranilation; and a tranfla- 

tion, 


THE PREFACE. 


Xiv 

tion, not fcrupuloufly verbal, would have been 
highly improper in a work on fo delicate and 
momentous a fubjed as private and criminal 
jurifprudence. 

Should a feries of Brahmens omit, for three 
generations, the reading of Menu, their facer- 
dotal clafs, as all the Pandits allure me, would 
in flridnefs be forfeited ; but they muft ex¬ 
plain it only to their pupils of the three higheft 
clafles; and the Brahmen , who read it with 
me, requeued moft earnestly, that his name 
might be concealed; nor would he have read it 
for any conlideration on a forbidden day of the 
moon, or without the ceremonies prelcribed in 
the fecond and fourth chapters for a ledure on 
the Veda : fo great, indeed, is the idea of 
fandity annexed to this book, that, when the 
chief native magiftrate at Banares endeavoured, 
at my requeft, to procure a Perfian tranflation 
of it, before I had a hope of being at any time 
able to underftand the original, the Pandits of 
his court unanimoufly and pofitively refufedto 
aflift in the work ; nor Ihould I have procured 
it at all, if a wealthy Hindu at Gaya had not 
caufed the verlion to be made by lome of his de¬ 
pendants, at the delire of my friend Mr. Law. 
The Perfian tranflation of Menu, like all 
others from the Sanfcrit into that language, 
is a rude intermixture of the text, loofely ren¬ 
dered, with fome old or new comment, an-d 
often with the crude notions of the tranflator ; 
and though it expreflts the general fenie of the 
original, yet it fwarms with errours, imputable 

partly 


TIIB PREFACE. 


XV 


partly to hafte, and partly to ignorance: thus 
where Menu fays, that emijfaries are the eyes 
of a prince , the Perjian phrafe makes him 
aferibe four eyes to the perfon of a king ; for 
the word char , which means an emiffary in 
Sanfcrit , fignifies Jour in the popular dialed. 

The work, now prelented to the European 
world, contains abundance of curious matter 
extremely interefting both to fpeculative law¬ 
yers and antiquaries, with many beauties 
which need not be pointed out, and with many 
blemifhes which cannot bejuftified or palliat¬ 
ed. It is a fyftem of delpotifm and prieftcraft, 
both indeed limited by law, but artfully con- 
fpiring to give mutual fupport, though with 
mutual checks; it is filled with ftrange con¬ 
ceits in metaphyficks and natural philofophy, 
with idle fuperflitions, and with a fcheme of 
theology moll obfeurely figurative, and con- 
fequently liable to dangerous milconception; 
it abounds with minute and childifh formali¬ 
ties, with ceremonies generally abfurd and of¬ 
ten riuiculous; the punilhments are partial and 
fanciful; for fome crimes, dreadfully cruel, for 
others, reprehenfibly flight; and the very mo¬ 
rals, though rigid enough on the whole, are 
in one or two intlances (as in the cafe of light 
oaths and of pious perjury) unaccountably re¬ 
laxed : neverthelefs, a fpirit of fublime devo¬ 
tion, of benevolence to mankind, and of amia¬ 
ble tendernefs to all fentient creatures, pervades 
the whole work; the ftyle of it has a certain 

* aufterc 


xvi 


THE PREFACE. 


auftere majefty, that founds like the language 
of kgiflation, and extorts a refpedful awe ; the 
fentiments of independence on all beings but 
God, and the harfh admonitions, even to kings, 
are truly noble; and the many panegyricks on 
the Gayatt'i, the Mother as it is called, of the 
Veda, prove the author to have adored (not the 
vifible material fun , but) that divine and in - 
comparably greater light , to ule the words of 
the mofl venerable text in the Indian fcripture, 
'which illumines all , delights all, from which all 
proceed., to which all mufl return, and which 
alone can irradiate (not our vifual organs 
merely, but our fouls and) our intellects. What¬ 
ever opinion in fhort may be formed of Menu 
and his laws, in a country happily enlightened 
by found philofophv and the only true reve¬ 
lation, it muft be remembered, that thofe 
laws are actually revered, as the word of the 
Moft High, by nations of great importance 
to the political and commercial interefts of 
Europe , and particularly by many millions of 
Hindu fubjeds, whofe well direded induftry 
would add largely to the wealth of Britain , 
and who -afk no more in return than protec¬ 
tion for their perfons and places of abode, juf- 
tice in their temporal concerns, indulgence to 
the prejudices of their old religion, and the 
benefit of thofe laws, which they have been 
taught to believe facred, and which alone they 
can poflibly comprehend. 


W. JONES. 


THE 


LAWS OF ME N IT, 

SON OF BRAHMA. 


CHAPTER THE FIRST. 

On the Creation ; with a Summary of the Contents * 


i. Ji yJENU fat reclined, with his attention 

J^Vx fixed on one objedb, the Supreme God 
when the divine Sages approached him , and , after 
mutual falutations in due form, delivered the fol¬ 
lowing addrefs: 

2. 4 Deign, fovereign ruler, to apprize us of 
4 the facred laws in their order, as they muft be 
4 followed by. all the four clafies, and by each of 
c them, in their feveral degrees, together with 
4 the duties of every mixed clafs; 

3. 4 For thou, Lord, and thou only among mor - 
4 tals, knoweft the true fenfe, the firft principle, 
4 and the preferibed ceremonies, of this univerfal, 
4 fupernatural Veda, unlimited in extent and un- 
4 equalled in authority/ 

4. He, whofe powers were meafureleL, being 
thus requefted by the great Sages, whofe t houghts 
were profound, faluted them all with reverence, 
and gave them a comprehenfive anfwer, faying. 

4 Be it heard ! 

5. 4 This univerfc exifted only in the frjf divine 
4 idea yet unexpanded , as if involved in darknefs, 
\ imperceptible, undefinable, undifcoverable by 

B * reaf} > 






1 ON THE CREATION ; WITH A 

c reafon, and undifcovered by revelation , as if is 
4 were wholly immerfed in fleep : 

6. 4 Then the foie felf-exifting power, himfelf 
4 undifcerned, but making this world difcernible, 

4 with five elements and other principles of nature, 
4 appeared with undiminifhed glory, expanding 
4 his idea , or difpelling the gloom. 

7. 4 He, whom the mind alone can perceive, 

* whofe eflence eludes the external organs, who 
4 has no vifible parts, who exifts from eternity, 
4 even he, the foul of all beings, whom no being 
4 can comprehend, fhone forth in perfon. 

8. 4 He, having willed to produce various 

* beings from his own divine fubftance, firft with 
4 a thought created the waters, and placed in 
4 them a productive feed : 

9. 4 The feed became an egg bright as gold, 
4 blazing like the luminary with a thoufand 
€ beams; and in that egg he was born himfelf 
c in the form of Brahma', the great forefather of 
4 all fpirits. 

10. 4 The waters are called nara , becaufe they 
4 were the production of Nara, or the fpirit of 
4 God ; and, fince they were his firft ay ana , or 
4 place of motion, he thence is named Nara Van a, 

4 or moving on the waters. 

11. 4 From that which is, the firft caufe, 

4 not the object of fenfe, exifting every where in 
4 fubftance, not exifting to our perception, without 
4 beginning or end, was produced the divine male, 

4 famed in all worlds under the appellation of 
4 Brahma'. 

12. 4 In that egg the great power fat inactive a 
4 whole year of the Creator, at the clofe of .which, 

4 by his thought alone, he caufed the egg to divide 
4 itfelfi 


13. 4 And 


SUMMARY of the contents. 


3 


13. c And from its two divifions he framed the 
heaven above and the earth be.eatk: in the mid ft 
he placed the fubtil ether, the eight regions* and 
the permanent receptacle of waters. 

14. ‘ From the fupfeme foul he drew forth 
Mind, exifting fubftuntially though unperceived 
by fenfe, immaterial; and before mind , or the 
reafoning power, he produced confcioufnefs, the 
internal monitor, the ruler; 

15. ‘And, before them both, he produced the 
great principle of the foul, or firjl expdnjion of the 
divine idea; and all vital forms endued with the 
three qualities of goodnefs , pafiion , and darknefs; 
and the five perceptions of fenfe, and the live 
organs of fenfation. 

16. ‘ Thus, having at once pervaded, with ema¬ 
nations from the Supreme Spirit, the minuteft 
portions of fix principles immenfely operative, 
confcioufnefs and the five perceptions , tic framed all 
creatures ; 

17. c And fince the minuteft particles of vifiblc 
nature have a dependence on thofe fix emanations 
from God, the wife have accordingly given the 
name of s'dr If a or depending On fix , that is, the ten 
organs on confcioufnefs , and the five elements on as 
many perceptions , to His image or appearance in 
vifible nature: 

18. ‘ Thence proceed the great elements, en¬ 
dued with peculiar powers, and Mind with 
operations infinitely fubtil, the unperifiiable 
caufe of all apparent forms. 

19. ‘ This univerfe, therefore, is compacted 
from the minute portions of thofe feven divine 
and active principles, the great Soul, or firfi ema¬ 
nation, confcioufnefs, and five perceptions; a mutable 
univerfe from immutable ideas . 

B 2 20. ‘ Among 


ON THE CREATION; WITH A 

20. 4 Among them each fucceeding element 
acquires the quality ot the preceding; and, in 
as many degrees as each of them is advanced, 
with fo many properties is it faid to be endued. 

21. 4 He too firft affigned to all creatures dif- 
tincft names, diflin£l a£ts, and diftinft occupa¬ 
tions ; as they had been revealed in the pre- 
exifting Veda. 

22. 4 He, the fupreme Ruler, created an affem- 
blage of inferior Deities, with divine attributes 
and pure fouls ; and a number of Genii cxqui- 
fitely delicate; and he frejeribed the facrifice 
ordained from the beginning. 

23. 4 From fire, from air, and from the fun 
he milked out, as it wore , the three primordial 
Vedas , named Rich, T'ajufby zn&Saman, for the 
due performance of the facrifice. 

24. 4 He gave being to time and the divifions 
of time, to the liars alfo, and to the planets, to 
rivers, oceans, and mountains, to level plains, 
and uneven valleys. 

25. 4 To devotion, fpeech, complacency, de¬ 
fire, and wrath, and to the creation, which (hall 
prefently be mentioned; for He willed the exis¬ 
tence of all thofe created things. 

26. 4 For the fake of difiinguifhing actions. 
He made a total difference between right and 
wrong, and enured thefe fentient creatures to 
pleafure and pain, coldandheat> and other oppo¬ 
site pairs. 

27. 4 With very minute transformable portions, 
called mitrctSy of the five elements, all this 
perceptible world was compofed in fit order; 

28. 4 And in whatever occupation the fupreme 
Lord firft employed any vital foul, to that occu- 

4 pation 


SUMMARY OF THE CONTENTS, J 

pation the fame foul attaches itfclf fpontaneoufly, 
when it receives a new body again and again: 

29. 4 Whatever quality, noxious or innocent, 
harfh or mild, unjuft, or juft, falfe or true, He 
conferred on any being at its creation, the fame 
quality enters it of courfe on its future births ; 

30. 4 As the fix feafons of the year attain 
refpe< 5 lively their peculiar marks in due time 
and of their own accord, even fo the feveral 
a< 5 ts of each embodied fpiric alien! it m:u - 
rally. 

31. 4 That the human race might be multi¬ 
plied, He caufed the Brahmen, the Cjhatnya , 
the Vaifya, and the Sudra (fo named from the 
feripture , protection, wealth , and labour) to pro¬ 
ceed from his mouth, his arm, his thigh and his 
foot. 

32. c Having divided his own fubftance, the 
mighty Power became half male, half female, 
or nature arrive and paffine \ and from that fe¬ 
male he produced Viraj: 

33. 4 Know Me, O moft excellent of Brahmens, 
to be that perfon, whom the male power Vira'j, 
having performed auftere devotion, produced 
by himfelf; Me, the fecondary framer of all this 
vifible world. 

34. 4 It was I, who, defirous of giving birrh 
to a race of men, performed very difficult reli¬ 
gious duties, and firft produced ten Lords of 
created beings, eminent in holinefs, 

35. 4 Mari'chi, Atri, Angeras, Pulastva, 
Pulaha, Cratu, Prache'tas, or Dacsha, 
Vasisht’ha, Bhricu, and Na rada : 

36. 4 They, abundant in glory, produced 
feven other Menus, together with deities, and 

H 3 * the 


6 ON THE creation; with a 

c the manfions of deities, and Alaharjhis , or great 
c Sages, unlimited in power ; 

37. c Benevolent genii, and fierce giants, blood- 
c thirfly lavages, heavenly quirifters, nymphs and 
c demons, huge ferpents and fnakes of fmaller 
4 fize, birds of mighty wing, and feparate com- 
c panies of Pitris, or progenitors of mankind ; 

38. c Lightnings and chunder-bolts, clouds 2nd 
4 coloured bows of Indra , falling meteors, earth- 

* rending vapours, comets, and luminarits of va- 
c rious degrees; 

39. c Horfe-faced fylvans, apes, fifh 3 and a 
c variety of birds, tame cattle, deer, men, and 
4 ravenous beads with two rows of teeth; 

40. c Small and large reptiles, moths, lice, 
1 fleas, and common flies, with every biting gnat, 
c and immoveable fubftances of diflindt forts. 

41. c Thus was this whole aflemblage of fla- 
c tionary and moveable bodies framed by thofe 

* high-minded beings, through the force of their 
c own devotion, and at my command, with fepa- 
< rate adtions allotted to each. 

42. ‘ Whatever adf is ordained for each of 
c thofe creatures here below, that 1 will now de- 

* clare to you, together with their order in refpecfc 
‘ to birth. 

43. c Cattle and deer, and wild beads with two 
c rows of teeth, giants, and blood-thirdy favages, 

* and the race of men, are born from afecundine: 

44. 1 Birds are hatched from eggs, fo are 
c fnakes, crocodiles, fifli without Jhells> and tor- 
f toifes, with other animal kinds, terredrial, as 
‘ chamelionSy and aquatick, as Jhell-fiJh: 

45. 4 From hot moidure are born biting gnats, 
f lice, fleas, and common flies; thefe, and what- 
c ever is of the fame clafs, are produced by heat. 

46, < All 


SUMMARY OF THE CONTENTS. 


7 

a 6 . 4 All vegetables, propagated by feed or by 
4 flips grow from fhoots: fome herbs, abounding 
4 in flowers and fruits, perifh when the fruit is 
* mature ; 

47. ‘ Or her plants, called lords of the foreff, 
4 have no flowers, but produce fruit; and, whe- 
4 ther they have flowers alfo, or fruit only, large 
4 woody plants of both forts are named trees. 

4S. 4 There are ihrubs with many flalks from 
4 the root upwards, and reeds with Angle roots 
4 but united flems, all of different kinds, and 
4 grades, and vines or climbers, and creepers, 
4 which fpring from a feed or from a flip. 

49. 4 Thele animals and vegetables, encircled 
‘ with multiform darknefs, by reafon of part ac- 
‘ tions, have internal confcience, and are fenfible 
4 of pleafure and pain. 

50. 4 All tranlmigrations, recorded in j'acred 
4 books , from the ftate of Brahma, to that of 
4 plants, happen continually in this tremendous 
c world of beings; a world always tending to 
4 decay. 

51. 4 He, whofe powers are incomprehenflble, 
c having thus created both me and this univerfe, 
4 was again abforbed in the fupreme Spirit, chang- 
4 ing the time of energy for the time of repofe. 

52. 4 When that Bower awakes, (for, though 
4 fumber he not pre die able of the foie eternal Mind, 

4 infinitely wife and infinitely benevolent, yet it is pre - 
4 dicated of Brahma ' .figuratively, as a general pro - 
4 perty of life) then has this world its full expansion; 

4 but, when he flumbers with a tranquil fpirit, 

4 then the whole fyffem fades away; 

53. 4 For, while he repofes, as it were, in calm 
4 fleep, embodied fpirits, endued with principles 

B 4 4 of 


2 ON THE CREATION; WITH A 

* of action, depart from their feveral adts, and the 
€ mind itfelf becomes inert; 

54. 4 And when they once are abforbed in that 

* fupreme eHence, then the divine foul of all 
f beings withdraws his energy, and placidly Hum- 

* bers ; 

55. c Then too this vital foul of created bodies , 
€ with all the organs of fenfe and of adtion, re^ 

* mains long immerfed in the firft idea or in dark- 
c nefs, and performs not its natural fundtions, but 
4 migrates from its corporeal frame : 

56. * When, being again compofed of minute 
€ elementary principles, it enters at once into 

* vegetable or animal feed, it then a flumes a 
6 new form. 

57. c Thus that immutable Power, by waking 
c and repofing alternately, revivifies and deftroys 
c in eternal fucceflion, this whole aflemblage of 

* locomotive and immoveable creatures. 

58. c He, having enadted this code of laws, 
x himfeif taught it fully to me in the beginning: 

* afterwards I taught it Marichi and the nine 

* other holy fages. 

59. 4 This my Jon Bhr'icu will repeat the divine 

* code to you without omifTion; for that fage 
‘ learned from me to recite the whole of it/ 

60. Bhrigu, great and wife, having thus been 
appointed by Menu to promulge his laws, ad- 
d re fifed all the Rajhis with an afFedtionate mind, 
faying : ‘ Hear! 

61. 4 From this Menu named Swa'yambhuva*. 
4 or Sprung from the felf-exijling y came fix def- 

* cendants, other Menus, or perfectly underftanding 

* the Jcripiure y each giving birth to a race of his 
own, all exalted in dignity, eminent in power; 

62. 4 SWA RO, CHISHA, AUTTAMT, Ta'MASA, 

Raivata 


SUMMARY OF THE CONTESTS. 9 

4 Raivata likewife and Chacshusha, beaming 
4 with glory, and Vaivaswata, child of the fun. 

63. * The feven Menus, for tbofe fir ft created , 

4 who are to be followed by Jeven more) of whom 
4 Swa yambhuva is the chief, have produced and 
4 fupported this world of moving and ftationary 
4 beings, each in his own antara , or the period of 
4 his reign. 

64. 4 Eighteen nimejhas , or twinklings of an eye , 

4 are one cafht'hd\ thirty cdjht'has , one ; 

4 thirty calds, one tnubtrta: and juft fo many 
4 muh'.rtas let mankind confider. as the duration 
4 of their day and night. 

65. 4 The fun caufes the diftributicn of day and 
4 night, both divine and human; night being 
4 intended for the repofe of various beings, and day 
4 for their exertion. 

66. 4 A month of mortals is a day and a night 
4 of the Pitris or patriarchs inhabiting the moon; 

4 and the divifion of a month being into equal 
4 halves, the half beginning from the full moon is 
4 their day for abtions ; and that beginning from 
4 the new moon is their night for dumber: 

67. 4 A year of mortals is a day and a night of 
4 the Gods, or regents of the univerfe Jeated round 
4 the north pole ; and again their divifion is this, 
4 their day is the northern, and their night the 
4 fouthern courfe of the fun. 

68 . 4 Learn now the duration of a day and a 
4 night of Brahma., and of the feveral ages 
4 which fhall be mentioned in order fuccin&ly. 

69. 4 Sages have given the name of Crita to an 
4 age containing four thoufand years ol the Gods; 
4 the twilight preceding it confifts of as many 
4 hundreds, and the twilight following it, of the 
* fame number; 


70. 4 In 


IO 


ON THE CREATION ; WITH A 


70. c In the other three ages, with their twilights 
c preceding and following, are thoufands and 
« hundreds diminifhed by one. 

71. ‘ The divine years, in the four human ages 

* juft enumerated, being added together, their 
1 fum, or twelve thoufand, is called the age of the 
6 Gods: 

72. c And, by reckoning a thoufand fuch divine 
c ages, a day of Brahma may be known : his 
c night alfo has an equal duration : 

73. ‘ Thofe perfons bcft know the divifions of 

* the days and nights, who underhand that the 

< day of Brahma , which endures to the end of a 

< thoufand fuch ages, gives rife to virtuous ex- 
€ ertions; and that his night endures as-long as 
c his day. 

74. c At the clofe of his night, having long 
L repofed, he awakes, and awaking, exerts in- 
c teileel, or reproduces the great principle of anma - 
c tion, whofe property it is to exift unperceived by 

* fenfe : 

75. c Intellect, called into a&ion by his will 
c to create worlds, performs again the work of 

* creation; and thence firft emerges the fubtil 
« ether, to which philofophers afcribe the quality 
c of conveying found ; 

76. ‘ From ether, effecting a tranfmutation 

* in form, fpiings the pure and potent air, a ve- 
4 hide of all fcencs ; and air is held endued with 
c the quality of touch : 

77. ‘ Then from air, operating a change, rifes 
c light cr fire , making obje&s vifible, difpelling 

< gloom, lpreading bright rays; and it is declared 
« to have the quality of figure ; 

78. c But from light, a change being effected, 

€ comes water with the quality of tafte ; and from 

4 water 


SUMMARY OF THE CONTENTS. II 

water is depcfited earth with the quality of fmell r 
fuch were they created in the beginning. 

79. ‘ The before-mentioned age of the Gods, 
or twelve thoufand of their years, being mul¬ 
tiplied by feventy-one, conftitutes what is here 
named a Menwantara, or the reign of a Menu. 

80. c There are numberlefs Menwantaras ; 
creations alfo and dcftrudtions of worlds, /;> 
numerable: the Being fupremely exalred per¬ 
forms all this, with a> much eaje as if in fport ; 
again and again, for the Jake of conferring hap - 
pinejs. 

81. ‘In the Crita age the Genius of truth and 
right, in the form of a Bull , (lands firm on his 
four feet; nor does any advantage accrue to 
men from iniquity ; 

82. f But in the following ages, by reafon of 
unjuft gains, he is deprived fuecefiively of one 
foot; and even juft emoluments, through the 
prevalence of theft, fallehood, and fraud, are 
gradually diminilhed by a fourth parr. 

83. ‘ Men, free irom difeafe, attain all forts of 
profperity, and live four hundred years in the 
Crita age ; but, in the Tret a and the l'ucceeaing 
ages, their life is lellened gradually by one 
quarter. 

84. ‘ The life of mortals, which is mentioned 
in the Veda, the rewards of good works, and the 
powers of embodied fpirits, are fruits propor¬ 
tioned among men to the order of the four 
ages. 

85. c Some duties are performed by good men 
in the Crita age; others, in the Trctd; fome, 
in the Dwapara ; others, in the Cali ; in pro¬ 
portion as thofe ages decreafc in length. 

86. ‘ In the Crita the prevailing virtue is de- 

* dared 


ON TIIE creation; with a 


3 2 

* dared to be in devotion; in the Trela, divine 
€ knowledge ; in the Dzvapara , holy lages call 
£ facrifice the duty chiefly performed; in the 

* Cali, liberality alone. 

87. £ For the fake of preferving this univerfe, 
c the Being, fupremely glorious, allotted feparate 
£ duties to thofe who fprang relpedlively from his 

% 1 mouth, his arm, his thigh, and his foot. 

88. £ To Brahmens he afligned the duties of 
£ reading the Veda, of teaching it, of facrificing, 

£ of afiifting others to facrifice, of giving alms, 

£ if they be rich, and, if indigent , of r eceiving 

* gifts: 

c To defend the people, to give alms, to 
£ facriflce, to read the Veda, to fhun the allure- 
c ments of fenfual gratification, are, in a few 
‘ words, the duties of a Chatriya: 

90. £ To keep herds of cattle, to bellow lar- 
£ gelfes, to facrifice, to read the feripture, to carry 

* on trade, to lend at interell, and to cultivate 
£ land are preferihed or permitted to a Vaifya : 

91. £ One principal duty the fupreme Ruler 
‘ alflgns to a Sudra ; namely, to ferve the be- 
1 fore-mentioned clafles, without depreciating 
c their worth. 

92. £ Man is declared purer above the navel; 
c but the felf-creating Power declared the purelt 
£ part of him to be his mouth. 

93. c Since the Brahmen fprang from the molt 
£ excellent part, fince he was the fir ft born, and 
c fince he poflefifes the Veda, he is by right the 
£ chief of this whole creation. 

94. £ Him, the Being, who exifts of himfelf, 
c produced in the beginning from his own mouth, 
£ that, having performed holy rites, he might 
£ prefent clarified butter to the Gods, and cakes 

<of 


SUMMARY OF THE CONTENTS. I £ 

r of rice to the progenitors of mankind, for the 
c prefervation of this world : 

95. c What created being then can furpafs 
c Him, with whole mouth the Gods of the fir— 
c mament continually feall: on clarified butter, and 
< the manes of anceftors, on hallowed cakes ? 

96. 4 Of created things, the molt excellent are 

* thofe which are animated ; of the animated, 
c thole which fubfifi: by intelligence ; of the in- 
1 telligent, tnankind ; and of men, the facerdotal 
4 clafs; 

97. 4 Of priefts, thofe eminent in learning; 

4 of the learned, thofe vn ho know their duty ; of 
4 thofe who know it, fuch as perform it virtuoufly; 

* and of the virtuous, thofe who feek beatitude 
4 from a perfe< 5 l acquaintance with fcriptural doc- 
‘ trine. 

98. 4 The very birth of Brahmens is a conftant 
1 incarnation of Dherma, God of JuJiice ; for the 
4 Brahmen is born to promote jufticc, and to pro- 
c cure ukimate happinefs. 

09. c When a Brahmen fprings to light, he is 
4 born above the world, the chief of all creature-, 

4 afilgned to guard the trealury of duties, religious 
4 and civil. 

100. f Whatever exifts in the univerfe, is all 

4 in effedl, though not in form> the wealth or* 
4 the Brahmen ; fince the Brahmen is entitled 
4 to it all by his primogeniture and eminence 
4 of birth : 

101. 4 The Brahmen eats but his own food; 

4 wears but his own apparel; and bellows but his 
4 own in alms : through the benevolence of die 
4 Brahmen , indeed, other mortals enjoy life. 

102. 4 l o declare the facerdotal duties, and 
€ thofe of the other clafles in due order, the luge 

6 Menu, 


4. ON THE CREATION; WITH A 

Menu, fprung from the felf-exifting, promulged 
this code of Jaws: 

103. 4 A code which muft be ftudied with ex¬ 
treme eafe by every learned. Brahmen , and fully 
explained to his difciples, but muft be taught by 
no other man of an inferior clajs . 

104. 4 The Brahmen who ftudies this book, 
having performed facred rites, is perpetually 
free from offence in thought, in word, and in 
deed ; 

105. c He confers purity on his living family, 
on his anceftors, and on his delcendants, as far 
as the feventh perfon ; and He alone deferves 
to poffefs this whole earth. 

106. c This moil excellent code produces every 
thing aufpicious; this code increafes under- 
ftanding; this code procures fame and long life; 
this code leads to fupreme blils. 

107. 4 In this book appears the fyftem of law’ 
in its full extent, with the good and bad pro¬ 
perties of human actions, and the immemorial 
cuftoms of the four claffes, 

108. 4 Immemorial cuftom is tranfcendent law, 
approved in the facred fcripture, and in the 
codes of divine legiflators: let every man, there¬ 
fore, of the three principal claffes, who has a due 
reverence for the fupreme fpirrt which dwells in 
him , diligently and conftantly obferve imme¬ 
morial cuftom ; 

109. 4 A man of the prieftly, military, or 
commercial elafs, who deviates from imme¬ 
morial ufage, taftes not the fruit of the Veda; 
but, by an exact obfervance of it, he gathers 
that fruit in perfection. 

no. 4 Thus have holy fages, well knowing 
that law is grounded on immemoiial cuftom, 

embraced. 


SUMMARY OF THE CONTENT?. 15 

embraced, as the root of all piety, good ufages 
long eftablifhed. 

111. ‘The creation of this univerfe, the forms 
of inftitution and education, with the obfervances 
and behaviour of a Undent in theology; the beft 
rules for the ceremony on his return from the 
manfion of his preceptor; 

112. ‘The law of marriage in general, and 
of nuptials in different forms; the regulations 
for the great facraments, and the manner, 
primevally fettled, of performing obfequies; 

113. ‘ The modes of gaining fubfiftence, and 
the rules to be obferved by the matter of a 
family; the allowance and prohibition of diet, 
with rhe purification of men and utenfils; 

114. ‘ Laws concerning women, the devotion 
of hermits, and of anchorets wholly intent on 
final beatitude, the whole duty of a king, and 
the judicial decifion of controverfies, 

115. ‘ With the law of evidence and examina¬ 
tion; laws concerning hufband and wife, canons 
of inheritance ; the prohibition of gaming, and 
the punifhments of criminals ; 

116. ‘Rules ordained for the mercantile and 
fervile claffes, with the origin of thofe that are 
mixed ; the duties and rights of all the claffes in 
time of diftrels for fubfiftence ; and the penances 
for expiating fins; 

117. ‘ The iVveral tranfmigrations in this uni¬ 
verfe, caufed by offences of three kinds, with 
the ultimate blits attending good adfions, on the 
full trial of vice and virtue ; 

118. c All thefe titles of law, promulgated 
by Menu, and occafionally the cuftoms of dif¬ 
ferent countries, different tribes* and different 

7 ‘ families. 


6 ON THE CREATION, &C. 

families, with rules concerning hereticks and 
companies of traders, are difcuffed in this 
code. 

119. * Even as Menu, at my requeft, formerly 
revealed this divine Saftra, hear it now from 
me without any diminution or addition. 


C 17 ) 


CHAPTER THE SECOND. 

On 'Education ; or on the Sacerdotal Clafs , and 
The Flrjl Order . 


1. i Know that fyftem of duties, which is re- 
1 vered bv fuch as are learned in the Eedas, and 
1 imprefled, as the means of attaining beatitude , on 
1 the hearts of the juft, who are ever exempt 
‘ from hatred and inordinate affedtion. 

2. c Self-love is no laudable motive, yet an 

* exemption from felf-love is not to be found in 

* this world : on felf-love is grounded the ftudy 
‘ of fcripture, and the practice of adtions re- 
€ commended in it. 

3. ‘ Eager defire to aft has its root in expedla- 

* tion of fome advantage ; and with fuch expec- 

* tation are facrifices performed ; the rules of 
€ religious aufterity and abftinence from fins are 
1 all known to arife from hope of remuneration, 

4. * Not a fingle adt here below appears ever 
4 to be done by a man free from felf-love ; what- 

* ever he performed, ft is wrought from his defire 

* of a reward. 

5. ‘ He, indeed, who fhould perfift in difeharg - 

* ing thefe duties without any view to their fruit, 
4 would attain hereafter the ftatcof the immortals, 
4 and even in this life, would enjoy all the vir- 
4 tuous gratifications, that his fancy could fuggeft. 

C 6. ‘ The 




ON EDUCATION ; OR 


s8 


6 . 4 The roots of law are the whole Veda , 

4 the ordinances and moral practices of fuch as 
4 perfectly underftand it, the immemorial cuftoms 
4 of good men, and, in cafes quite indifferent , felf- 
4 fatisfadion. 

7. 4 Whatever law has been ordained for any 
4 perfon by Menu, that law is fully declared in 
4 the Veda: for He was perfed in divine know- 
4 ledge : 

8. 4 A man of true learning, who has viewed 
4 this complete fyftetn with the eye of facred 
4 wifdom, cannot fail to perform all thofe duties, 

4 which are ordained on the authority of the Veda* 

9. 4 No doubt, that man who fhali follow the 
4 rules prefcribed in the Sruti and in the Smriti , 

4 will acquire fame in this life, and, in the next, 

4 inexpreffible happinefs: 

10. 4 By Sruti, or what was heard from ah'ove , 

4 is meant the Veda; and by SmrTti, or what was 
4 remembered from the beginnings the body oi law 7 : 

4 thofe two muft not be oppugned by heterodox 
4 arguments; fince from thofe two, proceeds the 
4 whole fyftem of duties. 

11. 4 Whatever man of the three higheft clafTes, 

4 having addided himfelf to heretical books, finall 
4 treat with contempt thofe two roots or aw, he 
4 mull, be driven, as an Atheift and a fcorner of 
4 revelation, from the company of the virtuous. 

12. 4 The Scripture, the codes of law, ap- 
4 proved ufage, and, in all indifferent cafes , felf- 
4 fatibfadion, the wife have openly declared to 
4 be tke quadruple description of the juridical 
4 fyftem. 

13 4 A knowledge of right is a Sufficient in- 
4 centive for men unattached to wealth or to feri- 
4 fuality ; and to thofe who feek a knowledge of 

4 right. 


ON THE FIRST OR DEft. 19 

€ right, the fupreme authority is divine reVela- 
4 tion ; 

14. 4 But, when there are two facred texts, ap* 

4 pavently inccnfillent> both are held to be la.v ; for 
4 both are pronounced by the wife to be valid 
* and reconcileable ; 

15. 4 Thus in the Vida are thefe texts : 44 let 
4 the facrifice be when the fun has arifen,” and, 
44 before it has rifen,” and, 44 when neither fun 
4 nor ftars can be fccn the facrifice, therefore, 
4 may be performed at any or all of tbofe times. 

16. 4 He, whofe life is regulated by holy texts, 

4 from his conception even ro his funeral pile, 

4 has a decided right to (ludy this code ; but no 
4 other man whatfoever. 

17. 4 Between the two divine fivers Sj-afw'ati 
4 and Drtjbadwati , lies the tradt of land, which 
4 the fages have named Brahmiiverta y becaufe it 
4 was frequented by Gods: 

18. 4 The cuftom preferved by immemorial 
4 tradition in that count;' among the four pun 
4 claflcs, and among thole which are mixed, is 
4 called approved ulage. 

19. 4 C.urucjhitra\ Matfya , Ranch ida, or Cir'.n- 
4 cubja, and Suro/ina t or Af.it'kurd, form tire re- 
4 gion called Brahmarjhi , diltinguifhed from Bfdb* 
4 m vert a : 

20. 4 From a Briibrncn who was born in th it 
4 country, let all men on earth learn their ieVeral 
4 ufages. 

lip 4 That country which lies between Him a- 
4 zvat and Vindhya , to the enft of Vbtas'ah'a, and to 
4 the w'eft of Pray d^a , is celebrated by the title of 
4 Medbya-d]a, or the central rfpton. 

22. 4 As far as theeaflern, anil as far as the 
c weflern oceans, between the two mounuins }ul 

C 2 4 oicn- 


20 ON EDUCATION ; OR 

c mentioned, lies the tradl which the wife have 
c named Anaverta , or inhabited by refpeBable men . 

23. 6 That land, on which the black antelope 
c naturally grazes, is held fit for the performance 
i of facrifices ; but the land of Mlech’has , or thofe 

* who [peak barbaroujly , differs widely from it. 

24. ‘ Let the three firft claffes invariably dwell 
c in thofe before-mentioned countries; but a Su- 
c dra, difireffed for fubfifience, may fojourn 
£ wherever he chufes. 

25. c Thus has the origin of law been fuccintt- 
c ly declared to you, together with the formation 

of this univerfe : now learn the laws of the 
c feveral claffes. 

26. c With aufpicious adts prefcribed by the 
‘ Feda, muft ceremonies on conception, and fo 
c forth, be duly performed, which purify the 
c bodies of the three claffes in this life, and qualify 
6 them for the next. 

27. 6 By oblations to fire during the mother’s 
c pregnancy, by holy rites on the birth of the 

* child, by the tonfure of his head with a lock of 

* hair left on it, by the ligation of the facrificial 
cord, are the feminal and uterine taints of the 

c three claffes wholly removed : 

28. c By ftudying the Feda> by religious ob- 
c fervances, by oblations to fire, by the ceremony 
6 of 'Fraividia , by offering to the Gods and Manes, 
6 by the procreation of children, by the five great 

* facraments, and by folemn facrifices, this human 
6 body is rendered fit for a divine ftate. 

29. 6 Before the fe&ion of the navel firing, a 
« ceremony is ordained on the birth of a male ; 
c he mufi be made, while facred texts are pro- 
i nounced, to tafte a little honey and clarified 
4 butter from a golden fpoon. 

30. c Let 


ON T1IE FIRST ORDER. 


21 


30. ‘ Let the father perform or, if abfent , caufe 
to be performed, on the tenth or twelfth clay 
after the birth, the ceremony of giving a name ; 
or on fome fortunate day of the moon, at a 
lucky hour, and under the influence of a flar 
with good qualities. 

31. ' The firit part of a Brahmen's compound 
name fhould indicate holinefs ; of a CJhatriya s, 
power; of a Vaifya's, wealth ; and of a Sudra s 
contempt : 

32. ‘ Let the Second part of the priefVs name 
imply profperitv ; of the Soldier’s, preservation; 
of the merchant’s, nourishment; of the iervant s f 
humble attendance. 

33. ‘ The names of women fhould be agreeable, 
loft, clear, captivating the fancy, aulpicious, 
ending in long vowels, refembling words of 
benedi&ion. 

34. * In the fourth month the child fhould be 
carried out of the houle to fee the fun: in the 
fixth month, he fhould be fed with rice; or 
that may be done, which, by the cultom of the 
family, is thought molt propitious. 

33. ‘ Bv the command of the V:da , the cere¬ 
mony of tonfure Should be legally performed 
by the three firft clafTes in the firft or third 
year after birth. # . 

36. ‘ In the eighth year from the conception 
of a Brahmen , in the eleventh from that of a 
CJhatriya, and in the twelfth from that of a 
Vaifya, let the father inveft the child with the 
mark of his clafs : 

37. ‘ Should a Brahmen , or his father for him , 
be defirous of his advancement in facred know¬ 
ledge ; a Cfhatriya , of extending his power ; or a 
Vaifya of engaging in mercantile bufuiefs; the 

C 3 i in- 


22 


ON EDUCATION ; OR 


c inveftiture may be made in the fifth, fixth, or 
‘ eighth years refpedtively. 

38. * The ceremony of inveftiture hallowed bf 
c .the gayatri mud not be delayed, in the cafe of a 
‘ prieft, beyond the fifteenth year; nor in that 
6 of a foldier, beyond the twenty-fecond ; nor in 
€ that of a merchant, beyond the twenty-fourth. 

39. c After that all youths of thefe three daffies, 
€ who have not been invefted at the proper time, 
4 become vratyas , or outcafts, degraded from the 
‘ gayatri , and contemned by the virtuous: 

40. c With fuch impure men, let no Brahmen, 
6 eyen in diftrefs for fubfiftence, ever form a con- 

* nexion in law, either by the fludy of the Veda, 

* or by affinity. 

41. ‘ Let ftndents in theology wear for their 
c mantles , the hides of black antelopes, of common 
4 deer, or of goats, with lower vejls of woven s'ana, 
6 of cjhuma, and of wool, in the direcSt order of their 
4 daffies. 

42. 6 The girdle of a prieft muft be made of 

* mu/ja , in a triple cord, fmooth and foft; that 
e of a warrior muft be a bow firing of murva; 
f that of a merchant, a triple thread of Yana* 

43 ‘ If the mtinja be not procurable, their zones 
c muft bp formed refpetlively of the graffes cufa 
^ afmantacd , valvaja , in triple firings with one, three, 
6 or n knots, qccor ding to the family cufiom. 

44. c The facrificial thread of a Brahmen muft 
( be made of cotton, fb as to be put on over bis 
‘ head, in three .firings > tj)ftt pf a Cfhatriya , oi 
f sana thread only; that of 4 Vaisya of woollen 
f thread. 

43. 6 A prieft ought by law to carry a ftaffiof 
1 Bilv.a or Pa id fa ; a fojdier, of Bata or Chadira ; 

4 a pier chant of Venu of Udumhara : 

46. * T \q 


ON THE FIRST ORDER. 


2 3 

46 c The ft .ff of a pried mud be of fuch length 
c as to reach his hair ; that of a foldier, to reach 

* his forebead ; and that of a merchant, to reach 
4 his nofe. 

47. ‘ L~t all the {laves be draight, without 
4 fracture, of a hind fome appearance, not likely 

* to terrify men, with their bark perfedt, unhurt 
4 by fire. 

4S. “ Having taken a legal fiaff to his liking, 

4 and (landing oppofire to the fun, let the {Indent 
4 thrice walk round the fire from left to right, and 
4 perform, according to law, the ceremony of afk- 
4 ing food : 

49. 4 The mod excellent of the three clafies, 

4 being girt with the facrificial thread, mud afk 
4 food with the refpedtful word bhavati , at the 
4 beginning of the phrafe ; thofe of the fecond 
4 clafs, with that word in the middle ; and thofe 
4 of the third, with that word at the end, 

50. 4 Let him firft beg food of his mother, or 
4 ot his filler, or of his mother’s whole fider; then 
4 of fome other female who will not difgrace him. 

51. 4 Having collected as much of the defired 
4 food as he has occafion for, and having prefented 
c it without guile to his preceptor, let him eat 
4 fome of it, being duly purified, with his face to 
4 the ead: 

52. 4 Jf he feck long life, he fbould eat with his 
4 face to the ead, if exalted fame to the fouth ; if 
4 profperity to the weft; if truth and its rnvjrd to 
4 the north. 

53. 4 Let the dudent, having performed his, 
4 ablution, always cat his food without diltradtion 
4 of mind ; and, having eaten, let him thrice wafh 
4 his mouth completely, fprinkling with water the, 

C 4 * Jx 


24 


ON EDUCATION ; OR 


c fix hollow parts of his head, or his eyes , ears, and 

* nofrils . 

54. 6 Let him honour all his food, and eat it 
( without contempt; when he fees it, let him 
€ rejoice and be calm, and pray, that he may 
c always obtain it. 

55. ‘ Food, eaten conftantly with refpedl, gives 
* mufcular force and generative power ; but, eaten 

4 irreverently, deftroys them both. 

56. 6 He mud beware of giving any man what 
€ he leaves; and of eating any thing between 

* mo min? and evening: be mud alfo beware of 

. o # 

* eating too much, and of going any whither with 

* a remnant of his food unfwallowed. 

57. ‘ Excedive eating is prejudicial to health, 

* to fame, and to future blifs in Heaven ; it is 
‘ injurious to virtue, and odious among men 2 

* he mud, for thefe reafons, by all means avoid it. 

58. ‘ Let a Brahmen at all times perform the 

* ablution with the pure part of his hand denomi- 
f nated from the Veda, or with the part facred to 
1 the Lord of creatures, or with that dedicated to 
c the Gods; but never with the part named from 

* the Pitr\s: 

59. ‘ The pure part under the root of the 
c thumb is called Brahma, that at the root of the 
c little finger, Qaya; that at the tips of the fingers, 

* Daiva ; and the part between th®., thumb and 
‘ index Pitrya . 

60. c Let him fird fip water thrice ; then twice 

* wipe his mouth ; and ladly touch with water 
‘ the fix before mentioned cavities, his bread* 

* and his head. 

61. 6 He who knows the law and feeks purity 

* will ever perform his ablution with the pure part 

* pf his h^nd, and with water neither hot nor 

c frothy 


ON THE FIRST ORDER. 




< frothy, Handing in a lonely place, and turning 
f to the eait or the north. 

62. ‘ A Brahmen is purified by water that 

* reaches his bofom ; a CJjatriya, by water defcend- 
« ing to his throat ; a Vaifya , by water barely 

< taken into his mouth ; a Sudra by water touched 
‘ with the extremity of his lips. 

63. ‘ A youth of the three higheft clafies is 
c named upaitii, when his right hand is extended 

* for the cord to pafs ever his head and be fixed on his 
« left fhoulder ; when his left hand is extended, 

‘ that the thread may be placed on Jus right Jhouider, 

4 he is called trdebindvili; and niviti , when it is 
4 fattened on his neck. 

64. ‘ His girdle, his leathern mantle, his (laff, 

< his facrificial cord, and his ewer, he muft throw 
4 into the water, when they are worn out or 

* broken, and receive others hallowed by myfticai 
f texts. 

65. 6 The ceremony of cefanta, or cutting off the 
1 hair y is ordained for a prieftin thefixteenth year 

* from conception ; for a foldier, in the twenty- 
4 fecond ; for a merchant, two years later than 
i that. 

66. ‘ The fame ceremonies, except that of the 

* facrificial thread , mull be duly performed for 
4 women at the fame age and in the fame order, 
4 that the body may be made perfedt; but with- 
4 out any text from the Veda : 

67. ‘ The nuptial ceremony is confidered as 

< the complete inftitution of women, ordained for 
4 them in the Veda, together with reverence to 
4 their hufbands, dwelling firft in their fathers 
4 family, the bufinefs of the houfe, and attention 
« to facrcd fire. 


7 


68. ‘ Such 


26 


t n education; or 


68. 4 Such is the real law of inftiturion for die 
4 twice born ; an inftitution in which their fecond 
4 birth clearly confifts, and which caules their ad- 
4 vancement in holinefs: now learn to what du- 
4 ties they muft afterwards apply themfelves. 

69. 4 The venerable preceptor, having girt his 
4 pupil with the thread, muft firft inftrudt him 
4 in purification, in good cuftoms, in the manage- 
* ment of the confecpated fire, and in the holy 
4 rites of morning, noon, and evening. 

70. 4 When the ftudent is going to read rhe 
4 Veda , he muft perform an ablution, as the aw 
4 ordains, with his face to the north and, bavi p 
4 paid fcnptural homage, he muft receive inftruc- 
4 tion, wearing a dean veft, his members being 
4 duly com poled : 

71. c At the beginning and end of the ledture, 
4 he muft always claip both the feet of his pre'cep- 
4 tor ; and he muft read with both his hands 
4 clofed : (this is called feripture homage.) 

72. 4 With crofted r,. nds let him clafp the feet 
4 of his tutor, touching the left foot with his 1 ft, 
4 and the right, with his right hand. 

73. 4 When he is prepared for the ledture, the 
4 preceptor, conftantly attentive, muft fay : 44 boa ! 
4 read and at the clofe, of the iefton he muft 
4 fay : 44 take reft.” 

74. 4 A Brahmen , beginning and ending a 
4 ledture on the Veda, muft always pronounce to 
4 himfelf the fyliable om ; for, unlefs the fy liable 
4 om precede, his learning will flip away from him ; 
4 and, unlefs it follow, nothing will be long 
6 retained. 

75. 4 if he have fttten on culms of cus a with 
4 their points toward the eaft, and be purified 
4 by nibbing that holy grafs on both his hands, 

4 and 


ON THE FIRST ORDER. 


*7 


and be further prepared by three fuppreflions of 
breath each equal in time to free Jhort vowels , he 
then may fitly pronounce om. 

76. ‘ Brahma' milked out, as it were , from the 
three Vedas , the letter A, the letter U, and 
the letter M, which form by their coalition the trilite¬ 
ral monofy liable, together with three myflerious 
words, bhur, bhuvah,fwer , or earth, fry, heaven : 

77. ‘ From the three Vedas , alfo, the Lord of 
creatures, incomprehenfiblv exalted, fucceflively 
milked out the three meafures of that ineffable 
text, beginning with the word tad , and entitled 
fdvitri or gayatri. 

78. ‘ A pricih who fhall know the Vida, and fhall 
pronounce to himielf, both morning and even¬ 
ing, that fyliable, and that holy text preceded 
bv° the three words, (hall attain the fan&ity 
which the Veda confers ; 

79. ‘ And a twice born man, who fhall a thou- 
fand times repeat thofe three (or om, the vyahntis, 
and the gayatri,) apart from the multitude, fhall be 
releafed in a month even from a great offence, 
as a fnake from his flough. 

80. * The pried, the foldier, and the merchant, 
who fhall negledt this myderious text, and fail 
to perform in due feafon his peculiar ads of 
piety, fhall meet with contempt among the 
virtuous. 

81. ‘ The three great immutable words, pre¬ 
ceded by the triliteral fyllable, and followed by 
the gayatri which confids of three meafures, mud 
be confidered as the mouth, or principal part 
of the Veda : 

82. ‘ Whoever fhall repeat, day by day, for 
three years, without negligence, that facred 
text, fhall hereafter approach the divine cffence, 

‘ move 

S 


28 


ON EDUCATION; OR 

c move as freely as air, and afTume an ethereal 
4 form. 

83. 4 The triliteral monofyllable is an emblem of 
4 the fupreme, the fuppreflions of breath with a 
4 mind fixed on God are the higheft devotion ; but 
4 nothing is more exalted than th e gayatri: a de- 
4 claration of truth is more excellent than filence. 

84. 4 Ail rites ordained in the Veda, oblations to 
4 fire, and folemn facrifices pafs away ; but that 
4 which pafies not away, is declared to be the 
4 fyllable om, thence called acjhara m x fince it is a 
4 jymbol cfG od, the Lord of created beings. 

85. 4 The adt of repeating his Holy Name is 
4 ten times better than the appointed facrifice ; 

4 an hundred times better when it is heard by no 
4 >man ; and a thoufand times better when it is 
4 purely mental : 

86. 4 The four domedic facraments which are 
4 accompanied with the appointed facrifice, are not 
4 equal, though all be united, to a fixteenth part 
4 of the facrifice performed by a repetition of the 
4 gay air t: 

87. 4 By the foie repetition of the gayatri, a 
4 pried may indubitably attain beatitude, let him 
4 perform, or not perform, any other religious 
4 adt; if he be Maitra , or a friend to all creatures, 

4 he is jnfily named Brahmena, or united to the Great 
4 One. 

88. 4 In redraining the organs which run wild 
4 among ravifhing lenfualities, a wife man will 
4 apply diligent care, like a charioteer in ma* 

4 naging redive horfes. 

S9. 4 Thofe eleven organs, to which the firffc 
4 fages gave names, I will comprehenfively enu 
4 merate as the law confiders them in due order. 

90. * The 


ON THE FIRST ORDER. 


*<) 

90. c The nofe is the fifth after the ears, the 
fkin, the eyes, and the tongue ; and the organs 
of fpeech are reckoned the tenth, after thofe 
of excretion and generation, and the hands and 
feet: 

91. ‘ Five of them, the ear and the reft in fuc- 
ceffion, learned men have called organs of fenfe; 
and the others, organs of adion : 

92. ‘ The heart muft be confidered as the 
eleventh ; which, by its natural property, com- 
prifes both lenfe and adion ; and which being 
fubdued, the two other fets, with five in each, 
are alfo controled. 

93. ‘ A man, by the attachment of his organs 
to fenlual pleafure incurs certain guilt; bur, 
having wholly fubdued them, he thence attains 
heavenly blifs. 

94. £ Defire is never fatisfied with the enjoyment 
ot defired objeds; as the fire is not appeafed 
with clarified butter ; it only blazes more ve¬ 
hemently. 

95. ‘ Whatever man may obtain all thofe gra¬ 
tifications, or whatever man may refign them 
completely, the refignation of all pleafures is far 
better than the attainment of them. 

96. * The organs being (trongly attached to 
fenfual delights cannot fo effedually be reftrained 
by avoiding incentives to pleafure, as by a con- 
ftant purluitof divine knowledge. 

97. ‘ To a man contaminated by fenfuality 
neither the Kilns, nor liberality, nor facrifices, 
nor ftrid obfervances, nor pious aullerities, ever 
procure felicity. 

98. ‘ L-Ic muft be confidered as really triumph¬ 
ant over his organs, who, on hearing and touch¬ 
ing, on feeing and tailing and fmelling, what 

‘ may 


3 ° 


on education; or 


6 may pleafe cr offend the fenfes , neither greatly re* 
6 joices nor greatly repines : 

99. 6 But, when one among all his organs fails, 
‘ by that fingle failure his knowledge of God 

* paffes away, as water flows through one hole in 
c a leathern bottle. 

100. c Having kept all his members of fenfe 

* and afiion under control, and obtained alfo com- 
c mand over his heart, he will enjoy every ad- 
c vantage, even though he reduce not his body 
s bv religious auflerities. 

101. ‘ At the morning twilight let him Hand 

* repeating the gayatrt until he fee the fun ; and 
‘ at evening twilight, let him repeat it fitting, 

* until the liars diftindlly appear: 

IC2. c He who Hands repeating it at the morn- 
6 ing twilight, removes all unknown no&urnal fin ; 

* and he who repeats it fitting at evening twilight, 

* difperfes the taint, that has unknowingly been 
6 contracted in the day ; 

103. 4 But he who Hands not repeating it in 
6 the morning, and fits not repeating it in the 

* evening, mull be precluded, like a Sudra , from 

* every facred obfervance of the twice born 
‘ clafTes. 

104. 6 Near pure water, with his organs holden 
c under control, and retiring from circumfpection 
‘ to fome unfrequented place, let him pronounce 

* the gayatri, performing daily ceremonies. 

105. c In reading the Ved ngas, or grammar, 

* profody , mathematics, and Jo forth , or even Inch 
‘ parts of the Veda as ought conlfantly to be read, 

* there is no prohibition on particular days; nor 
‘ in pronouncing the texts appointed for oblations 
‘ to fire : 


106. c Of 


ON THE FIRST ORDER. * 31 

iofi. c Of that, which mud conftantly be read, 

*- and is therefore called Brahmafatra, there can 
4 be no fuch prohibition ; and the oblation to 
4 fire, according to the V da, produces good fruit, 

4 though accompanied with the text vafhat' , which 

* on other occafions muft be intermitted on cer- 
4 tain days. 

107. 4 For him, who fhall perfift a whole year 
4 in reading the Veda, his organs being kept in 
4 fuhjeCtion, and his bod v pure, there vvill always 
4 rile good fruit from his offerings of milk and 
4 curds, of clarified butter and honey. 

lo 3 . 4 Let the twice born youth, who has 

* been girt with the facrificial cord, collect wood 
4 for the holy hi e, beg food of his relations, llcep 
c on a low bed, and perform fuch offices as may 
4 pleafe his preceptor, until his return to the 
4 houfe of his natural father. 

109. 4 Ten perfons may legally be infiructed 
4 in the Veda; the fon of a fpiritual teacher; 

4 a boy who is afliduous ; one who can impart 
4 other knowledge; one uho is juft; one who 
4 is pure; one who is friendly; one who is 
4 powerful ; one vvho can beftow wealth ; one 
4 who is honeft; and one who is related by 
4 blood. 

110. 4 Let not a fenfiblc teacher tell any other 
4 what he is not afked, nor what he is alketl im- 
4 properly ; but let him however intelligent, act 
4 in the multitude as if he were dumb : 

hi. 4 Of the two perfons, him, who illegally 
4 afks, and him, who illegally anfvvers, one will 
4 die, or incur odium. 

112. 4 Where virtue, and wealth fujficient to ft - 
4 cure it , are not found, or diligent attenrion, at 
4 leaf proportioned to the holmejs of the fibjeFi , in 

4 that 



on education ; oit 


32 

4 that foil divine inRrudlion mud not be Town i it 
4 would perifh like fine feed in barren land. 

113. 4 A teacher of the Veda fhonld rather die 
4 with his learning, than fow it in Rerile foil, even 
4 though he be in grevious diflrefs for fubfiRence. 

114. 6 Sacred Learning, having approached a 
4 Brahmen , faid to him : 44 I am thy precious 
4 gem; preferve me with care; deliver me not to 
4 a fcorner; (fo preferved I (hail become fupremely 
4 Rrong.) 

115. 4 But communicate me, as to a vigilent de- 
4 pofitory of thy gem, to that ftudent, whom thou 
4 lhalt know to be pure, to have fubdued his 
4 paflions, to perform the duties of his order.” 

116. 4 He who lball acquire knowledge of the 
4 Veda without the affent of his preceptor, incurs 
4 the guilt of Realing the fcripture, and fhall fink 
4 to the region of torment* 

117. 4 From whatever teacher a Rudeiit has 
4 received inRru&ion, either popular, ceremonial* 
4 or facred, let him RrR falute his inRru&or, when 
4 they meer. 

118* 4 A Brahmen, who completely governs his 
4 paflions, though he know the gafairt only, is 
4 more honourable than he, who governs not his 
4 paRions, who eats all forts of food , and fells all 
4 forts of commodities * even though he know the 
4 three Vedas . 

119. 4 When a fuperidr Rts on a couch or 
4 bench, let not an inferior fit on it with him } 
4 and, if an inferior befitting on a couch* let him 
4 rife to falute a fuperior. 

120. 4 The vital fpirits of a young man mount 
4 upwards to depart from him , w'hen an elder ap- 
4 proaches ; but by rifing and falutation he reco- 
4 vers them. 


121. * A 


ON THE FIRST ORDER. 


33 


121. 4 A youth who habitually greets and con- 
* ftantly reveres the aged, obtains an inercafe of 
‘ four things; life, knowledge, fame, ftrength. 

122. 4 After the word of falutation, 3 Brahmen 
4 mud addrefs an elder; faying, 44 I am fuch aa 
4 one/* pronouncing his own name. 

12 }. 4 If any perfons, through ignorance of the 
4 Sanfcrit language, underhand not the import of 
4 his name, to them fbould a learned man fay, 
44 It is I and in that manner he fbould addrefs 
4 all claffes of women. 

124. ‘ In the falutation he fbould pronounce, 
4 after his own name, the vocative particle hh'os ; 
4 for the particle hh'os is held by the wife to have 
4 the fame propercy with names/zz//y expreffed. 

125. 4 A Brahmen fhould thus be faiuted in re- 
4 turn : 44 May’ft thou live long, excellent man !” 
4 and at the end of his name, the vowel and pre- 
4 ceding confonant fhould be lengthened, with an 
4 acute accent , to three fyllabick moments or Jhort 
c vowels. 

126. 4 That Brahmen, who knows not the form 
4 of returning a falutation, mud not be laluted by 
4 a man of learning: as a Sudra , even fo is he. 

127. 4 Let a learned man alk a prieft, when he 
4 meets him, if his devotion profpers ; a warriour, 
4 if he is unhurt; a merchant, if his wealth is 
4 fecure ; and one of the fervile clafs, if he enjoys 
4 good health; ufing refpeftively the words , cus'alam .. 
4 anamayam, cfhemam, and arogyam. 

128. 4 He, who has juft performed a folemn 
4 facrifke and ablution, muft not be addrefTed by 
4 his name, even though he be a younger man ; 
4 but he, who knows the law, fbould accoft him 
4 with the vocative particle, or with lhavat, the 
4 the pronoun of rcfpetft. 


129. 4 To 


ON EDUCATION ; OR 


34 


129. 4 To the wife of another, and to any wo- 
4 man not related by blood, he mud fay, “ bhavati , 
4 and amiable fider.” 

130. ‘ To his uncles paternal and maternal, to 
* his wife’s father, to performers of the facrifice, 
‘ and to fpiritual teachers; he mud fay, 44 I am 
4 luch an one”—rifing up to falute them, even 
4 though younger than himfelf. 

1 31. 4 The fider of his mother, the wife of his 
4 maternal uncle, his own wife’s mother, and the 
4 fider of his father, mud be faluted like the wife 
4 of his father or preceptor : they are equal to his 
4 father’s or his preceptor’s wife. 

132. 6 The wife of his brother, if Hie be of the 
4 fame clafs, mud be faluted every day; but his 
4 paternal and maternal kinfwomen need only be 
4 greeted on his return from a journey. 

133. 4 With the fider of his father and of his 
4 mother, and with his own elder fider, let him 
4 demean himfelf as with his mother; though his 
4 mother be more venerable than they. 

134. 4 Fellow citizens are equal for ten years ; 
4 dancers and lingers, for five; learned theolo- 
4 gians, for lefs than three; but perfons related by 
4 blood, for alhort time: that is , a greater difference 
4 of age dejlroys their equality . 

135. 4 The dudent mud confider a Brahmen, 
4 though but ten years old, and a CJhatriya y though 
4 aged a hundred years, as father and fon ; as 
4 between thofe two, the young Brahmen is to be 
4 rejpefled as the father. 

136. 4 Wealth, kindred, age, moral conduft, 
e and, fifthly, divine knowledge, entitle men to 
4 refpedl; but that which is lad mentioned in 
4 order, is the mod refpeftable. 


137. 4 Whatever 


ON THE FI ST ORDER. 


35 

137. c Whatever man of the three bigbefl clafles 
c pofieflfcs the mod of thofe five, both in number 
c and degree, that man is entitled to mod refpcdt; 
c even a Sudra , if he have entered the tenth dccad 

* of his age. 

138. ‘ Way mufl be made for a man in a 
c wheeled carriage, or above ninety years old, or 
‘ afflicted with dileafe, or carrying a burthen for 

* a woman ; for a pried jud returned from the 
c manfion of his preceptor; for a prince, and for 

* a bridegroom : 

139. 4 Among all thofe, if they be met at one 
4 time, the pried jud returned home and the 

* prince are mod to be honoured ; and of thofe 
4 two, the pried jud returned, fhould be treated 
c with more refpedt than the prince. 

140 4 That pried who girds his pupil with the 

* facrificial cord, and afterwards indru&s him in 

* the whole Veda y with the law of lacrifice and 
4 the facred Upanijhads , holy fages call an acb'rya : 

141. 4 But, he, who for his livelihood, gives 
4 indruction in a part only of the Veda, or in gram- 
4 mar, and in other Vcdungas y is called an upddbydya , 
4 or fublcCturer. 

142. * The father, who performs the ceremo- 
4 nies on conception and the like, according to 
4 law, and who nourifhes the child with his firit 
4 rice, has the epithet o $ guru, or venerable. 

143. * He, who receives a dipend for preparing 
4 the holy fire, for conducting the pica and 
4 ognifljtdma, and for performing other facrifices, 
‘ is called in this code the ntwij of his employer. 

144. 4 He, who truly and faithfully fills both 
4 ears with the Veda , mud be confidercd as equal 

* to a mother ; he mud be revered as a lather 
4 him the pupil mud never grieve. 

1) 2 145. 4 A 




ON EDUCATION ; OR 


6 

145. * A mere acharya, or a teacher of the ga- 
c yatri only, furpaffes ten upadhyayas ; a father, a 
4 hundred fuch achdryas; and a mother, a thoufand 
4 natural fathers. 

146. 4 Of him, who gives natural birth, and 
' him, who gives knowledge of the whole Veda , 

* the giver of lacred knowledge is the more ve- 
4 nerable father; fince the Jecond or divine birth 
4 enfures life to the twice born both in this world 
4 and hereafter eternally. 

147. 4 Let a man confider that as a mere 
4 human birth, which his parents gave him for 
4 their mutual gratification, and which he receives 
4 after lying in the womb; 

148. 4 But that birth, which his principal 
4 acharya, who knows the whole Veda, procures for 

* him by his divine mother the gayatri, is a true 
4 birth : that birth is exempt from age and from 
4 death. 

140. 4 Him, who confers on a man the benefit 
4 of lacred learning, whether it be little or much, 

* let him know to be here named guru, or ve~ 
4 nerable father, in confequence of that heavenly 

* benefit. 

i <50. c A Brahmen , who is the giver of fpiritual 
4 birth, the teacher of preferibed duty, is by right 
4 called the father of an old man, though himfelf 
4 be a child. 

151 . 4 Cavi, or the learned, child of Angiras, 
4 taught his paternal uncles and coufins to read the 
4 Veda, and, excelling them in divine knowledge, 
4 Laid to them, 44 little Tons 

152. 4 They, moved with refentment, afked the 
4 Gods the meaning of that exprejfon ; and the 
4 Gods, being afiembled, anfwered them : 44 The 
4 child has addrelfed you properly , 

153. 4 For 


OS THE FIRST ORDER. 


37 


152. 4 For an unlearned man is in truth a 
* child ; and he who teaches him the Vida , is his 
« father: holy fages have always faid child to an 
4 ignorant man, and father to a teacher of fcrip- 
4 ture.” 

154. 4 Greatnefs is not conferred by years, not 
c by gray hairs, not by wealth, not by powerful 
4 kindred : the divine fages have eltabliihed this 
4 rule ; f ‘ Whoever has read the Vidas and their 
4 Angas , he among us is great/' 

155. 4 The feniority of priefts is from facred 
4 learning; of warriours from valour; of mer- 
4 chants from abundance of grain ; of the fervile 
4 clafs only from priority of birrh. 

1 r6. 4 A man is not therefore aged, becaufe his 
4 head is gray : him, furely, the Gods confidered 
4 as aged, who, though young in years, has read 
4 and underftands the Vida. 

157. 4 As an elephant made of wood, as an 
4 antelope made of leather, fuch is an unlearned 
4 Brahmen : thole three have nothing but names. 

158. 4 As an eunuch is unproductive with wo- 
4 men, as cow with a cow is unprolifick, as libe- 
4 rality to a fool is fruitlefs, fo is a Brcibtneyi ufelefs, 
4 if he read not the holy texts. 

159. 4 Good inftruCtion mud be given without 
4 pain to the inftruCted ; and fweet gentle fpeech 
4 muft be uled by a preceptor, who cherilhes virtue. 

160. 4 He, whofe difcourle and heart are pure, 
4 and ever perfectly guarded, attains all the fruit 
4 arifing from his complete courfe of ftudying the 
4 Veda. 

161. 4 Let not a man be querulous even 
4 though in pain ; let him not injure another in 
4 deed or in thought; let him not even utter a word, 
4 by which his fellow creature may fuffer uneafi- 

^ 4 nefs ; 

D 3 


on education; or 


38 

‘ nefs; fince that will obftrudl his own progreis to 

* future beatitude, 

162. ‘A Brahmen ftiould conftandy fhun wordly 
c honour, as he ftiould fnun poifon ; and rather 
c conftandy feekdifrefpedt, as he would feek nectar; 

163. c For though fcorned, he may deep with 

* plealure; with plealure may he awake; with 
c plealure may he pals through this life : but the 

* lcorner utterly perifhes. 

164. c Let the twice born youth, ,whofe foul 

* has been formed by this regular fuccefiion of 
c prefcribed adts, colledt by degrees, while he 
4 dwells with his preceptor, the devout habits 

* proceeding from the ftudy of fcripture. 

165. ‘ With various modes of devotion, and 
< with aufterities ordained by the law, muft the 

* whole Veda be read, and above all the facred 
€ Upanifhads , by him, who has received a new birth. 

166. c Let the beft of the twice born clafles, 

* intending to pradtife devotion, continually repeat 
€ the reading of fcripture; fince a repetition of 

* reading the fcripture is here ftyled the higheft 
€ devotion of a Brahmen. 

1 67. Yes verily ; that Undent in theology per- 
c forms the higheft adt of devotion with his whole 

* body, to the extremities of his nails, even though 

* he be fofar JenJual as to wear a chaplet of fweet 
1 flowers, who to the utmoft of his ability daily 

* reads the Veda. 

168. ‘ A twice born man, who not having ftu- 
c died the Veda, applies diligent attention to a dif- 
1 fe ent and worldly ftudy, foon falls, even when 

* living, to the condition of a Sudra ; and his def- 
e cendants after him. 

169. c The firft birth is from a natural mother 5 
‘ the fecond, from the ligation of the zone ; the 

* third 


O.s THE FIRST ORDFR. 


39 


4 third from the due performance ot the facrifice 5 
* fuch are the births of him who is ufually called 
4 twice born, according to a Text of the Ft da : 

170. 4 Among them his divine birth is that, 

4 which is didinguifhed by the ligation of the 
4 zone, and facrificial cord \ and in that birth the 
4 Gdyatr: is his mother, and the Acharya , his father. 

171. c Sages call the Achdrya father, from his 
4 giving inftrudtion in the Fcda : nor can any holy 
4 rite be performed by a young man, before his 
4 inveffiture. 

172. 4 Till he be invejled with the figns of bis clafs % 

4 he mud not pronounce any facrcd text, except 
4 w hat ought to be ufed in obfequies to an ancedor; 

4 fince he is on a level with a Sudra before his new 
4 birth from the revealed feripture : 

173. 4 From him, who has been duly inveded, 

4 are required both the performance ot devout a<5t$ 

4 and the ftudv of the Veda in order, preceded by 
4 dated ceremonies. 

<74. 4 Whatever fort of leathern mantle, facri- 
4 facial thread, and zone, whatever ftaff, and what- 
4 ever under-apparel are ordained, as before men - 
4 tionedy for a youth of each clafs, the like mud 
4 alio be ufed in his religious a£ts. 

175. 4 Thefe following rules mud a Brahmacbdri 
4 or Jludent in theology , oblerve, while he dwells 
4 with his preceptor; . keeping all his members 
4 under control, for the lake ot increafing his ha- 
4 bitual devotion. 

176. 4 Day by day, having bathed and being 
4 purified, let him offer frelh water to the Gods, 
4 the Sages, and the Manes; let him fhow refpedt 
4 to the images of the deities, and bring wood for 
4 the oblation to fire. 

D 4 


177. 4 Let 


40 


ON EDUCATION ; OR 


177. 4 Let him abltain from honey, from fiefh 
c meat, from perfumes, from chaplets of flowers, 
4 from fweet vegetable juices, from women, from 
c all fweet fubdances turned acid, and from in- 
4 jury to animated beings; 

178. 4 From unguents for his limbs, and from 
4 black powder for his eyes, from wearing fan- 

* dais, and carrying an umbrella, from fenfual 
4 defires, from wrath, from covetoufnefs, from 
4 dancing, and from vocal and infbumental mufick; 

179 4 From gaming, from difputes, from de- 

* tradtion, and from falfehood, from embracing 
4 or wantonly looking at women, and from dif- 
4 fervice to other men. 

180. 4 Let him conftantly ileep alone : let him 
4 never wade his own manhood ; for he, who vo- 
4 luntarily wades his manhood, violates the rule of 
4 his order, and becomes an avacirni : 

181. 4 A twice born youth, who has involun- 
4 tarily waded his manly flrength during deep, 
4 mud repeat with reverence, having bathed and 
c paid homage to the fun, this text of lcripture : 
44 Again let my ftrcngth return to me” 

182. 4 Let him carry water pots, flowers, cow- 

* dung, frefh earth, and cusa- grafs, as much as 
4 may be ufeful to his preceptor; and let him per- 
4 form every day the duty of a religious mendicant, 

183. 4 Each day mud a Brahmen dudent receive 
4 his food by begging, with due care, from the 
4 houfes ofperfons renowned for difcharging their 
4 duties, and not deficient in performing the facri- 
4 fices which the Veda ordains. 

1 8j. 4 Let him not beg from the coufins of his 
4 preceptor ; nor from his own coufins ; nor from 
4 other kinfmen by the father's fide, or by the 
4 mother's ; but, if other houfes be not accedible, 

4 let 


ON THE FIRST ORDER. 41 

1 let him begin with the lad of thofe in order, 

4 avoiding the fird ; 

185. 4 Or, if none ofthofe boufes jud mentioned 
4 can be found, let him go begging through the 
4 whole didridt, round the village, keeping his 
4 organs in fubjeftion, and remaining filentj but 
4 let him turn away from fuch as have committed 
4 any deadly fin. 

186. 4 Having brought logs of wood from a 
4 didance, let him place them in the open air ; and 
4 with them let him make an oblation to fire with- 
4 out remifiTnefs, both evening and morning. 

187. 4 He, who for feven fucceflive days omits 
4 the ceremony of begging food, and offers not wood 
4 to the facred fire, mud perform the penance of 
4 an avacirni , unlefs he be affh&ed with illnefs. 

188. 4 Let the dudent perfid condantly in fuch 
4 begging, but let him not eat the food of one 
4 perfon only : the fubfiffence of a dudent by beg- 
4 ging is held equal to fading in religious merit . 

1 89. 4 Yet, when he is afked in a folemn act in 
4 honour of the Gods or the Manes, he may eat 
4 at his pleafure the food of a fingle perfon s ob- 
4 ferving, however, the laws of abltinence and the 
4 auderitv of an anchoret: thus the rule of his 
4 order is kept inviolate. 

1 90. 4 This duty of a mendicant is ordained by 
4 the wife for a Brahmen only ; but no fuch a<d is 
4 appointed for a warriour, or for a merchant. 

191. 4 Let the fcholar, when commanded by his 
4 preceptor, and even when he has received no 
4 command, always exert himl'elf in leading, 
4 and in all adls ufeful to his teacher. 

192. 4 Keeping in due fubje&ion his body, his 
4 fpecch, his organs of fenfe, and his heart, let him 

4 dand 


42 ON EDUCATION; OR 

4 (land, with the palms of his hands joined, looking 

* at the face of his preceptor. 

193. 4 Let him always keep his right arm un- 
4 covered, be always decently apparelled, and pro- 

* perly compofed ; and when his inftrudor fays, 
“ be feated,” let him fit oppofite to his venerable 
4 guide. 

194. £ In the prefence of his preceptor let him 
c always eat lefs, and wear a coarfer mantle with 
1 worfe appendages; let him rife before, and go 
4 to reft after his tutor. 

195. 4 Let him not anfwer his teacher’s orders, 
4 or converfe with him, reclining on a bed ; nor 
4 fitting, nor eating, nor handing, nor with an 
4 averted face : 

196. c But let him both anfwer and converfe> if 
4 his preceptor fit, handing up ; if he hand, ad- 
4 vancing toward him ; if he advance, meeting 
4 him ; if he run, haftening after him ; 

197. c If his face be averted, going round to 
4 front him, from left to right ; if he be at a little 
c diftance, approaching him ; if reclined, bending 
4 to him ; and, if he ftand ever fo far off, running 
4 toward him. 

198. 4 When his teacher is nigh, let his couch 
4 or his bench be always placed low : when his 
4 preceptor’s eye can oblerve him, let him not iit 
4 carelefsly at eafe. 

199. 4 Letiiim never pronounce the mere name 
4 of his tutor, even in his ablence; nor ever mimick 
4 his gait, his fpeech, or his manner. 

200. 4 In whatever place, either true but cenfo- 
4 rious, or falfe and defamatory, difcourfe is held 
4 concerning his teacher, let him there cover his 
4 ears or remove to another place : 

<201. 4 By cenfuring his preceptor, thoughjuftly, 
4 he will be born an afs; by fallely defaming him, 

4 a dog; 


ON THE FIRST ORDER. 43 

« a dog ; by ufing his goods without leave, a fmall 
4 worm; by envying his merit, a larger iniedt 
c or reptile. 

202 4 He mud not ferve his tutor by the in- 

* terventi >n of another, while himfelf dands aloof; 

* nor mud he attend h:m in a pafifion, nor when a 
c woman is near ; from a carriage or raffed feat 

* he mud defeend to falute his heavenly director. 

203. c Let him not fit with his preceptor to the 
4 leeward, or to the windward of him ; nor let 
4 him fay any thing which the venerable man can- 

* not hear. 

204. 4 He may fit with his teacher in a carriage 
4 drawn by bulls, horfes, or camels 5 on a terrace, 

4 on a pavement of dones, or on a mat of woven 
4 grafs ; on a rock, on a wooden bench, or in 
4 a boat. 

205. 4 When his tutor’s tutor is near, let him 

* demean himfelf as if his own were prefent; nor 
4 let him, unlefs ordered by his fpritual father, 

4 prodrate himfelf in his prefence before his natural 
4 father, or paternal uncle. 

206. 4 This is likewife ordained as h s condant 
4 behaviour toward his other indrudtors in fc’ence ; 

4 toward his elder paternal kinfmen ; toward all 
4 who may redrain him from fin, and all who 
4 give him falutary advice. 

207. 4 Toward men alfo, who are truly vir- 
4 tuous, let him always behave as toward his pre¬ 
ceptor ; and, in like manner, toward the fons of 

4 his teacher, who are entitled to rtfped as older 
4 men , and are not ftudents ; and toward the paternal 
4 kinfmen of his venerable tutor. 

208. 4 The fon of his preceptor, whether 
4 younger or of equal age, or a dudent, if he be 
4 capable of teaching the Veda, deferves the lame 

, * honour 


44 


ON EDUCATION; OR 


4 honour with the preceptor himfelf, when he is 
4 frejent at any iacrificial a6t: 

209. c But he mud not perform for the fon of 
* his teacher, the duty of rubbing his limbs, or of 
4 bathing him, or of eating what he leaves, or of 
4 waffling his feet. 

210. 4 The wives of his preceptor, if they be 
4 of the fame clafs, muft receive equal honour 
4 with their venerable hufband ; but if they be of a 
4 different clafs, they muft be honoured only by 
c rifing and falutation. 

211. 4 For no wife of his teacher muft he per- 
4 form the offices of pouring fcented oil on them, 
4 of attending them w hile they bathe, of rubbing 
4 their legs and arms, or of decking their hair ; 

212. Nor muft a young wife of his preceptor 
4 be greeted even by the ceremony of touching her 
4 feet, if he have completed his tw entieth year, or 
4 can diftinguifh virtue from vice. 

213. 4 It is the nature of women in this world 
4 to caufe the fedudlion of men ; for wTich reafon 
4 the wife are never unguarded in the company of 
4 females : 

214. 4 A female indeed, is able to draw from 
4 the right path in this life not a fool only, but 
4 even a fage, and can lead him in lubjedtion to 
4 defire or to wrath. 

215. 4 Let not a man, therefore, fit in a fequef- 
4 tered place w ith his neareft female relations: 
4 the aflemblage of corporeal organs is pow erful 
4 enough to (natch wifdom from the w ife. 

216. 4 A young fludent may, as the law diretfts, 
4 make proftration at his pleafure on the ground 
4 before a young wife of his tutor, faying, 44 1 am 
4 fuch an one 

217. 4 And 


OX THE FIRST ORDER. 


45 


217. 4 And on his return from a journey, he 

* mud once touch the ieet of his preceptor’s aged 
4 wife, and falute her each day by prodration, 
4 calling to mind the practice of virtuous men. 

218. 4 As he who digs deep with a fpade 
c comes to a fpring ot water, fo the ftudent, who 
c humbly lerves his teacher, attains the knowledge 
4 which lies deep in his teacher’s mind. 

219. 4 Whether his head be fhorn, or his hair 
4 long, or one lock be bound above in a knot, let 
4 not the fun ever let or rife while he lies afleep 
4 in the village. 

220. 4 If the fun fhould rife or fet, while he 

* (leeps through fenfual indulgence, and knows it 
4 not, he mult fad a whole day, repeating the 
4 gayatr'i: 

221. 4 He, who has been furprifed adeep by the 
4 fetting or by the rifing fun, and performs not 
c that penance, incurs great guilt. 

222. 4 Let him adore God both at funrife 
4 and at funfet, as the law ordains, having made 
4 his ablution and keeping his organs controled ; 
4 and, with fixed attention, let him repeat the 
4 text, which he ought to repeat, in a place free 
4 from impurity. 

223. 4 If a woman or a Si', dr a perform any aft 
4 leading to the chief temporal good, let the du- 
4 dent be carerul to emulate it; and he may do 
4 whatever gratifies his heart, unlefs it be for- 
4 bidden by law : 

224. 4 The chief temporal good is by fome 
4 declared to confid in virtue and wealth ; by 
4 fome, in wealth and lawful pleafure- bv fome, 
4 in virtue alone; by others, in wealth alone; 
4 but the chief good here below is an adlmblagc 
4 of all three : this is a furc decifion. 

2:5. 4 A 


46 


on education ; or 


225. 4 A teacher of the Veda is the image of 
4 God, a natural father, the image of Brahma'; 

4 a mo.h r, the image of the earth; an cider 
4 whole brother, *he image of the foul: 

2 .6. ‘ 1 heretore a fpiriiual and a natural fa- 
4 ther, a mother, and an elder brother, are not to 
4 be treated with difrefped, efpecially by a Brah- 
4 men, though the ffudent be grievoufly pro- 
4 yoked. 

2 27. 4 That pain and care which a mother and 
c father undergo in producing and rearing chil- 
4 dren, cannot be compeniated in an hundred 
4 -years. 

22a. 4 Let every man conftandy do what may 
4 pleafe his parents ; and, on all occafions, what 
4 may pleafe his preceptor: when thofe three are 
4 facisfied, his whole courfe of devotion is accom- 
4 plifhed. 

229. 4 Due reverence to thofe three is con- 
4 fidered as the highefl devotion; and without their 
4 approbation he muft perform no other duty. 

230. 4 Since they alone are held equal to the 
4 three worlds; they alone, to the three principal 
4 orders; they alone, to the three Vedas ; they 
4 alone, to the three fires : 

231. 4 The natural father is confidered as the 
4 gdrbapatya , or nuptial fire ; the mother as the 
4 daejhina , or ceremonial; the fpiritual guide, as 
4 the dhavaniya or facrificial: this triad of fires is 
4 moft venerable. 

232. 4 He, who negledts not thofe three, when 
4 he becomes a houfe-keeper, will ultimately ob- 
4 tain dominion over the three worlds; and his 
4 body being irradiated like a God, he will enjoy 
4 fupreme blifs in heaven. 

233. ‘ By 


ON THE FIRST ORDER. 


47 


2^3. 4 By honouring his mother he gains this 
« te'rrejlrial world ; by honouring his father, the 
« intermediate, o t etberial; and, by afiiduous at- 
« tention to his preceptor, even the celeftial world 
4 of Brahma: 

234. ‘ All duties are completely performed by 
C that man, by whom thofe three are completely 
‘ honoured; but to him by whom they are dif- 

< honoured, all other ads of duty are fruitlefs. 

235. 4 As long as thofe three live, fo long he 

< muft perform no other duty for his own Jake ; 

4 but delighting in what may conciliate their af- 
4 fe&ions and gratify their wilhes, he muft from 
4 day to day afTiduoufly wait on them : 

236. c Whatever duty he may perform in 
4 thought, word, or deed, with a view to the 
4 next world, without derogation from his refpect 
4 to them y he muft declare to them his entire 
4 performance of it. 

237. 4 By honouring thofe three, without more, 
4 a man effedhially does whatever ought to be 
4 done : this is the higheft duty, appearing before 
4 us like Dherma himfelf, and every other ad is 
4 an upadhermciy or fubordinate duty. 

238. 4 A believer in feripture may receive pure 
4 knowledge even from a Sudra ; a lefibn of the 
4 higheft virtue, even from a Chandala ; and a 
4 woman, bright as a gem, even from the bafeft 

4 family: _ . . 

239. 4 Even from poifon may nedar be taken; 

4 even from a child, gentlenefs of fpeech; even 
4 from a foe, prudent condud ; and even from 

4 an impure fubftance, gold. 

240. 4 From every quarter, therefore, mult be 
4 felcded women bright as gems, knowledge, 

4 virtue. 


48 ON EDUCATION ; OR 

4 virtue, purity, gentle fpeech, and various liberal 

* arts. 

241. 4 In cafe of neceffity, a dudent is required 

* to learn the Veda from one who is not a Brcib - 
4 men , and, as long as that indruflion continues, to 
4 honour his inftrudlor with obfequious affiduity ; 

242. 4 But a pupil who leeks the incomparable 
c path to heaven, fhou d not live to the end of 
4 his days in the dwelling of a preceptor who is 
4 no Brahmen , or who has not read all the Vedas 
4 with their Angas. 

243. 4 If he anxioufly defire to pafs his whole 
4 life in the houfe of a lacerdotal teacher, he mud 
4 ferve him with affiduous care, till he be releafed 
4 from his mortal frame: 

244. 4 That Brahmen , who has dutifully at- 

* tended his preceptor, till the diflolution of his 
4 body, paffes direCtly to the eternal manfion of 

* God. 

245. c Let not a dudent, who knows his duty, 
f prefent any gift to his preceptor before his return 
4 home, but when, by his tutor’s permifiion, he 
4 is going to perform the ceremony on his return, 

4 let him give the venerable man fome valuable 
4 thing to the bed of his power; 

246. 4 A field, or gold, a jewel, a cow, or an 
4 horfe, an umbrella, a pair of landals, a dool, 

4 corn, cloths, or even any very excellent vege- 
4 table : thus will he gain the affectionate re- 
4 membrance of his inftrudtor. 

247. 4 The dudent for life mud, if his teacher 
4 die, attend on his virtuous fon, or his widow, 

4 or on one of his paternal kinfmen, with the fame 
4 refpeCb which he fliowed to the living : 

248. 4 Should none of thofe be alive, he mud 

occupy 


ON THE FIRST ORDER. 


49 

* occupy the ftation of his preceptor, the feat, 
1 and the place of religious exercifes; mud con- 
‘ tinually pay due attention ro the fires, which he 

* had confecrated ; and mud prepare his own 
4 foul for heaven. 

249. c The twice born man, who fhall thus 
1 without intermifiion have patted the time of his 
c ftudentfhip, fhall alcend, after death, to the mod 
‘ exalted of regions, and no more again fpring to 
4 birth in this lower world. 


E 








# 






/ 






■ 




























C si ) 


CHAPTER THE THIRD. 


On Marriage ; or on the Second Order . 


1. c The difcipline of a frudent in the three 

* Vedas may be continued for thirty-fix years, in 
4 the houfe of his preceptor ; or for half that time, 
c or for a quarter of it, or until he perfectly com- 

* prehend them : 

2. 6 A ftudenr, whofe rules have not been vio- 
c lated, may aflume the order of a married man, 

* after he has read in fucceflion a sac ha , or branch 

* from each of the three, or from two, or from 
4 any one of them. 

3. c Being jufrly applauded for the drift per- 
< formance of his duty, and having received from 
c his natural or fpiritual father the facred gift of the 

* Veda , let him fit on an elegant bed, decked with 
1 a garland of flowers, and let his father honour 
4 him before his nuptials, with a prelent of a cow. 

4. ‘ Let the twice born man, having obtained 
4 the confent of his venerable guide, and having 
4 performed his ablution with dated ceremonies, 
4 on his return home, as the law directs, efpoufe a 
c wife of the fame clafs with himfelf and endued 
4 with the marks of excellence. 

5. ‘ She, who is not defcended from his pater- 
c nal or maternal anceftors, within the fixth degree, 

* and who is not known by her family name to be of 
4 the fame primitive frock with his father or mother, 

E 2 4 is 




ON MARRIAGE ; OR 


5* 

c is eligible by a twice born man for nuptials and 
€ holy union : 

6. c In connecting himfelf with a wife, let him 
1 ftudioufly avoid the ten following families, be 
c they ever fo great, or ever fo rich in kine, goats, 
c fheep, gold and grain : 

7. * The family which has omitted pre- 
c fcribed acts of religion ; that, which has pro- 

* duced no male children; that, in which the Veda 
c has not been read ; that, which has thick hair 
< on the body ; and thofe, which have been fub- 
6 jedt to hemorrhoids, to phthifis, to difpepfia, to 

* epilepfy, to leprofy, and to elephantiafis. 

8. ‘ Let him not marry a girl with reddifhhair, 
‘ nor with any deformed limb ; nor one troubled 
‘ with habitual ficknefs 5 nor one either with no 
c hair or with too much ; nor one immoderately 
‘ talkative ; nor one with inflamed eyes; 

9. ‘ Nor one with the name of a conflellation, 
€ of a tree or of a river, of a barbarous nation, or 
c of a mountain, of a* winged creature, a fnake, or 
‘ a flave ; nor with any name railing an image of 
6 terrour. 

10. 4 ' Let him chufe for his wife a girl, whofe 
c form has no defedt; who has an agreeable name ; 
‘ who walks gracefully like a phenicopteros, or like 

* a young elephant ; whofe hair and teeth are 
f moderate refpedtively in quantity and in fize; 
c whofe body has exquifite foftnefs. 

11. 6 Her, who has no brother, or whofe father 
‘ is not well known, let no fenfible man efpoufe, 
‘ through fear left, in the former cafe , her father 
‘ fhould take her firft fon as his own to perform his 
e obfequies ; or, in the jecond cafe , left an illicit mar- 
€ riage fhould be contracted. 

12. c For 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 


53 


12. ‘ For the firft marriage of the twice bora 

< clafles, a woman of the fame clafs is recom- 
‘ mended ; but for fuch as are impelled by in- 

* clination to marry again, women in the diredt 
‘ order of the clafles are to be preferred : 

13. c A Sudra woman only mu ft be the wife of 
‘ a Sudra ; (he and a Vaifyd , of a Vaifya ; they two 
‘ and a CJhatriya , of a CJhatriya ; thofe two and a 
6 BrahmaCi of a Brahmen . 

14. ‘ A woman of the fervile clafs is not menti- 

< oned, even in the recital of any ancient ftory, as 
4 the firft wife of a Brahmen or of a CJhatriya . though 
e in the greateft difficulty to find a fuitable match. 

15. ‘ Men of the twice born clafles, who through 
« weaknefs of intellect, irregularly marry women 
‘ of the loweft clafs, very loon degrade their fa- 
‘ milies and progeny to the ftate of Sudras : 

16. ‘ According to Atri and to (Go'tama) 

‘ the fon of Utat’hya, he who thus marries a wo- 

* man of the fervile clafs, if he be a frieji , is de- 

* graded inftantly ; according to Saunaca, on 
c the birth of a fon, if he be a warriour; and, if he 

* be a merchant , on the bith of a fon’s fon, accord- 
‘ ing to (me) Bhrigu. 

17. 4 A Brahmen , if he take a Sudra to his bed, 

‘ as his firft wife, links to the regions of torment; 
c if he beget a child by her, he lofes even his 
6 prieftly rank: 

18. 6 His facrifices to the Gods, his oblations 

* to the Manes, and his hofpitable attentions to 

* ftrangers, muft be fupplied principally by her ; 
6 but the Gods and Manes will not eat fuch offer- 

* ings; nor can heaven be attained by fuch hol- 
‘ pitality. 

19. ‘ For the crime of him, who thus illegally 

* drinks the moifture of a Sudra's lips, who is 

E 3 * tainted 


54 


ON MARRIAGE ; OR 


‘ tainted by her breath, and who even beget? a 
c child on her body, the law declares no ex- 
‘ piation. 

20. 6 Now learn compendioufly the eight forms 

* of the nuptial ceremony, ufed by the four dalles, 
‘ fome good and fome bad in this world, and in 
c the next: 

21. 6 Theceremony of Brahma', of the Devas 
6 of the Rifhis , of the Prajapalis , of the Afuras y 
€ of the Gandharvas , and of the Racjhafas j the 

* eighth and bafeft is that of the Pifachas . 

22. ‘ Which of them is permitted by law to 

* each clafs and what are the good and bad pro- 

* perties of each ceremony, all this I will fully 
c declare to you, together with the qualities, good 

* and bad, of the offspring. 

23. 6 Let mankind know, that the fix Jirfi in 

* diredt order are by fome held valid in the cafe of 

< a prieft ; the four iaff, in that of a warriour ; and 
c the fame four, except the Racfhafa marriage, in 
i the cafes of a merchant and a man of the fervil'e 
( clafs : 

24. Some confider the four firft only as ap- 
c proved in the cafe of a prieft; one, that of Racjhafas , 
c as peculiar to a foldier; and that of Afuras , to 
‘ a mercantile and a fervile man : 

23. 6 But in this code, three of the five loft are 
c held legal, and two illegal : the ceremonies of 

< Pifachas and Afuras muft never be performed. 

26. 6 For a military man the before mentioned 
c marriages of Gandharvas and Racjhafas , whether 
‘ feparate or mixed, as when a girl is made captive 
‘ by her lover , after a victory over her kinjrnen , are 

* permitted by law. 

27. * The gift of a daughter, clothed only with 
‘ a lingle robe, to a man learned in the Veda, 

6 whom 


ON THE SECOND ORDER* 


55 

‘ whom her father voluntarily invites, and re- 
‘ fpeCtfully receives, is the nuptial right called 

* Brahma . 

£8. ‘ The rite which fages call Daiva , is the 
€ gift of a daughter, whom her father has decked 

* in gay attire, when thefacrifice is already begun, 

1 to the officiating prieft, who performs that aCt 

* of religion. 

29. ( When the father gives his daughter away, 

* after having received from the bridegroom one 
4 pair of kine, or two pairs, for ufcs prefcribed 
4 by law, that marriage is termed ArJJia. 

30. The nuptial rite called Priijapatya , is when 
4 the father gives away his daughter with due ho- 
4 nour, faying diftinCtly, 44 May both of you 
4 perforin together your civil and religious 
4 duties!” 

31. 4 When the bridegroom, having given as 
4 much wealth as he can afford to the father and 
‘ paternal kinfmen, and to the damfel herfelf, 

* takes her voluntarily as his bride, that marriage 
€ is named Ajura . 

32. ‘ The reciprocal connection of a youth and 
1 a damfel, with mutual defire, is the marriage 
c denominated Gandbarva , contracted for the 
€ purpofe of amorous embraces, and proceeding 
c from fenfual inclination. 

33. 6 The feizure of a maiden by force from 
€ her houfe, while {he weeps and calls for affifl- 
c ance, after her kinfmen and friends have been 

* {lain in battle, or wounded, and their houfes 

* broken open, is the marriage Ityled RacJhaJ'a . 

34. c When the lover fccretly embraces the 
4 damfel, either fleeping or flufhcd with flrong 
f liquor, or difordered in her intellect, that finful 

E 4 4 marriage, 


5 6 ON MARRIAGE ; C£t 

c marriage, called Tifacha , is the eighth and the 

* bafeft. 

35. ‘ The gift of daughters in marriage by the 

* facerdotal clafs, is moft approved, when they 
< previoufly have poured water into the hands of 
1 the bridegroom ; but the ceremonies of the other 

* elaffes may be performed according to their fe- 

* veral fancies. 

36. 6 Among thefe nuptial rites, what quality is 

* afcribed by Menu to each, hear now ye 
€ Brahmens , hear it all from me,, who fully de- 
4 clare it 1 

37. 6 The fon of a Bra/imt, or wife by the firif 
‘ ceremony, redeems from fin, if he perform vir- 

* tuous adts, ten anceftors, ten defcendants, and 

* himfelf the twenty-firft perfon. 

38. 6 A fon, born of a wife by the Daiva nuptials, 
c redeems feven and feven in higher and lower de- 

* grees ; of a wife by the A'rjha three and three ; 

* of a wife by the Trdjdpatya fix and fix. 

39- ‘ By four marriages, the Brahma and fo 
4 forth, in dire& order, are bom fons illumi- 

* ned by the Veda, learned men, beloved by the 
4 learned, 

40. fc ' Adorned with beauty, and with the qua- 

* lity of goodnefs, wealthy, famed, amply gra- 

* tified with lawful enjoyments, performing all 
‘ duties, and living an hundred years : 

41. 6 But in the other four bafe marriages, which 
6 remain, are produced Ions a&ing cruelly, fpeak* 

ing falfely, abhorring the Veda, and the duties 
c preferibed in it. 

42. 4 From the biamelefs nuptial rites of men 

* fprings a biamelefs progeny ; from the reprehen- 
4 iible, a reprehenfible offspring : let mankind, 

‘ therefore, 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 5 . 

4 therefore, ftudioufly avoid the culpable forms 
4 of marriage. 

43. 4 The ceremony of joining hands is ap- 
4 pointed for thole, who marry women of their 
4 own clafs; but, with women of a different clafs, 

4 the following nuptial ceremonies are to be ob- 
4 ferved : 

44. 4 By a Cjhatriya on her marriage with a 
4 Brahmen , an arrow muft be held in her hand ; 

* by a Vafyd woman, with a bridegroom of the 
4 facerdotal or military clafs , a whip ; and by a Sudra 
4 bride, marrying a prieIf a foldier , or a merchant, 

4 mud be held the fkirtofa mantle. 

45. 4 Let the hufband approach his wife in 
4 due feafon, that is , at the time fit for pregnancy ; 

4 let him be constantly fatisfied with her alone ; 

4 but, except on the forbidden days of the moon, 

4 he may approach her, being affe&ionately dif- 
4 pofed, even out of due feafon , with a defire of con- 
4 jugal intercourfe. 

46. 4 Sixteen days and nights in each month, 
4 with four diftindt days negle&ed by the vir- 
4 tuous, are called the natural feafon of women : 

47. 4 Of thofe fixteen, the four firft, the ele- 
4 venth, and the thirteenth, are reprehended : the 
4 ten remaining nights are approved. 

48. 4 Some fay, that on the even nights are 
4 conceived fons ; on the odd nights daughters; 
4 therefore let the man, who wifhes for a fon, 
4 approach his wife in due feafon on the even 
4 nights; 

49. 4 But a boy is in truth produced by the 
4 greater quantity of the male Strength ; and a 
4 girl by a greater quantity of the female; by 
4 equalitv, an hermaphrodite, or a boy and a girl; 

4 by 


s 


on marriage; or 


by weaknefs or deficiency, is occafioned a 
failure of conception. 

50. 6 He, who avoids conjugal embraces on 
the fix reprehended nights and on eight others, 
is equal in chafiity to a Brahmachan , in which¬ 
ever of the two next orders he may live. 

$1: ‘ Let no father, who knows the law, re¬ 
ceive a gratuity, however fmall, for giving his 
daughter in marriage; fince the man, who, 
through avarice, takes a gratuity for that purpoje, 
is a feller of his offspring. 

52. 6 Whatever male relations, through delu- 
fion of mind, take pofTeflion of a woman’s 
property, be it only her carriages or her clothes, 
fucli offenders will fink to a region of torment. 

53. c Some fay that the bull and cow given in 
the nuptial ceremony of the Rijhis , are a bribe 
to the father; but this is untrue: a bribe in¬ 
deed, whether large or fmall, is an adlual fale of 
the daughter . 

54. 8 When money or goods are given to 
damfels, whofe kinfmen receive them not for 
their own ufe, it is no fale : it is merely a token 
of courtefy and affedtion to the brides. 

55. c Married women muff; be honoured and 
adorned by their fathers and brethren, by their 
hufbands, and by the brethren of their hufbands, 
if they feek abundant profperity : 

56. ‘ Where females are honoured, there the 
deities are pleafed ; but where they are difho- 
noured, there all religious adts become fruitlefs. 

57. 6 Where female relations are made mifera- 
ble, the family of him who makes them fo, 
very foon wholly perifhes ; but, where they are 
not unhappy, the family always increafes. 

58. ‘ On 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 


59 

58. c On whatever houfes the women of a 
family, not being duly honoured, pronounce an 
imprecation, thofe houfes, with all that belong 
to them, utterly perifh, as if deftroyed by a 
facrifice for the death of an enemy. 

59. * Let thofe women, therefore, be con¬ 
tinually fupplied with ornaments, apparel and 
food, at feftivals and at jubilees, by men de- 
firous of wealth. 

60. ‘ In whatever family the hufband is con¬ 
tented with his wife, and the wife with her 
hufband, in that houfe will fortune be affuredly 
permanent. 

61. c Certainly, if the wife be not elegantly 
attired, fhe will not exhilirate her hufband ; and 
if her lord want hilarity, offspring will not be 
produced. 

62. € A wife being gaily adorned, her whole 
houfe is embellifhed ; but, if fhe be deftitute of 
ornament, all will be deprived of decoration. 

63. ‘ Bv culpable marriages, by omiffion of 
prefcribed ceremonies, by negledt of reading the 
Fe'da, and by irreverence toward a Brahmen , 
great families are funk to a low ffate. 

"64. ‘ So they are by pradtifing manual arts, by 
lending at interejl and other pecuniary tranfadtions, 
by begetting children on Sudras only, by traffick 
in kinc, horfes, and carriages, by agriculture 
and by attendance on a king. 

65. ‘ By facrificing for fuch as have no right 
to facrifice, and by denying a future compenfa- 
tion for good works, great families, being de¬ 
prived of facred knowledge, are quickly de¬ 
ft royed ; 

66. « But families, enriched by a knowledge of 

‘ the 


6o 


ON MARRIAGE; OR 


€ the Veda, though poffeffing little temporal 
c wealth, are numbered among the great, and ac- 
c quire exalted fame. 

67. 6 Let the houfe-keeper perform domeftic 
c religious rites, with the nuptial fire, according 
6 to law, and the ceremonies of the five great 
‘ facraments, and the feveral ads which mutt day 

* bv day be performed. 

68 6 A houfe-keeper has five places of daughter, 
€ or where fmall living creatures may be jlain; his 
c kitchen hearth, his grindftone, his broom, his 
c peftle and mortar, his water pot; by ufing 
€ which, he becomes in bondage to fin : 

69. ‘ For the fake of expiating offences committed 
Q ignorantly in thofe places mentioned in order, the 
1 five great facraments were appointed by eminent 
c fage» to be performed each day by fuch as keep 

* houfe. 

70. c Teaching and ftudying the fcripture is 
c the facrament of the Veda; offering cakes and 
c water, the facrament of the Manes; an oblation 
c to fire, the facrament of the Deities; giving 
c rice or other food to living creatures, the facra- 
c ment of fpirits; receiving guefts with honour, 
c the facrament of men ; 

71. 6 Whoever omits not thofe five great ce- 
c remonies, if he have ability to perform them , is 
6 untainted by the fins of the five fiaughtering 
( places, even though he conftantly refide at 
c home; 

72. 6 But whoever chcrilhes not five orders of 

* beings, namely , the deities; thofe, who demand 

* hofpitality ; thofe, whom he ought by law to 
c maintain; his departed forefathers; and him- 
i felf; that man lives not even though he 
f breathe. 

73. ‘ Some 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 6l 

73. ‘ Some call the five facraments abut a and 
but a, prabuta, brahmya-huta and prafita : 

74. 4 Abuta , or unoffered, is divine ftudv; buta , 
or offered, is the oblation to fire ; p-abuta , or 
well offered, is the food given to fpirits; brah - 
mya-buta , is refpedt fhewn to twice born guefts; 
and prafita , or well eaten, is the offering of rice 
or water to the manes of anceftors. 

75. 4 Let every man in this lecond order em¬ 
ploy himfelf daily in reading the feripture, and 
in performing the facrament of the Gods ; for, 
being employed in the facrament of deities, he 
fupports this whole animal and vegetable world; 

76. 4 Since his oblation of clarified butter, duly 
calf into the flame, afeends in fmoke to the fun ; 
from the fun ir falls in rain ; from rain comes 
vegetable food ; and from fuch food animals 
derive their fubfiftence. 

77. 4 As all creatures fubfift by receiving fup- 
port from air, thus all orders of men exifl by 
receiving fupport from houfe-keepers ; 

78. 4 And fince men of the three other orders 
are each day nourifhed by them with divine 
learning and with food, a houfe-keeper is for 
this reafon of the mofl eminent order : 

79. 4 That order, therefore, muft be conftantly 
fuftained with great care by the man who feeks 
unperifhable bbfs in heaven, and in this world 
pleafurable fenlations ; an order which cannot 
be fuftained by men with uncontroled organs. 

80. 4 The divine fages, the manes, the gods, 
the fpirits, and guefts, pray for benefits to 
mafters of families ; let thefe honours, there¬ 
fore, be done to them by the houfe-keeper who 
knows his duty ; 


81. 4 Let 


6 t on marriage; or 

Si. c Let him honour the Sages by ftudying 
4 the Veda : the Gods, by oblations to fire or- 
4 dained by law ; the Manes, by pious obfequies ; 
4 men by fupplying them with food ; and fpirits, 
4 by gifts to all animated creatures. 

82. 4 Each day let him perform a fraddha 
4 with boiled rice and the like, or with water, or 
4 with milk, roots, and fruit; for thus he obtains 
4 favour from departed progenitors. 

83. 4 He may entertain one Brahmen in that fa- 
4 crement among the five, which is performed for 
4 the Bitris ; but, at the oblation to all the Gods, 

* let him not invite even a fingle prieft. 

84. 4 In his domeftic fire for dreffing the food 
4 of all the Gods, after the prefcribed ceremony, 
4 let a Brahmen make an oblation each day to thefe 
4 following divinities ; 

85. ‘ Firft to Agni, god of fire, and to the 

* Lunar God, feverally; then, to both of them 
4 at once ; next to the affembled gods ; and after- 
4 wards, to Dhanwantari, god of medicine; 

86. 6 To Cuhu', goddefs of the day, when the 
4 new moon is difcernible ; to Anumati, goddefs 
‘ of the day, after the oppofition ; to Praja'pati, 
c or the Lord of Creatures ; to DYA'vA^nd Prit- 
‘ Hivi f , goddeffes of fky and earth ; and laftly, 
c to the hre of the good facrifice. 

87. ‘ Having thus, with fixed attention, offered 

* clarified butter in all quarters, proceeding from 
4 the eaft in a fouthern direction to Indra, Yama, 
i Varuna, and the god Soma, let him offer his 
4 gift to animated creatures : 

88 . 4 Saying , “ I falute the Marutsf or Winds , 
4 let him throw dreffed rice near the door ; faying , 
44 I falute the water gods,” in water; and on his 

4 pefile 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 63 

1 peftle and mortar, faying , f ‘ I falute the gods of 

* Jarge trees. ,, 

S9. ‘ Let him do the like in the nor h ea/l, or 
1 near his pillow, to Sri', the goddefs /of abun- 
1 dance ,* in the fouth weft , or at the foot of his bed, 

1 to the propitious goddefs Biiadracali' ; in 

* the centre of his manfion, to Brahma' and his 

* houfehold God ; 

90. ‘ To all the Gods aflemblcd, let him throw 
c up his oblation in the open air ; by day, to the 
‘ fpirits who walk in light; and by night, to thofe 

* who walk in darknefs : 

91. In the building on his houfe top, or behind 
6 his back , let him cad his oblation for the welfare 
‘ of all creatures ; and what remains let him give 
c to the Pitris with his face toward the fouth : 

92. 6 The (hare of dogs, of outcafts, of dog- 
1 feeders, of (inful men, punifhed with elephan- 
‘ tiafis or confumption, of crows, and of reptiles, 
1 let him drop on the ground by little and little. 

93. ‘ A Brahmen , who thus each day (hall ho- 

* nour all beings, will go to the higheft region in 

* a ftraight path, in an irradiated form. 

94. 4 When he has performed his duty of mak- 
‘ ing oblations, let him caufe his gueft to take 
1 food before himfelf; and let him give a portion 
1 of rice, as the law ordains, to the mendicant 

* who ftudies the Veda: 

4 95- ‘ Whatever fruit (hall be obtained by that 

* ftudent, as the reward of his virtue, when he (hall 

* have given a cow to his preceptor, according to 
‘ law, the like reward to virtue (hall be obtained 
1 by the twice born houfe-keeper, when he has 

* given a mouthful of rice to the religious men- 
i dicant. 

96. * To 


64 


on marriage; or 


96. 4 To a Brahmen who knows the true prirr- 
4 ciple of the Veda , let him prefent a portion of 
4 rice, or a pot of water, garnifhed with fruit and 
4 flowers, due ceremonies having preceded : 

97. 4 Shares of oblations to the Gods, or to the 
4 Manes, utterly perifh, when prefented, through 
4 delufion of mind, by men regardlefs of duty, to 
4 fuch ignorant Brahmens as are mere afhes ; 

98. 4 But an offering in the fire of a facerdotal 
4 mouth, which richly blazes with true know- 
4 ledge and piety, will releafe the giver from dif- 
4 trefs, and even from deadly fin. 

99. 4 To the gueft who comes of his own 
4 accord, let him offer a feat and water, with fuch 
4 foo.d as he is able to prepare, after the due rites 
4 of courtefy. 

100. 4 A Brahmen coming as a gueft, and not 
4 received with juft honour, takes to himfelf all the 
4 reward of the houfe-keeper’s former virtue, 
4 even though he had been fo temporate as to live 
4 on the gleanings of harvefts, and fo pious as to 
4 make oblations in five diftindt fires. 

101. 4 Grals and earth to fit on, water to wafh 
4 the feet, and, fourthly affectionate fpeech are at 
4 no time deficient in the manfions of the good, 
4 although they may be indigent . 

102. 4 A Brahmen , flaying but one night as a 
4 gueft, is called an atifh't ; fince continuing fo 
4 fhort a time, he is not even a fojourner for a 
4 whole til'hi, or day of the moon . 

103. 4 The houfe-keeper muft not confider as 
4 an a tit'hi a mere vifitor of the fame town, or a 
4 Brahmen , who attends him on bufinefs, even 
4 though he come to the houfe where his wife 
4 dwells, and where his fires are kindled, 

104. 4 Should 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 65 

104. 4 Should any houfe-kcepers be fo fenfelefs, 

* as to leek, on pretence of being gueds, the food 

* of others, they would fall after death, by reafon 

* of that bafenefs, to the condition of cattle be- 

* longing to the giver of fuch food. 

105. 4 No gued mud be difmiffed in the even- 
( ing by a houfe keeper ; he is fcnt by the retir- 
c ing fun ; and, whether he come in fit feafon or 
‘ unfeafonably, he mud not fojourn in the houfe 
4 without entertainment. 

106. * Let not himfelf eat any delicate food, 

* without afking his gued to partake of it: the 
€ fatisfadlion of a gued will affuredly bring the 
' houfe-keeper wealth, reputation, long life, and a 

* place in heaven. 

107. £ To the highed gueds in the bed form, 

1 to the lowed in the word, to the equal, equally, 
c let him offer feats, reding places, couches; giv- 

* ing them proportionable attendance, when they 

* depart ; and honour as long as they day. 

108. 4 Should another gued arrive, when the 

* oblation to all the Gods is concluded, for him 
1 alio let the houfe-keeper prepare food, accord- 
4 ing to his ability ; but let him not repeat his 

* offerings to animated beings. 

109. ‘ Let no Brahmen gued proclaim his fa- 
f mily and ancedry for the fake of an entertain- 

* ment; fince he, who thus proclaims them, i3 
4 called by the wife a vantafi , or foul-feeding 
4 demon. 

no. *A military man is not denominated a 
4 gued in the houfe of a Brahmen • nor a man of 
4 the commercial or fervile clafs ; nor his fa- 
c miliar friend ; nor his paternal kinfman ; nor 

* his preceptor: 


F 


iii. c But 


66 


on marriage; or 


iii. c But if a warriour come to his houfe id 
c the form of a gueft, let food be prepared for 
€ him, according to his defire, after the beiore- 
€ mentioned Brahmens have eaten. 

it 2. f Even to a merchant or a labourer, ap- 
c proaching his houfe in the manner of guefts, 
f let him give food, fhowing marks of benevo* 
€ lence at the fame time with his domtfticks : 

113. f Toothers, as familiar friends, and the 
c reft before-named, who come with affe6tion 

* to his place of abode, let him ferve a repaft at 
c the fame time with his wife and him/elf.\ having 

* amply provided it according to his bed means. 

114. c To a bride, and to a damfel, to the fick, 

* and to pregnant women, let him give food, even 
c before his guefts, without hefitation. 

it 5. c The idiot, who firft eats his own mefs, 
without having prefented food to the perfons 
c juft enumerated, knows not, while he crams, that 
f he will himfelf be food after death for bandogs 
c and vultures. 

116. f After the repaft of the Brahmen gueft, 
€ of his kinfmen, and his domefticks, the married 
c couple may eat what remains untouched. 

117. f The houfe-keeper, having honoured 

* fpirits, holy fages, men, progenitors, and houfe - 
hold gods, may feed on what remains after thole 

s oblations. 

118. c He, who eats what has been drefled for 

* himfelf only, eats nothing but fin: a repaft on 

* what remains after the facrament is called the 

* banquet of the good. 

it 9. ‘ After a year from the reception of a 

* vifitor, let the houfe-keeper again honour a 
c king, a facrificer, a ftudent returned from his 

preceptor. 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 6 J 

preceptor, a fon-in-law, a father-in-law, arid 
a maternal uncle, with a madbuperca , or prefenc 
of honey, cu r ds, and fruit, 
i 2o. ‘ A king or a Brahmen arriving at the 
celebration of the facrament, are to be honoured 
with a madhuperca ; but not, if the facrament 
be over : this is a fettled rule. 

121. ‘In the evening let the wife make an 
offering of the drelfed food, but without pro¬ 
nouncing any text of the Veda : one oblation to 
the affembled gods, thence named Vaifwadcva , 
is ordained both for evening and morning. 

122. ‘ From month to month, on the dark day 
of the moon, let a twice born man, having 
finifhed the daily facrament of the Pitris, and 
his fire being dill blazing, perform the folemn 

Jraddba i called pinddnwdhdrya : 

123. ‘ Sages have diftinguifhed the monthly 
Jrdddba by the title of anwdhdrya , or after eaten , 

that is, eaten after the pinda or ball of rice ; and 
it mud be performed with extreme care, and 
with flefn meat in the bed condition. 

124. ‘ What Brahmens mud be entertained at 
that ceremony, and who mud be accepted, how 
many are to be fed, and with what forts of food, 
on all thofe articles, without omilTion, I will lully 
difeourfe. 

125. ‘At the Jrdddba of the gods he may en¬ 
tertain two Brahmens \ at that of his father, 
paternal grandfather, and paternal great-grand¬ 
father, three ; or one only at that of the god>, 
and one at that for his three paternal ancedors : 
though he abound in wealth, let him not be fo- 
licitous to encertain a large company. 

126. ‘A large company dedroys thefe five ad¬ 
vantages ; reverence to prieds, propriety of time 

F 2 and 


6$ ON MARRIAGE ; OR 

c and place, purity, and the acquifition of virtuous 
( Brahmens: let him not therefore, endeavour to 

* feed a fuperfluous number. 

127. * This a< 5 t of due honour to departed fouls, 

' on the dark day of the moon, is famed by the 
€ appellation of pitrya , or anceftral: the legal ce- 
c remony, in honour of departed fpirits, rewards 

* with continual fruit, a man engaged in fuch ob~ 

* fequies. 

128. * Oblations to the gods and to anceftors 
c fhould be given to a moil reverend Brahmen^ 

* perfe&ly converfant with the Veda ; fince what is 

* given to him produces the greateft reward. 

129. ( By entertaining one learned man at the 

* oblation to the gods and at that to anceftors, he 

* gains more exalted fruit than by feeding a mul- 

* titude, who know not the holy texts. 

130. c Let him inquire into the anceftry, even 
1 in a remote degree, of a Brahmen , who has ad- 

* vanced to the end of the Veda: fuch a man, if 

* fprung from good men, is a fit partaker of ob- 

* lations to gods and to anceftors ; fuch a man 

* may juftly be called an atit’hi, or gueft. 

131. f Surely, though a million of men, un- 

* learned in holy texts, were to receive food, yet 

* a finglc man, learned in fcripture, and fully fa- 

* tisfied with his entertainment, would be of more 
' value than all of them together. 

132. c Food, confecrated to the gods and the 

* manes, mull be prefented to a theologian of 
1 eminent learning ; for certainly, when hands 
4 are fmeared with blood, they cannot be cleaned 
f with blood only, nor can Jin he removed by the 
€ company offinners, 

133. ‘ As many mouthfuls as an unlearned man 

ill all 


ON TjiE SECOND ORDER. 


69 

(hall (wallow at an oblation to the gods and to 
anceflors, fo many red iiot iron balls mud the 
giver of the Jraddba (wallow in the next world. 

134. 1 Some Brahmens are intent on fcriptural 
knowledge; others, on auflere devotion ; fome 
are intent both on religious auRerity and on the 
(ludy of the Veda-, others on the performance 
of (acred rites: 

135. ‘ Oblations to the manes of anceRors 
ought to be placed with care before fuch as are 
intent on facred learning: but offerings to the 
gods may be prefented, with due ceremonies, to 
Brahmens of all the four defcriptions. 

136. c There may be a Brahmen , whofe father 
had not Rudied the fcripture, though the fon 
has advanced to the end of the Veda ; or there 
may be one, whofe fon has not read the Veda , 
though the father had travelled to the end of it: 

137. ‘ Of thofe two let mankind confider him 
as the fuperiour, whofe father had Rudied the 
fcripture, yet for the fake of performing rites 
with holy texts, the other is worthy of honour. 

138. ‘ Let no man, at the prefcribed obfequies, 
give food to an intimate friend ; fince advantage 
to a friend muR be procured by gifts of different 
property : to that Brahmen let the performer of 
a Jraddba give food, whom he considers neither 
as a friend nor as a foe. 

139. ‘ For him, whofe obfequies and offerings 
of clarified butter are provided chiefly through 
friendfhip, no fruit is referved in the next life, 
on account either of his obfequies or of his 
offerings. 

140. ‘ The man, who, through delufion of in¬ 
tellect, forms temporal connexions by obfequies, 

F 3 ‘is 


ON MARRIAGE *, OR 


70 

* is excluded from heavenly manfions, as a giver 
« of the frdddha for the fake of friendfhip, and the 
c meaneft of twice born men : 

141. c Such a convivial prefent, by men of the 
c three higheft claffes, is called the gift of Pisdchas , 
c and remains fixed here below, like a blind cow 
€ in one ftall, 

142. c As a hufbandman, having Town feed in 
c a barren foil, reaps no grain, thus a performer 
c of holy rites, having given clarified butter co 
‘ an unlearned Brahmen , attains no reward in 
c heaven ; 

143. c But a prefent made, as the law ordains, 
€ to a learned theologian, renders both the giver 
4 and the receiver partakers of good fruits in this 
c world and in the next. 

144. c If no learned Brahmen be at hand, he 
< may at his pleafure invite a friend to the frdddha , 
4 but not a foe, be he ever fo learned ; fince the 
1 oblation, being eaten by a foe, lofes all fruit in 
‘ the life to come. 

145. c With great care let him give food at 

* the frdddha to a prieft, who has gone through 
4 the fcripture, but has chiefly ftudied the Rigveda; 
s to one, who has read all the branches, buc prin- 
' cipally thofe of the Tajujh ; or to one who has 

* finifhed the whole, with particular attention to 

* the Scrnan: 

146. f Of that man whofe oblation has been 

* eaten, after due honours, by any one of thofe 
c three Brahmens , the anceftors are conftantly 

* fatisfied as high as the feventh perfon, or to the 
6 fixth degree . 

147. c This is the chief rule in offering the 
£ frdddha to the gods and to anceftors: but the fci- 

‘ lowing 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 7 * 


€ lowin'* may be confidered as a fubfidiary rule, 

< where no fuch learned friefts can he found , and is 

* ever oblervtd by good men : 

148. c Let him entertain his maternal grand- 

* father, his maternal uncle, the fon of his fitter, 
« the father of his wife, his fpiritual guide, the 
« fon of his daughter, or her hufband, his mater- 

< nal coufin, his officiary pried, or the performer 


c of his facrifice. 

140. ‘ For an oblation to the gods, let not the 
« man* who knows what is law, fcrupuloufly in- 

< quire into the parentage of a Brahmen ; but for 

< a prepared oblation to ancedors let him examine 
« it with drift care. 

1 "o. « Thofe Brahmens , who have committed 
« any inferiour theft or any of the higher crimes, 

« who are deprived of virility, or who profefs a 

< difbelief in a future date, Menu has pronounced 
i unworthy of honour at a Jrdddha to the gods or 

• to anceftors. 

151. ‘ To a ftudent in theology, who has not 
« read the Veda, to a man punijhed for pa ft crimes 

• fry being born without a prepuce, to a gamefter, 
« anc j t o fuch as perform many facrifices for other 
« men, let him never give food at the facred 

• obfequies, 

lea. ‘ Phyficians, image worfhippers for gain, 
« fellers of meat, and fuch as live by low traffick, 
« mud be fhunned in oblations both to the deities 


and to progenitors. 

I rn < A public fervant of the whole town, or 
of the prince, a man with whitlows on his nails, 
or with black yellow teeth, an oppofer of his 
preceptor, a deicrter of the facred fire, and an 
ufurer, 

F 4 »S 4 - A 


72 


ON MARRIAGE; OR 


154. c A phthifical man, a feeder of cattle, one 
4 omitting the five great facraments, a contemner 
c of Brahmens, a younger brother married before 

* the elder, an elder brother not married before 

* the younger, an a man who fubfifts by the 

* wealth of many relations, 

155. 6 A dancer, one who has violated the 
c rule of chaftity in the firft or fourth order, the 
6 hufband of a Sudra , the fon of a twice married 
c woman, a man who has loft one eye, and a huf- 
c band in whofe houfe an adulterer dwells, 

156. * One who teaches the Veda for wages, and 
c one who gives wages to fuch a teacher, the 
c pupil of a Sudra, and the Sudra preceptor, a rude 
f fpeaker, and the fon of an adulterefs, born either 
c before or after the death of the hufband, 

157. c A forfaiter, without juft caufe, of hifi 
c mother, father or preceptor, and a man who 
f forms a connexion, either by fcriptural or 
e connubial affinity, with great Tinners, 

158. c A houfe-burner, a giver of poifon, an 
f eater of food offered by the fon of an adulterefs, 
e a feller of the moon plant, a fpecies of mountain 
c rue , a navigator of the ocean, a poetical enco- 
c miaft, an oilman, and a fuborner of perjury, 

1^9. c A wrangler with his father, an employer 
c of gamefters for his own benefit, a drinker of 
c intoxicating fpirits, a man punifhed for fin with 
‘ elephantiafis, one of evil repute, a cheat, and a 
‘ feller of liquids, 

160. c A maker of bows and arrows, the huf- 
c band of a younger filler married before the elder 
c of the whole blood , an injurer of his friend, the 
c keeper of a gaming-houfe, and a father inftruded 
c in the Veda by his o^vn fon, 

5 


161. c An 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 


73 

161. 4 An epileptick perfon, one who has the 
4 eryfipelas or the leproly, a common informer, 
4 a lunatick, a blind man, and a defpifer of fcrip- 
4 ture, muft all be fhunned. 

162. c A tamer of elephants, bulls, horfes, or 
4 camels, a man who fubfifts by aftrology, a 
4 keeper of birds, and one who teaches the ufe 

* of arms, 

163. 4 He, who diverts watercourfes, and he, 
4 who is gratified by obftnnfting them, he, who 
4 builds houfes for gain, a meffenger, and a plan- 
4 ter of trees for pay , 

164. 4 A breeder of fporting dogs, a falconer, 
4 a feducer of damfels, a man delighting in mif- 
Q chief, a Brahmen living as a S&dra, a lacrificer 
c to the inferiour gods only, 

165. 4 He, who obferves not approved cultoms, 
4 and he, who regards not prefcribed duties, acon- 
1 ftant importunate afker of favours, he, who fup- 

* ports himfelf by tillage, a clubfooted man, and 
4 one defpifed by the virtuous, 

166. ‘ A fhepherd, a keeper of buffalos, the 
1 hufband of a twice married woman, and the re- 

* mover of dead bodies for pay , are to be avoided 
4 with great care. 

167. 4 Thofe lowed of Brahmens , whofe man- 
4 ners are contemptible, who are not admiffible 
c into company at a repaft, an exalted and learned 
4 prieft muft avoid at both Jraddhas. 

168. 4 A Brahmen unlearned in holy writ, is 
4 extinguifhed in an inftant like a fire of dry grafs : 

4 to him tne oblation muft not be given ; for the 
4 clarified butter muft not be poured on afhes. 

169. 4 What retribution is prepared in the next 
4 life for the giver of food to men inadmifTible into 

company. 


74 


ON MARRIAGE ; OR 


€ company, at the fraddha to the gods and to an* 
‘ ceftors, 1 will now declare without omiftion. 

170. £ On that food, which has been given to 

* Brahmens who have violated the rules of their 
€ order, to the younger brother married before the 

* elder, and to the reft who are not admifiible 
‘ into ccmpany, the Racfhafes eagerly feaft. 

171. c He, who makes a marriage contract 
1 with the connubial fire, while his elder brother 
4 cot inues unmarried, is called a perivettri $ and 

* the elder brother a perivitti: 

172. ‘ The perivettri , the perivitti^ the dam- 
« fel thus wedded, the giver of her in wedlock, 
4 and, fifthly, the performer of the nuptial facri- 
c fice, all fink to a region of torment. 

173. ‘ He, who lafcivioufly dallies with the 
1 widow of his deceafed brother, though jfhe be le- 
« gaily married to him, is denominated the huf- 

* band of a didhifhii, 

174. * Two ions, named a cunda and a golaca, 
€ are born in adultery; the cunda , while the hufband 

* is alive, and the goiaca , w hen the hufband is dead : 

175. ‘ Thofe animals begotten by adulterers, 

* deftroy, both in this world and in the next, the 
€ food prefented to them by fuch as make obla- 
c tions to the gods or to the manes. 

176. 5 The foolifh giver of a fraddha lofes, in 
€ a future life, the fruit of as many admifiible 
1 guefts, as a thief or the like perfon, inadmiftible 
« into company, might be able to fee. 

177. 1 A blind man placed where one with eyes 
« might have feen, deftroys the reward of ninety; 
« he, who has loft one eye, of fixty ; a leper, of 
c an hundred ; one punifhed with elephantiafis, of 

* a thoufand. 


178. 4 Of 


ON THE SECOND ORDER, 


7S 

178. 4 Of the gift at a Jraddha , to as many 
f Brahmens , as a facrificer for a S'dr a might be 

* able to touch on the body, the fruit is loll to the 
4 giver, if he inviteJuch a wretch ; 

179. 4 And if a Brahmen who knows the Veda, 

1 receive through covctoufnefs a prefent from fuch 
4 a facrificer, he fpeedily finks to perdition, like a 
4 figure of unburnt clay in water. 

180. 4 Food given to a feller of the moon plant, 

1 becomes ordure in another world ; to a phvfician 
« purulent blood ; and the giver will be a reptile 
4 bred in them : if offered to an image worfhipper, 

4 it is thrown away i if to an ufurer, infamous. 

181. 4 That which is given to a trader, endures 
4 neither in this life nor in the next, and that be- 
4 flowed on a Brahmen , who has married a widow, 

* refembles clarified butter poured on allies as an 
4 oblation to fire. 

182. 4 That food, which is given to other bafe 
< and inadmifiible men, before mentioned, the 
4 wife have pronounced to be no more than 
4 animal oil, blrtod, flefh, fkin, and bones. 

18;. 4 Now learn comprehenfively, by what 

* Brahmens a company may be purified, when it has 
4 been defiled by inadmiffable perfons > Brahmens , 
4 the chief of their clafs, the purifiers of every af- 
4 fembly. 

184. 4 Thofe priefts muft be confidered as the 
4 purifiers of a company who are molt learned in 
4 all the Vedas and all their /Ingas, together with 
4 their defendants who have read the whole 
4 feripture ; 

185 ‘ A pried learned in a principal part of 
4 the Tajurveda ; one who keeps the five fires 
4 conftaritly burning ; one (killed in a principal 
4 part of the Rigvcda ; one w'ho explains the fix 

4 Vcdangas ; 


ON MARRIAGE $ OR 


76 

€ V'eddngas ; the Ton of a Brahmi , or woman mar- 
€ ried by the Brahma ceremony ; and one who 
c chants the principal Saman ; 

186. * One who propounds the fenfe of the 
c Vedas, which he learnt from his preceptor, a ftu- 

* dent who has given a thoufand cows for pious 

* ufes, and a Brahmen a hundred years old, muft 
c all be confidered as the purifiers of a party at a 

* Jraddha. 

187. c On the day before the facred obfequies, 
c or on the very day when they are prepared, let 
c the performer of them invite, with due honour, 
c fuch Brahmens as have been mentioned; ufually 

* one fuperiour, who has three inferiour to him. 

188. c The Brahmen , who has been invited to a 
c fraddha for departed anceftors, muff be continu- 

* ally abftemious ; he muft not even read the 
c Vedas \ and he who performs the ceremony, 
c muft a£t in the fame manner. 

189. c Departed anceftors, no doubt, are at- 
c tendant on fuch invited Brahmens ; hovering 

* around them like pure fpirits, and fitting by them, 
c when they are feated. 

190. c The prieft who having been duly invited 

* to a fraddha, breaks the appointment, commits 
c a grievous offence, and in his next birth becomes 
€ a hog. 

191. ‘ He, who careffes a Sudra woman, after 

* he has been invited to facred obfequies, takes on 
‘ himfelf all the fin that has been committed by 
‘ the giver of the repaft. 

192. c The Pit ns or great progenitors, are free 
c from u'rath, intent on purity, ever exempt from 
c fenfual paffions, endued with exalted qualities : 

* they are primeval divinities, who have laid 
c arms afide. 

193, ‘ Hear 


ON THE SECOND ORDER* JJ 

193. 1 Hear now completely, from whom they 
« lprang; who they are; by whom and by what 

* ceremonies they are to be honoured. 

194. 4 The Tons of Mari'chi and of all the other 

* Rlfhis , who were the offspring of Menu, fon of 
4 Brahma, are called the companies of Pitrls, 

4 or forefathers. 

195. 4 The Somafads, who fprang from Vira'j, 
c are declared to be the anceflors of the Sddhyhas ; 

4 and the Agnipwdttas , who are famed among 
c created beings as the children of Mari'chi, to 
4 be the progenitors of the Devas. 

T96. f Ofth c Daityas, the Danavas, the Yac- 
4 pas, the Gandharvas, the Uragas, or Serpents, 
4 the Racjhafhes, the Garudas, and the Cinnaras , 
c the anceflors are Barhijhads defcended from 
4 Atri ; 

197. 4 Of Brahmens, thofe named Somapas ; of 
4 Cpatriyas , the Havipmats ; of Vaifyas, thofe 

* called Abjyapas ; of Sudras, the Sucdlins : 

198. 4 The Somapas defcended from Me, Bhri- 
4 cu; the Havipmats, from Anciras ; the Ajya- 
4 pas, from Pulastya ; the Sucdlins, from Va- 
4 sisht’ha. 

199. 4 Thofe who are, and thofe who are not, 
4 confumable by fire, called Agnidagdhas, and 
1 Anagnidagdhas, the Cdvyas, the Bar hip ads, the 
4 Agnipwdttas, and the Saumyas, let mankind 
4 confider as the chief progenitors of Brahmens. 

200. 4 Of thofe juft enumerated, who are ge- 
1 nerally reputed the principal tribes of Pitris, 
4 the Ions and grandfons indefinitely, are alio in 
4 this world confidered as great progenitors. 

201. 4 From the Rlpis come the Pitris, or 
4 patriarchs; from the Pitris, both Devas and Da- 

n anas’*. 


s 


ON MARRIAGE; OR 


navas ; from the De'vas, this whole world of 
animals and vegetables, in due order. 

202. c Mere water, offered with faith to the 
progenitors of men, in veffels of filver, or 
adorned with filver, proves the fource of in* 
corruption. 

203. ‘ An oblation by Brahmens to their an* 
ceftors tranfcends an oblation to the deities; 
becaufe that to the deities is confidered as the 
opening and completion of that to anceftors : 

204. 4 As a prefervative of the oblation to the 
patriarchs, let the houfe-keepcr begin with an 
offering to the gods; for the Racjhafes rend 
in pieces an oblation which has no luch pre¬ 
fervative. 

205. Let an offering to the gods be made at the 
beginning and end of the Jraddha : it muft not 
begin and end with an offering to anceftors ; for 
he who begins and ends it with an oblation to the 
Pitris, quickly perifhes with his progeny. 

206. c Let the Brahmen fmear with cow dung 
a purified and fequeftered piece of ground ; and 
let him, with great care, feledl a place with a 
declivity toward the fouth: 

207. c The divine manes are always pleafed 
with an oblation in empty glades, naturally 
clean, on the banks of rivers, and in folitary 
fpots. 

208. c Having duly made an ablution with 
water, let him place the invited Brahmens , who 
have alfo performed their ablutions, one by 
one, on allotted feats purified with cus a- grafs. 

209. c When he has placed them with re¬ 
verence on their feats, let him honour them, 
(having firft honoured the Gods) with fragrant 
garlands and fweet odours. 


210. f Having 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 


79 


2 ro. ‘ Having brought water for them with 
ctf/tf-grafs and tila, let the Brahmen , with the 
Brahmens, pour the oblation, as the law diredts, 
on the holy fire. 

211. € Firft, as it is ordained, having fatisfied 
Acni, Soma and Yam a, with clairficd butter, 
let him proceed to fatisfy the manes of his pro¬ 
genitors. 

212. ‘ If he have no confecrated fire, as if he be 
yet unmarried , or bis wife be juft deceafed , let him 
drop the oblation into the hand of a Brahmen ; 
fince, what fire is, even fuch is a Brahmen ; as 
priefts who know the Veda declare : 

213. c Holy fages call the chief of the twice 
born the gods of obfcquies, tree from wrath, with 
placid afpedts, of a primeval race, employed in 
the advancement of human creatures. 

2i.*. f Having walked in order from eafl to 
fouth, and thrown into the fire all the ingredients 
of his oblation, let him fprinkle water on the 
ground with his right hand. 

215. * From the remainder of the clarified 
butter having formed three balls of rice, let him 
offer them, with fixed attention, in the lame 
manner as the water, his face being turned to 
the fouth: 

216. c Then, having offered thofe balls, after 
due ceremonies and with an attentive mind, to the 
manes of his father , his paternal grandfather , and 
great grandfather , let him wipe the fame hand 
with the roots of cits'a, which he had before ufed, 
for the fake of his paternal anceftors in the fourth> 
fifth , andfixth degrees , who are the partakers of 
the rice and clarified butter thus wiped off. 

217. c Having made an ablution, returning to¬ 
ward the north, and thrice fuppreffing his breath 

(lowly. 


So 


ON MARRIAGE ; OR 


4 flowly, let him falute the Gods of the fix feafons* 
4 and the Pitris alfo, being well acquainted with 
4 proper texts of the Veda. 

21$. 4 Whatever water remains in his ewer, let 
4 him carry back deliberately near the cakes of 

* rice; and with fixed attention, let him ffinell 
1 thofe cakes, in order as they were offered : 

219. 4 Then, taking a fmall portion of the cakes 
4 in order, let him firft, as the law dire&s, caufe 
4 the Brahmens to eat of them, while they are 
e feated. 

220. * If his father be alive, let him offer the 
4 frdddha to his anceftors in three higher degrees; 

* or let him caufe his own father to eat, as a 
4 Brahmen at the obfequies : 

221. c Should his father be dead, andhisgrand- 
4 father living, let him, in celebrating the name 
4 of his father, that is, in fe?forming objequies to 

* him , celebrate alfo his paternal great grand- 
4 father; 

222. 4 Either the paternal grandfather may par-* 
4 take of the frdddha (fo has Menu declared; or 
4 the grandfon, authorized by him, may perform 
4 the ceremony at his difcretion. 

223. 4 Elaving poured water, with cusa- grafs 
4 and tila , into the hands of the Brahmens , let him 
4 give them the upper part of the cakes, faying, 
44 Swadhd to the manes ! 5> 

224. 4 Next, having himfelf brought with both 
4 hands, a veffel full of rice, let him, ftill medi- 
4 tating on the Pitrh, place it before the Brahmens 
4 without precipitation. 

225. 4 Rice taken up, but not fupported with 
4 both hands, the malevolent Afuras quickly rend 
4 in pieces. 

226* 4 Broths, 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. gi 

226. * Broths, potherbs, and other eatables ac¬ 
companying the rice, together with milk and 
curds, clarified butter and honey, let him firft 
place on the ground, after lie has made an ablu¬ 
tion ; and let his mind be intent on no other 
objed : 

227. 4 Let him add fpiced puddings, and milky 
mefles of various forts, roots of herbs and ripe 
fruits, favoury meats and fweet fmelling drinks. 
22S. ( Then being duly purified, and with per¬ 
fect prefence of mind, let him take up all the 
difhes, one by one, and prefent them in order to 
the Brahmens , proclaiming their qualities. 

229. c Let him at no time drop a tear ; let him 
on no account be angry; let him fay nothing 
faife ; let him not touch the eatables with his 
foot ; let him not even fiiake the difiies: 

2 20. * A tear fends the mefles to reftlefs ghofts; 
anger, to foes ; falfehood, to dogs ; contad with 
his foot, to demons ; agitation, to Tinners. 

231. c Whatever is agreeable to the Brahmens , 
let him give without envy ; and let him dilcourle 
on the attributes of God : fuch difeourfe is ex¬ 
pected by the manes. 

232. ‘ At the obfequies to anceftors, he mud 
let the Brahmens hear paflages from the Ve'da , 
from the codes of law, from moral tales, from 
heroick poems, from the Purdnas , and frorft 
theological texts. 

233. ‘ Himfelf being delighted, let him give 
delight to the Brahmens , and invite them to eat 
of the provifions by little and little ; attrading 
them often with the dreflfed rice and other eata¬ 
bles, and mentioning their good properties. 

234. 1 To the fon of his daughter, though a 
ftudent in theology, let him carefully give food 

G « at 


ON MARRIAGE ; OR 


%Z 

f at the Jraddha ; offering him a blanket from 
€ Nepal as his feat, and lprinkling the ground with 

* til a. 

235. f Three things are held pure at fuch obfe- 
c quies, the daughter, fon, the Nepal blanket, 
g and the til a ; and three things are praifed in it 
c by the wife, cleanlinefs, freedom from wrath, 
% and want of precipitate hafte. 

236. c Let all the dreffed food be very hot ^ 
c and let the Brahmens eat it in filence ; nor let 
f them declare the qualities of the food, even 

* though afked by the giver. 

237. c As long as the meffes continue warm, 

* as long as they eat in filence, as long as the qua- 
? lities of the food are not declared by them, fo 
c long the manes fealf on it. 

c 238. c What a Brahmen eats with his head 

* covered, what he eats with his face to the fouth, 

* what he eats with fandals on his feet, the demons 
‘ afluredlv devour. 

239. 1 Let not a Chandala , a town boar, a cock, 

- a dog, a woman in her courfes, or an eunuch, 
c fee the Brahmens eating : 

240. f That which any one of them fees at the 
K oblation to fire, at a folemn donation of cows 

* and gold, at a repafl given to Brahmens , at holy 

* rites to the gods, and at the obfequies to ancef- 

* tors, produces not the intended fruit : 

241. ‘ The boar deflroys it by his fmell; the 

* cock, by the air of his wings; the dog, by the 
c cafl: of a look ; the man of the lowed clafs, by 
9 the touch. 

242. * If a lame man, or a man with one eye, 
c or a man with a limb defeflive or redundant, 

1 be even a fervant of the giver, him alfo let his 
9 mafier remove from the place. 

243. f Should 


ON T THE SECOND ORDER. 


83 

244. c Should another Brahmen, or a mendicant, 
come to his houfe for food, let him, hiving ob¬ 
tained permiffion from the invited Brahmens, en¬ 
tertain the flranger to the bed of his power. 

244. c Having brought together all the forts of 
food, as dreffed rice and the Jike, and Sprinkling 
them with water, let him place diem before the 
Brahmens, who have eaten ; dropping fome on 
the blades of cmn-grafs, which have been fpread 
on the ground. 

245. c What remains in the difhes, and what 
has been dropped on the blades of cus a, mud 
be confidered as the portion of deceafed Brah¬ 
mens, not girt with the facrificial thread, and of 
fuch as have deferted unreasonably the women of 
their own tribe. 

246. c The refidue, that has fallen on the ground 
at the Jraddha to the manes, the wife have de¬ 
cided to be the (hare of all the Servants, who are 
not crooked in their ways, nor lazy and ill 
difpofed. 

247. ‘ Before the obfequies to anceftors as far 
as the fixth degree, they mud be performed to a 
Brahmen recently deceafed ; but the performer of 
them mud, in that cafe, give the Jraddha without 
the ceremony to the gods, and offer only one 
round cake ; and theje obfequies for a Jingle anccftor 
Jhould be annually performed on the day of his death: 

248. ‘ When, afterwards , the obfequies to an- 
cedors as far as the fixth degree, inclufively of 
him, are performed according to law, then mud 
the offering of cakes be made by the defen¬ 
dants in the manner before ordained for the 
monthly ceremonies . 

249. * That fool, who, having eaten of the 
Jraddha , gives the refidue of it to a man of the 

G 2 < fervile 


ON MARRIAGE ; OR 


84 

f fervile clafs, falls headlong down to the hell 
4 named Cdlafutra . 

250. ‘ Should the eater of a Jrdddha enter, on 

* the fame day, the bed of a fcducing woman, his 

< anceftors would fleep for that month on her ex-* 

* cremenr. 

251. * Having, by the word Jwaditam , afked 
4 the Brahmens if they have eaten well, let him 

< give them, being fatisfied, water for an ablutior, 

* and courteoufly fay to them, fc Reft cither at 

* home or here.” 

252. f Then let the Brahmens addrefs him, faying 
4 jwadhd ; for in all ceremonies relating to decealed 

* anc (tors, the worb Jwadhd is the higheft benifon. 

2 ^3. ‘ After that, let him inform thofe, who 
4 have eaten of the lood that lemains ; and being 
4 ,nftru<fted bv the Brahmens , let him difpofe of ft 

* as thev may dired. 

254. e At the dole of the Jr&ddba to his nncef- 
4 tors, he muff afk if the Brahmens are fatisned, 

* by the word fwadita after that for his family 
4 by the word Jufruta \ alter that for his own ad- 
4 vancement, by the w ord Jampanna, after that 
4 which has been offered to the gods, by the word 
1 rnchita. 

2^5. ‘ The afternoon, the ex/a-grafs, the clean- 
4 fing of the gro nd, the tilas> the liberal gifts of 
4 food, the due preparation for the repaft and the 

* company of mod exalced Brahmens y are true riches 
4 in theobfequie' to anceflors. 

256. 4 The blades of cusa> the holy texts, the 
4 forenoon, all the oblations, which will prejently 
4 he enumerated , and the purification before men- 
4 tioned, are to be confidered as wealth ip the 
4 Jrdddha to he gods : 

2 s7* ‘ Such wild grains as are eaten by hermits, 
® milk, the juice ol the moonplant, meat untainted, 

4 and 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 


85 


« a d fait unprepared by art, are held things fit, in 

* their own nature, for the iafl mentioned offering. 

258. ‘ Having difmiffed the i vited brahmens , 

‘ Keeping his mihd attentive, and his fpecch fup- 

* preffed, let him, after an ablution, look toward 
4 tHe fouth, and afk thefe bleffings of the PitriS : 

259. <f May generous give s abo nd in our 
c houfe ! mav the icriptures be (ludied, and pro- 
4 geny ncreafe in it ! may faith never depart from 

* us! and may we have much to bellow on the 
4 needy l* 1 

260. c Thus having ended th tfraddha, let him 

* caufe a cow, a pnell, a kid, or the fire, to de- 
« vour what remains of the cakes ,* or let him caff 

* them into the waters. 

261. ‘ Some make the offering of the round 

< cakes after the repaft of the Brahmens ; fome 

< ca ufe thi birds to eat what remains, or caff it 

* into watfcr or fire. 

262. ‘ Let a lawful wife, ever dutiful to her 

* lord, and con 'antly honouring his anceflors, eat 

< the middlemofl of the three cakes, a that offered 

< to bis paternal grandfather, with due ceremonies, 

4 praying for offspring : 

26 > 4 So may fhe bring forth a fon, who will 
' be long lived, famed, and_ llrong minded, 

< wealchy^having numerous defeendants, endued 

* with the bed of qualities* and performing a l 

* duties religiou and civil. 

26 l. * Then, having wafhed both his hands and 

< fipped water, let him prepare fome rice for his 
1 paternal kinfmen ; 2nd, having given it them 
4 with due reverence, let him prepare fo >d a fo 

* for his maternal relations. 

265. * Let the refidue continue in its place, 

* until the Brahmens have been dilmiffed ; and 

G 3 4 then 


ON MARRIAGE; OH 


$6 

* then let him perform the remaining domeftiGk 
4 facraments. 

266. 4 What fort of oblations, given duly to 
c the manes, are capable of fatisfying them, fora 
c long time or for eternity, I will now declare 
c without omiffion. 

267. c The anceftors of men are fatisfied a 
4 whole month with tila, rice, barley, black 
‘ lentils or vetches, water, roots, and fruit, given 

* with prefcribed ceremonies ; 

268. c Two months, with fifh ; three months, 
4 with venifon ; four, with mutton; five, with the 
4 flefh of Juch birds, as the twice bom may eat : 

269. c Six months, with the flefh of kids ; fe- 
4 ven, with that of fpotted deer; eight, with that 
4 of the deer, or antelope, called ena - 7 nine, with 
4 that of the rum : 

270. c Ten months are they fatisfied with the 

* flefh of wild boars and wild buffalos ; eleven, 
4 with that of rabbits or hares, and of tortoifes ; 

271. c A whole year with the milk of cows, 
4 and food made of that milk ; from the flefh of 
r the long eared white goat, their fatisfadlion en~ 
c dures twelve years. 

272. 4 The potherb calajaca , the fifh mahcfalca, 
4 or the diodGn, the flefh of a rhinoceros, or of an 
4 iron-coloured kid, honey, and all fuch forefl 
4 grains as are eaten by hermits, are formed far 
4 their fatisfadlion without end. 

273. 4 Whatever pure food, mixed with honey, 
c a man offers on the thirteenth day of the moon, 
c in the fcafon of rain, and under the lunar afte- 
4 rifm Maghd, has likewife a ceafelefs duration. 

274. 44 Oh ! may that man, fay the manes, be 
4 born in our line, who may give us milky food, 
c with honey and pure butter, both on the thir— 

4 teemh 


ON THE SECOND ORDER. 87 

teenth of the moon, and when the fhadow of an 
elephant falls to the ead V 9 

275. 4 Whatever a man, endued with ftrong 
faith, pioufly offers, as the law has diretted, 
becomes a perpetual unperifhable gratification 
to his ancedors in the other world : 

276. 4 The tenth and fo forth, except the 
fourteenth, in the dark half of the month, are 
the lunar days mod approved for facred obfe- 
quies: as they are> fo are not the others. 

277. 4 He, who does honour to the manes, on 
even lunar days, and under even lunar dations, 
enjoys all his defircs ; on odd lunar days, and 
under odd lunar aderifms, he procures an illuf- 
trious race. 

278. 4 As the latter or dark half of the month 
furpaffes, for the celebration of obfcquies, the 
former, or bright halfj fo the latter half of the 
day furpaffes, for the fame purpofe> the former 
half of it. 

279; 4 The oblation to anceflors mud be duly 
made, even to the conclufion of it with the di/iri~ 
bution to the fervants, (or even to the clofe of 
life,) in the form prefcribed, by a Brahmen wear¬ 
ing his thread on his right fhoulder, proceeding 
from left to right, without remiffnefs, and with 
cus d-grafs in his hand. 

280. 4 Obfcquies mud not be performed by 
night; fince the night is called racfbas) or infejled 
by demons ; nor while the fun is riling or fetting, 
nor when it has jud rifen. 

281. 4 A houfe-keeper, unable to give a monthly 
repajl , may perform obfequies here below, ac¬ 
cording to the facred ordinance, only thrice a 
year, in the feafons of hemanta, grifhma , and 

G 4 4 verfiZ; 


88 • ON MARRIAGF, 

4 verjhh ; but the five facraments he muft perform 
4 daily. 

282. 4 The facrificial oblation at obfequies to 
4 anceftors, is ordained to be made in no vulgar 
4 fire; nor fhou’d the monthly fraddha of that 

* Brahmen, who keeps a perpetual fire, be made on 
4 any day, except on that of the conjun&ion. 

283. 4 When a twice born man, having per- 
4 formed his ablution, offers a fatrsfa&ion to the 
r mams with water only, being unable to give a 
4 repaft, he gains by that offering all the fruit of a 
4 Jraddha . 

284. < The wife call our fathers, Va/us ; our 

* paternal grandfathers, Rudras ; our paternal great 
4 grandfathers, Adityas; (that is- all are to be re- 
4 veredas deities,) and to this effed: there is a pri— 
4 meval text in the Veda. 

285. 4 Let a man, who is able, continually feed 

* on vigha[a 3 and continually feed on amrita ; by 

* vighafa is meant the refidue of a repaft at obfe- 
‘ quies ; and by amrita, the refidue of a faerifice 
4 to the gods. 

286. 4 This complete fyftem of rules, for the 
4 five facraments and the like, has been declared to 
4 you : no\v hear the law for thofe means of fub- 
4 fiftence, which the chief of the twice born may 
6 feek. 


( *0 ) 


CHAPTER TIIE FOURTH. 


Oh Ecommtchs; and Private Morals* 


1. 4 Let a Brahmen, having dwelt with a pre • 
4 ceptor during the fird quarter of a man’s life, 
‘ pais the feCcjnd quarter of human life in his own 
4 houfe, when he has contracted a legal marriage. 

2. ‘ He mult live, with no inury, or with the 

* lead pollible injury, to animated beings, by 

* purfuing thofe means of gaining fubfidericc, 
4 w’hich are ftriCtly prefcribed by law, except in 
4 times of didrefs : 

3. 4 For the foie purpofe of fupporting life, 
4 let him acquire property by thofe irreproach- 
4 able occupations, which are peculiar to his rlafs, 
4 and unattended with bodily pain. 

4. c He may live by r.ta and amnta, or, if tie* 
4 cejfary , by mrita or pramritd , or even by fat- 
i yanrita ; but never let him fubfifl by Jwavr tti: 

* By rita , mud be underdood lawful glcan- 
4 ing and gathering; by amrlta, what is given 
4 unafked; by mrita, what is afked as alms , til- 
4 lage ‘s called pramnia , 

6. 4 Trafhck and money lending are Jatyannta; 
4 even by them, when he is deeply d if re/fed, may 
4 he fupport life ; but fervice for hire is named 
4 JwavrUti , or dog living, and of courfc he mud by 
4 all means avoid it. 


7. 4 He 




9° 


ON ECC&OM1CKS; 


7. c He may either (lore up grain for three 
4 years ; or garner up enough for one year; or 
4 collcdt what may laft three days, or make no 
4 provifion for the morrow. 

8 . c Of the four Brahmens keeping houfe, who 
4 follow thofe four different modes y a preference is 
4 given to the laft in order fucceffively; &s to 
4 him, who moft completely by virtue has van- 
4 quifhed the world : 

9. 4 One of them fubfifts by all the fix means 
* of livelihood ; another by three of them ; a 
4 third by two only ; and a fourth lives barely on 
4 continually teaching the Veda, 

jo. 4 He, who fuftains himfclf by picking up 
4 grains and ears, muft attach himielf to lome 
4 altar of confecrated fire, but conftantlv perform 
4 thofe rites only, which end with the dark and 
4 bright fortnights and with the folftices. 

11. 4 Let him never, for the fake of a fub- 
4 fiftence, have recourfe to popular converfation • 
4 let him live by the conduct of a prieft, neither 
4 crooked, nor artful, nor blended with the manners 
4 of the mercantile clefs. 

12. 4 Let him, if he feek happinefs, be firm in 
4 perfect content, and check all defire of acquiring 
4 more than he pcffeffes; for happinefs has its root 
4 in content, and difeontent is the root of mifery. 

13. 4 A Brahmen keeping houfe, and fupport- 
4 ing himfelf, by any of the legal means before- 
4 mentioned, muft difeharge thefe following duties, 
4 which conduce to fame, length of life, and bea^ 
f titude. 

14. 4 Let him daily, without flotli, perform his 
4 peculiar duty, which the Veda preferibes ; lor 
4 he who performs that duty , as well as he is able* 
4 attains the higheft path to fupreme blifs. 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. 


9 1 


1$. 4 He muft not gain wealth by mnfick or 
4 dancings or by any art that pleafes the fenfe ; nor 
« by any prohibited art; nor, whether he be rich 
< or poor, muft he receive gifts indifcriminately. 

16. 4 Let him not, from a felfifh appetite, be 
4 drongly addi&ed to any fenfual gratification; 

4 let him, by improving his intellect, ftudioufly 
4 preclude an exceffive attachment to fuch plea- 
4 fures, even though lawful . 

17. ‘ All kinds of wealth, that may impede 
4 his reading the Veda, let him wholly abandon, 

4 perfifting by all means in the dudy of fcripture ; 

4 for that will be found his mod beneficial at- 
4 tainment. 

18. 4 Let him pafs through this life, bringing 
4 his apparel, his difcourfe, and his frame of mind, 

4 to conformity with his age, his occupations, his 
4 property, his divine knowledge, and his family. 

19. 4 Each day let him examine thofe holy 
4 books, which foon give increafe of wifdom ; and 
4 thofe, which teach the means of acquiring wealth ; 

4 thole, which are falutary to life; and thofe 
4 nigamas , which are explanatory of the Veda ; 

20. 4 Since, as far as a man dudies completely 
4 the fyflem of facred literature, fo far only can he 
4 become eminently learned, and fo far may hrs 
4 learning fhine brightly. 

21. 4 The facrament3l oblations to fages, to 
4 the gods, to fpirits, to men, and to his ancedors, 

4 let him condantly perform to the bed of hrs 
4 power. 

22. 4 Some, who well know the ordinances 
4 for thofe oblations, perform not always exter- 
4 nally the five great facraments, but continually 
4 make offerings in their own organs of Jenfaticn 
4 and intellect: 

23. 4 Some 


ON ECONOMIC ICS ,* 


fri 

23. 4 Some conftantly facrifice their breath inI 
4 their fpeech, when they injliruft others, or praife 
4 God aloud, and their fpeech in their breath, when 
4 they 711 edidate infilence; perceiving in their fpeech 
4 and breath, employed, the unperifhable frtfit 
4 of a facrificial offering: 

24. 4 Other Brahmens inceiTantly perform thofe 
4 facrifices with fcriptural knowledge only; feeing 
4 with the eye of divine learning, that fcriptural 
4 knowledge is the root of every ceremonial ob- 
4 fervance. 

25. 4 L et a Brahmen perpetually make obla- 
4 tions to confecrated fire at the beginning and 
4 end of day and night, and at the clofe of each 
4 fortnight, or at the' conjunction and oppofition: 

26. 4 At the feafon, when old gram is ufu&lly 
4 cohfumed, let him offer new grain for a plenti- 
4 ful harveft 5 and at the clofe of the feafon, let 
4 him perform the rites called aahvara ; at the 
4 folftices, let him facrifice cattle ; at the end of 
4 the year, let his oblations be made with the 
4 juice of the moon plant: 

27. 4 Not having offered grain for the harveft, 
4 nor cattle at thejime cf ihe folflice , let no Brah - 
4 men, who keeps hallowed fire, and wifhes for 
4 long life, tafte rice or fiefia; 

28. 4 Since the holy fires, not being honoured 
4 with new grain and with a facrifice of cattle,- 
4 are greedy for rice and flefh, and fcek to devour 
4 his vital fpirits. 

29. 4 Let him take care, to the utrnoft of hrs 
4 power, that no gueft fojourn in his houfe un- 
4 honoured with a feat, with food, with a bed, with 
4 water,- with elculent roots, and with fruit: 

30. 4 But let him not honour with his conver- 
4 fation fuch as do forbidden adts ; fuch as fubfift, 

4 like 


7 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. 


93 


i 

t like cats, by interejled craft ; fuch as believe 
t not the feripture; fuch as oppugn it by fo- 
phifms; or fuch as live like rapacious water 
birds. 

31. 9 With oblations to the gods and to an- 

* ceftors, let him do reverence to Brahmens of the 
€ fecond order, who are learned in theology, who 

* have returned home from their preceptors, after 
1 having performed their religious duties and fully 
1 fludied the Veda $ but men of an oppofite de- 
9 feription let him avoid. 

32. 4 Gifts muft be made by each houfekeeper, 
4 as far as he has ability, to religious mendicants, 

* though heteroviox ; and a juft portion muft be 
€ referved, without inconvenience to his family, 
9 for all fencienc beings, animal and vegetable. 

33. 4 A prieft, who is mafter of a family, and 

* pines with hunger, may leek wealth from a 
9 king of the military clajs , from a facrificer, or 

* his own pupil, but from no perfon elfe, unlejs 
9 all other helps fail: thus will he Jhew his refpe& 
9 for the law. 

34. 4 Let no prieft, who keeps houfe, and is 
9 able to procure food> ever walte himfelf with 

* hunger •, nor, when he has any fubftance, let 
1 him wear old or fordid clothes. 

3^. 9 His hair, nails, and beard being clipped , 
9 his pajfions , lubdued ; his mantle, white; his 

* body, pure; let him diligently occupy himfelf 

* in reading the Veda, and be conftantly intent on 
9 fuch afts, as may be falurary to him. 

30. 4 Let him carry a ftafF of Venn, an ewer 
c with water in it, a handful of cits a- grafs, or a 
9 copy of the Veda ; with a pair of bright golden 

* rings in his eais. 

37, 4 He muft not gaze on the lun whether 

rifing 


94 


ON ECONOMICKS; 


< rifing or fetting, or eclipfed, or refledted in 
■ water, or advanced to the middle of the fky. 

38. f Over a firing, to which a calf is tied, let 
c him not ftep; nor let him run while it rains; 
4 nor let him look on his own image in water; 
f this is a fettled rule. 

39. 4 By a mound of earth, by a cow, by an 
c idol, by a Brahmen, by a pot of clarified butter, 
* or of honey, by a place where four ways meet, 
f and by large trees well known in the aiftridt, 
4 let him pals with his right hand toward them. 

4c. c Let him not, though mad with defire, 
4 approach hi^ wife, when her courfes appear; 
c nor let him then deep with her in the fame bed ; 

41. 4 Since the knowdedge, the manhood, the 
4 (Length, the eve-fight, even the vital fpirit of 
c him, who approaches his wife jthus defiled, ut- 
4 terly perifh ; 

42. 4 But the knowledge, the manhood, the 
4 (Length, the fight, and the life of him, who 
4 avoids her in that date of defilement, are greatly 
4 incrcafed. 

43. 4 Let him neither eat with his wife, nor 
4 look at her eating, or fneezing, or yawning, or 
4 fitting carelefsly at her eafe ; 

44. 4 Nor let a Brahmen , who defires manly 
4 (Length, behold her fetting off her eyes with 
c black powder, or fcenting herfelf with effences, 
4 or baring her bofom, or bringing fqrth a child. 

45. 4 Let him not eat his food, wearing only 
4 a fingle cloth ; nor let him bathe quite naked ; 
4 nor let him ejedt urine or feces in the highway, 
4 nor on afhes, nor where kine are grazing. 

46. 4 Nor on tilled ground, nor in water, nor 
f on wood raifed for burning, nqr, i^nlejs he be in 

great 


ANp PRIVATE MORALS. 


95 

c great need , on a mountain, nor on the ruins of 3. 

* temple, nor at any time on a ncft of white ants, 

47. 4 Nor in ditches with living creatures in 
5 them, nor walking, nor (landing, nor on the 
5 bank of a river, nor on the fumipit of a moun- 

* tain : 

48. 4 Nor let him ever ejeift them, looking at 

* things moved by the wind, or at fire, or at a prieft, 
f or at the fun, or at water, or at cattle ; 

49. * But let him void his excrements, having 
4 covered the earth with wood, potherbs, dry leaver 
4 and grafs, or the like, carefully fupprefting hi$ 

* utterance, wrapping up his bread and his head : 

50. 4 By day let him void them with his face to 
4 the north ; by night, with his face to the fouth $ 

4 at fun rife and at fun fet, in the fame manner as 
4 by day; 

51. 4 In the fhade or in darknefs, whether by 
4 day or by night, let a Brahmen eafe nature with 
4 his face turned as he pleafes ; and in places where 
4 he fears injury to life, from wild beafls or from 
4 reptiles. 

52. 4 Of him, who fhould urine againft fire, 

4 againft the fun, or the moon, againft a twice 
4 born man, a cow, or the wind, all the facrcd 
4 knowledge would perifh. 

53. 4 Let him not blow the fire with his mouth; 

4 let him not fee his wife naked ; let him nop 
4 throw any foul thing into fire; nor let him 
c warm his feet in it; 

54. 4 Nor let him place it in a chafing dijh un- 
4 der bis bed ; nor let him ftride over it ; nor let 
4 him keep it, while he flecps y at his feet : let him 

4 do nothing that may be injurious to life. 

55. 4 At the time of funrile or funfet, let 

5 him not eat, nor travel, nor lie down to reft ; let 

6 ? him 


ON ECGNOiMICK 


96 

4 him not idly draw lines on the ground ; nor let 
c him take offhis own chaplet of flowers. 

56. 4 Let him not cafl into the water either 
c urine or ordure, nor faliva, nor cloth, or any 
- c other thing foiled with impurity, nor blood, nor 

* any kinds of poifon. 

57. 4 Let him not fleep alone in an empty 
4 houfe; nor let him wake a ileeping man 1 juperiour 
4 to himfelf in wealth and iri learning ; nor let him 
4 fpeak to a woman at the time of her courfes ; 
4 nor let him go to perform a facrifice, unattended 
4 by an officiating prieft . 

58. 4 In a temple of conjecrated fre, in the paf- 
c ture of kine, in the prefence of Brahmens, in 
4 reading the Veda, and in earing his food, let him 
4 hold out his right arm uncovered. 

59. 4 Let him not interrupt a cow while foe is 
4 drinking, nor give notice to any, whofe milk or 
4 water foe drinks ; nor let him who knows right 
4 from wrong , and fees in the fky the bow of Indra, 

* ihow it to any man. 

60. 4 Let him not inhabit a town, in which 
4 civil and religious duties are negle&ed ; nor for 
4 a long time, one in which difeafcs are frequent ; 
4 let him not begin a journey alone; let him not 
4 refide long on a mountain. 

61. 4 Let him not dwell in a city governed by 
4 a S'dra king, nor in o e furrounded with men 
4 unobfcrvant of their duties, nor in one abounding 
4 with profelTed hereticks, nor in one fwarming 
‘-with low born outcafts. 

62. 4 Let him eat no vegetable, from which the 
4 oil has been extradled ; nor indulge his appetite 
: to fatiety; nor eat either tc ) early or too late ; 
f nor take any feed in the evening, if he have eaten 
f to fullnefs in the morning. 

63. Let 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. 


97 


63. ‘ Let him make no vain corporeal exer- 

* tion : let him not (ip water taken up with his 
4 clopd fingers : let him eat nothing placed in his 

* lap : let him never take pleafure in alking idle 

* questions. 

64. 4 Let him neither dance, nor ling, nor 
4 play on mufical inftruments, except it rei'g : ous 
4 rites ; nor let him (Like his arm, or gnafli his 
‘ teeth, or make a braying noife, though agitated 
4 by paflion. 

65. 4 Let him not wafh his feet in a pan of 
4 mixed yellow metal; nor let him eat from a 
4 broken difh, nor where his mind is dillurbed 
4 with anxious apprehenfions. 

66. ‘ Let him not ufe either flippers or clothes, 

4 or a facerdotal ftring, or an ornament, or a gar- 
‘ land, or a water pot, which before have been 
4 11 fed by another. 

67. 4 With untrained beads of burden let him 
4 not travel; nor with fuch as are opprefled by 
4 hunger or by difeafe ; nor with fuch as have im- 
‘ perfect horns, eyes, or hoofs; nor with fuch as 

* have ragged tails : 

68. ‘ But let him conftantly travel with beads 
4 well trained, whofe pace is quick, w'ho bear all 
4 the marks of a good breed, who have an agree- 

* able colour, and a beautiful form; giving them 
4 very little pain with his wnip. 

69. 4 The fun in the fign of Canyd, the fmoke 
‘ ot a burning corle, and a broken leat, mult be 
4 fhunned : he mud never cut his own hair and 
4 nails, nor ever tear his nails with his teeth. 

70. 4 Let him not break mould or clav u' thoiit 
4 caufe: let him not cut grals with his nails: let 

* him neither indulge any vain fancy, nor do any 
4 a& that can bring no future advantage : 

H 71. * He 


9 8 


ON ECONOMTCKS ; 


*7 r. * He, who thus idly breaks clay, or cuts 
4 grafs, or bites his nails, will fpeedily (ink to 
4 ruin ; and fo Jkall a detra&cr, and an unclean 

* perfon. 

72. 4 Let him ufe no contumelious phrafe; 
€ let him wear no garland except on his hair : to 
f ride on the back of a bull or cow, is in ail 
€ modes culpable. 

73. 6 Let him not pafs, othcrwife than by the 
4 gate, into a walled town or an enclofed houfe ; 
4 and by night let him keep aloof from the roots 

* of trees. 

74. 1 Never let him play with dice : let him 
4 not put off his fandals with his hand : let him 
4 not ear, while he reclines on a bed, nor what is 
4 placed in his hand, or on a bench ; 

75. 4 Nor, when the fun is fet, let him eat any 
4 thing mixed with tila; nor let him ever, in this 
4 world, deep quite naked; nor let him go any 

* whither with a remnant of food in his gaourh. 

76. 4 Let him take his food, having fprinkled 
4 his feet with water 5 but never let him fleep 
4 with his feet wet: he, who takes his food with 
4 his feet fo fprinkled, will attain long life. 

77. * Let him never advance into a place un- 
€ diftinguiftiable by his eye, or not eafily paffable 2 

* never let him look at urine or ordure; nor let 
4 him pafs a river fwimming with his arms. 

78. 4 Let not a man, who deiires to enjoy long 
4 life, (land upon hair, nor upon allies, bones, or 
4 potfherds, nor upon fqeds of cotton, nor upon 

* hulks of grain. 

79. 4 Nor let him tarry even under the Jhade of 
€ the fame tree with outcafls for great crimes, nor 
4 with Chandalas , nor with Puccafas , nor with 
4 idiots, nor with men proud of wealth, nor with 

7 4 wajher - 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. 99 

zvafhermcn and other vile perfons, nor with An- 

tyavaf'ryins. 

So. * Let him not give even temporal advice to 
a Sudra ; nor, except to his own fervant , what re¬ 
mains from his table ; nor clarified butter, of 
which part has been offered to the grds ; nor let 
him in perfon give fpiritual counfel to ’fuch a 
man, nor perfonally inform him of the legal ex¬ 
piation for his fin : 

81. ‘ Surely he, who declares the law to a 
fervile man, and he, who inftru&s him in the 
mode of expiating fin, except by the intervention 
of a pried , finks with that very man into the 
hell named Afamvrita . 

82. ‘ Let him not ftroke his head with both 
hands; nor let him even touch it, while food 
remains in his mouth ; not without bathing it 3 
let him bathe his body. 

83. ‘ Let him not in anger lay hold of hair, or 
fmite any one on the head; nor let him, after 
his head has been rubbed with oil, touch with 
oil any of his limbs. 

84. ‘ From a king, not born in the military 
clafs, let him accept no gift, nor from fuch as 
keep a flaughter-houfe or an oil prefs, or put out 
a vintner’s flag, or fubfift by the gain of pro- 
flitutes: 

85. * One oil prefs is as bad as ten flaughter- 
houfes; one vintner’s flag, as ten oil preffes; 
one proftitute, as ten vintner’s flags ; one fuch 
king, as ten proftitutes ; 

86 . ‘ With a flaughtcrer, therefcre y who em¬ 
ploys ten thoufand flaughter-houfes, a king, not 
a fcld ; cr by birth , is declared to be on a level ; 
andy a gift-from him is tremendous. 

87. ‘ He, who receives a prefent from an ava- 

H 2 4 ricioui 


IOO 


ON ECONOMICKS; 


* ricious king and a tranfgrelfor of the facred 
« ordinances, goes in fucceffion to the following 

* twenty-one hells: 

88 . 6 Tami fra , Andhatamifra , Mahbraurava, Ran- 
( ravci, Naraca, Cilasutra , and Mahanaraca ; 

89. ‘ Savjivana, Mahavichi , Tap ana. Samp - 
‘ ratapana , Sanhdta , Sacaccla , Cudmala , Putim- 
s rittica ; 

90. c Lohafancu , or /ro« fpiked, and RijtJI:a , 

* Pant’bana , the river Sdlmati, AJipatravana , or 

« y word-leaved, for eft, and LoKangaraca, or the pit 
6 of red hot charcoal. 

91. ‘ Brahmens , who know this /dze/, who fpeak 

< the words of the and who feek blifs after 

* death, accept no gifts from a king. 

92. ‘ Let the houfe-keeper wake in the time 
4 facred to Bra'hmi', the goddejs of fpeech , that is 

< in the laft watch of the night : let him then refledt 

* on virtue and virtuous emoluments, on the bo- 

< dily labour which they require, and on the 
‘ whole meaning and very elfence of the Veda . 

' 93. ( Having rifen, having done what nature 
« makes necefifary, having then purified himfelf 

< and fixed his attention, let him ftand a long 

< time repeating the gayatu for the firft or morning 

< twilight; as^ he muft for the laid or evening 

< twilight in its proper time. 

94. 4 B/ continued repetition of the gdyatr), at 
« the twilights, the holy fages acquire length of 
‘ days, periedt knowledge, reputation during life, 
‘ fame after death, and celeftial glory. 

93. c Having duly performed the upacarma , or 
c dcmejlick ceremony with facred fire, at the full moon 
f of Srdvana, or of Bhddra , let the Brahmen , fully 

< exerting his intellectual powers, read the Vedas 
during four months and one fortnight: 

96. i Under 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. 


IOI 


96. c Under the lunar adcrifm Pujhya, or on 
* the fird day of the bright half of Mdgba , and in 
4 the firft part of the day, let him perform out of 
4 the town, the ceremony called the utferga of the 
4 Vedas. 

97. * Having performed that ceremony out of 
4 town, as the law diredts, let him defid from 
4 reading for one intermediate night winged with 
4 two days , or for that day and that following night 
4 only ; 

98. 4 But after that intermijfion , let him atten- 
4 tively read the Vedas in the bright fortnights 
4 and in the dark fortnights let him condantly 
4 read all the Veddngas . 

99. 4 He muft never read the Veda without 
4 accents and letters well pronounced ; nor ever in 
4 the prefence of Sudras ; nor having begun to read 
4 it in the lad watch of the night, mud he, though 
4 fatigued, deep again. 

100. 4 By the rule jud mentioned let him con- 
4 tinually, with his faculties exerted, read the 
4 Mantras , or holy texts, compofed in regular 
4 ineafures ; and, when he is under no redraint, 

4 let him read both the Mantras and the Brdhmanas, 

4 or chapters on the attributes of God. 

101. 4 Let a reader of the Veda, and a teacher 
4 of it to his pupils, in the form preferibed, al- 
4 ways avoid reading on the following prohibited 
4 days. 

102. 4 By night, when the wind meets his ear, 

4 and by day when the dud is collected, be muft 
4 not read in the feafon of rain ; fince both thofe 
4 times are declared unfit for reading, by fuch as 
4 know when the Veda ought to be read. 

103. 4 In lightning, thunder, and rain, or dur- 
4 ing the fall of tage fireballs on all fides, at fuch 

H 3 4 times 


102 


ON ECONOMICKS ; 


6 times Menu has ordained the reading of fcrip- 
« ture to be deferred till the fame time next day. 

104. 4 When the pried perceives thofe accidents 

* occurring at once, while his fires are kindled for 
6 morning and evening facr fices, then let him 
f know, that the Veda muft not be read ; and 

* when clouds are feen gathered out of feafon. 

105. ‘ On the occafion of a preternatural found 
c from the fky, of an earthquake, or an obfcura- 

* tion of the heavenly bodies, even in due feafon, 
c let him know, that his reading mud be poftponed 
4 till the proper time : 

106. 4 But if, while his fires are blazing, the 
6 found of lightning and thunder is heard without 
i rain , his reading mud be difcontinued, only 
4 while the phenomenon lads; the remaining 
4 event, or rain alfo , happening, it mud ceafe for a 
c night and a day. 

107. 4 The reading of fuch, as wifh to attain 
€ the excellent reward of virtue, mud continually 
4 be fufpended in towns and in cities, and always 
c where an offenfive fmell prevails. 

108. 4 In a didricd, through which a corpfe is 
4 carried, and in the prefence of an unjuft perfon, 
4 the reading of fcripture mud ceafe ; and while 
4 the found of weeping is heard ; and in a pro- 
4 mifcuous affembly of men. 

109. 4 In water, near midnight, and while the 
4 two natural excretions are made, or with a rem- 
4 nant of food in the mouth, or when the frdddha 
4 has recently been eaten, let no man even medi- 
4 tate in his heart pn the holy texts. . 

110. 4 A learned Brahmen , having received an 
4 invitation to the obfequies of a fingle ancedor, 
4 muft not read the Veda for three days; nor 

4 when 


AND PRIVATE MORALS IOj 

when the king has a fon born ; nor when the 
dragon’s head caufes nneclipfe. 
hi. 4 As long as the (cent and unfruofiry of 
perfumes remain on the body of a learned pried, 
who has partaken of an entertainment, fo long 
he mud abftain from pronouncing the texts of 
the Veda. 

112. 4 Let him not read lolling on a couch, 
nor with his feet raifed on a bench, nor with his 
thighs crofled, nor having lately fvvallowcd 
meat, or the rice and other food given on the 
birth or death of a relation ; 

113. * Nor in a cloud of dud, nor while arrows 
whiz, or a lute founds , nor in either of the twi¬ 
lights, nor at conjunction, nor on the fourteenth 
day, nor at the oppofition, nor on the eighth 
day of the moon : 

114. 4 The dark lunar day deflroys the fpiritual 
teacher; the fourteenth deftroys the learner ; the 
eighrh and the day of the full moon deftroy all 
renumlrance of feripture ; for which reafons he 
mult avoid reading on thofe lunar days. 

115. 4 Let no Brahmen read, w'hile dud falls 
like a fhower, nor while the quarters of the fir¬ 
mament are inflamed, nor while fhakals yell, 
nor vvh.le dogs bark or yelp, nor while afles or 
camels bray, nor while men in company chatter. 

116. 4 He mud not read near a cemetery, near 
a town, or in a padure for kme; nor in a man¬ 
tle worn before a time of dalliance; nor having 
jud received the prelent ufual at obfequies : 

117. 4 Be it an animal, or a thing inanimate, or 
whatever be the gift at a frdddba , let him not, 
having lately accepted it, read the Vida ; for 
fuch a Brahmen is faid to have his mouth in his 
hand. 

II 4 


118. c When 


104 


ON ECONOMICKS; 


118. ‘ When the town is befet by robbers, or 
‘ an alarm has been raifed by fire, and in all ter- 
€ rors from Grange phenomena, let him know, 

* that his leCture muft be fufpended till the due 
‘ time ofler the caufe of terror has cea/ed . 

119. ‘ The fufpenfion of reading feripture, af- 
c ter a performance of the upacarma and utferga , 
c mull be for three whole nights, by the man who 

* leeks virtue more than knowledge ; alfo for one day 
c and night, on the eighth lunar days which follow 

* thofe ceremonies, and on the nights at the clofe 
c of the feafons. 

120. € Never let him read on horfeback, nor 

* on a tree, nor on an elephant, nor in a boat, nor 
€ on an afs, nor on a camel, nor {landing on bar- 
c ren ground, nor borne in a carriage ; 

121. ‘ Nor during a verbal altercation, nor 

* during a mutual aflault, nor with an army, nor 

* in battle, nor after food, while his hand is moift 
‘ from walking , nor with an indigeftion, nor after 

* vomiting, nor with four eructations; 

122. ‘ Nor without notice to a gueft juft arrived, 

* nor while the wind vehemently blows, nor when 
c blood gufhes from his body, nor when it is 
‘ wounded by a weapon. 

123. 6 While the (train of the Soman meets his 
c ear, he {hall not read the Rich , or the Yajnflo; 

* nor any part of the Veda, when he has juft con- 

* eluded the whole ; nor any other pert, when he 

* has juft finifhed the book entitled Aranyaca : 

124. ‘ The Rigvcda is held facred to the gods; 

* the Yajuiveda relates to mankind; the Samaveda 
s concerns the manes of anceftors, and the found 
1 of it, when chanted, raifes therefore a notion of 
6 fomething impure, 

125. ‘ Know- 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. io 5 

12 c. c Knowing this collection of rules, let the 
learned read the Veda on every lawful day, having 
firft repeated, in order, the pure elTence of the 
three Vedas, namely, the pranava , the vyulxritiSj 

and the gayalr). ... r 

126. 4 if a bead ufed in agriculture, a frog, a 
cat, ’a dog, a Inake, an ichneumon, or a rat, 
pafs between the letiurer and his pupil, let him 
know, that the le&ure mult be intermitted for a 
day and a night. 

127, 


d ijiguk* 

127. - Two occafions, when the Veda mult not 
be read, let a Brahmen conftantly obferve with 
arcat care ; namely, when the place for reading 
it is impure, and when he is himfelf unpurified. 


on 


- 

128. ‘ On the dark night of the moon, and 
the eighth, on the night of the full moon, and 
on the fourteenth, let a Brahmen, who keeps 
houfe be continually chafte as a ftudent in theo¬ 
logy, even in the feafon of nuptial-embraces. 
i?q.’ ‘ Let him not bathe, haying juft eaten ; 
nor while he is afflitled wirh ddeafe ; nor in tha 
middle of the night ; nor with many clothes; 


nor 

130. 


in a pool of water imperfe&ly known. 

!, 0 < L-t hi n not intentionally pafs over the 
(Widow of facred images, of a natural or fpiritual 
father, of a king, of a Brahmen, who keeps houfe, 
or of any reverend perfonage ; nor of a red-haired 
cr copper-coloured man, nor of one who has juft 
performed a facrifice. 

j /■> 1 ^ At noon or at midnight, or having eaten 

fldh at a frdddha, or in either of the twilights, 
let him not long tarry where four ways meet. 
132. ‘ He mull not ftand knowingly near oil 
and other things, with which a man has rubbed 
his body, or water in which he has walhed 

‘ himlclr. 


Io6 ON ECONOMICKS ; 

c himfelf, or feces and urine, or blood, or mucus, 
‘ or any thing chewed and fpitten out, or any 

* thing vomited 

133. 6 I et him diew no particular attention to 
c his enemy or his enemy’s friend, to an unjuft 
c perfon, to a thief, or to the wife of another 
‘ man ; 

134. ‘ Since nothing is known in this world fo 
4 obftrudtive to length of days, as the culpable 
4 attention of a man to the wife of another. 

135. ‘ Never let him, who defires an increafe of 
‘ wealth, defpife a warriour, a ferpent, ora prieft 
4 verfed in feripture, how mean foever they may 
1 appear ; 

136. 6 Since thofe three, when contemned, may 
4 deftroy a man ; let a wife man therefore, always 

* beware of treating thofe three with contempt : 

1 37. 6 Nor fhould he defpife even himfelf on 
€ account of previous mifearriages ; let hiovpur- 
4 fue fortune till death, nor ever think her hard 
£ to be attained. 

138. ‘ Let him fay what is true, but let him 
4 fay what is pleafing ; let him fpeak no difagree- 
4 able truth, nor let him fpeak agreeable falfehood: 

* this is a primeval rule. 

139. ‘ Let him fay C( well and good,” or let 
4 him fay “ well” only ; but let him not maintain 
4 fruitless enmity and altercation with any man. 

140. ‘ Let him not journey too early in the 
4 morning or too late in the evening, nor too near 
4 the mid-day, nor with an unknown companion, 

* nor alone, nor with men of the fervile clafs. 

141. Let him not infult thofe who want a limb, 

* or have a limb redundant, who are unlearned, 
‘ who are advanced in age, who have no beauty, 

4 who 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. IO7 

4 who have no wealth, or who are of an ignoble 

* race. 

142. 4 Let no pried, unwafhcd after food, touch 

* with his hand a cow, a Brahmen , or fire; nor 
4 being in good health and unpurified, let him even 
4 look at the luminaries in the firmament: 

143. 4 But, having accidentally touched them 
4 before his purification, let him ever fprinkle, 

4 with water in the palm of his hand, his organs of 
4 fenfation, all his limbs, and his navel. 

144. 4 Not being in pain from difeafe, let him 
4 never without caufe touch the cavities of his 
4 body ; and carefully let him avoid his concealed 

* hair. 

143. 4 Let him be intent on thofe propitious ob» 
4 fervances which lead to good fortune, and on the 
4 dilcharge of his cudomary duties, his body 
4 and mind being pure, and his members kept 
4 in fubjeCtion ; let him conflantly without re- 
4 rmfinefs repeat the gavatri, and prefent his obla- 
4 tion to fire : 

146. 4 To thofe who are intent on good fortune 
4 and on rhe di {'charge of their duties, who are 
4 always pure, who repeat the holy text, and 
4 make oblations to fire, no calamity happens. 

147. 4 In due feafon, let him ever ftudy the 
4 feripture without negligence ; for the fages call 
4 that his principal duty : every other duty is de- 
4 dared to be fubordinate. 

148. 4 By reading the Veda continually, by 
4 purity of body and mind, by rigorous devotion, 
4 and by doing no injury to animated creatures, 
4 he brings to remembrance his former birth : 

149. 4 A Brahmen , remembering his former 
4 birth, again reads the Veda, and by reading it 
4 conflantly, attains blifs without end. 

150. 4 On 


io8 


ON ECONOMICKS; 


150. 4 On the days of the conjunction and op- 
4 pofition, let him conftantly make thofe oblations, 
4 which are hallowed by the gayatri , and thofe 
4 which avert misfortune ; but on the eighth and 
4 ninth lunar days of the three dark fortnights, after 
4 the end of Agrahayan , let him always do reverence 
4 to the manes of anceftors. 

151. 4 Far from the manfion of holy fire, let him 
4 remove all ordure; far let him remove water, in 
4 which feet have been w a filed ; far let him re- 
4 move all remnants of food, and all feminal im- 
4 purity. 

152. 4 At the beginning of each day let him 
4 dilcharge his feces, bathe, rub his teeth, apply 
* a collirium to his eyes, adjuft his drefs, and 
4 adore the gods. 

153. 6 On the dark lunar day, and on the 
4 other monthly parvans, let him vifit the images 
4 of deities and brahmens eminent in virtue, and 
4 the ruler of the land, for the fake of protection, 
4 and thofe whom he is bound to revere. 

154. 4 Let him humbly greet venerable men, 
4 who vifit him , and give them his own feat; let 
4 him fit near them, clofing the palms of his 
4 hands; and when they depart, let him walk 
4 fome way behind them. 

155. 4 Let him pradtife, without intermiflion, 
4 that fyfiem of approved ufages, which is the root 
4 of all duty religious and civil, declared at large 
4 in the fcriptural and facred law traCts, together 
4 with the ceremonies peculiar to each adt : 

156. 4 Since by fuch pra&ice long life is at- 
4 tained ; by fuch practice is gained wealth un- 
4 perifhable; fuch practice baffles every mark of 
4 ill fortune: 

157. 4 But 


AND PRIVATE MORALS, 


109 


157. 4 But by an oppofite practice, a man furcly 

* finks to contempt in this world, has always a 

* large portion of mifery, is afflided with difeafe 

* and (hort-lived; 

15S. 4 While the man who is obfervant of ap- 

* proved ufages, endued with faith in icripture, 
4 and free from a fpirit of detr.idion, lives a 
4 hundred years, even though he bear no bodily 

* mark of a profperous life. 

159. ‘ Whatever ad depends on another man, 
4 that ad let him carefully (hun ; but whatever 

* depends on himfelf, to that let him ftudioufly 
4 attend: 

ifio. 4 All that depends on another, 

* gives pain ; and all that depends on 
4 himself, gives pleasure; let him know this 
4 to be in few words the definition of pleafure 

* and pain. 

161. 4 When an ad, neither prejerihed ncr pro - 
4 hibited , gratifies the mind of him who performs 
4 it, let him perform it with diligence, but let 
4 him avoid its oppofite. 

162. 4 Him, by whom he was inverted with 
4 the facrificial thread, him, who explained the 
4 Veda, or even a part of it, his mother, and his 
4 father, natural or fpiritual, let him never op- 
4 pofe, nor prielts, nor cows, nor perfons truly 
4 devout. 

163. 4 Denial of a future rtate, negled of the 
4 feripture, and contempt of the deities, envy and 
4 hatred, vanity and pride, wrath and fe verity, 
4 let him at all times avoid. 

164. 4 Let him not, when angry, throw a 
4 flick at another man, nor lmite him with any 
4 thing; unlefs he be a foil or a pupil; thofc 

4 two 


IIO OK ECONOMICKS; 

two he may chaftife for their improvement in 
‘ learning. 

165. 6 A twice born man, who barely aflaults 
€ a Br 'hmen with intention to hurt him, fhall be 

* whirled about for a century in the hell named 

c 7 ami fra ; 

166. ‘ But, having fmitten him in anger and 
e by deftgn, even with a blade of grafs, he lliall 

* be born, in one and twenty tranlfnigrations, 
c from the wombs of impure quadrupeds. 

167. c He, who, through ignorance of the law, 
c flieds blood from the body of a Brahmen , not 
c engaged in battle, fhall feel exceflive pain in 
1 his future life : 

168. £ As many particles of dud as the blood 
c (ball roll up from the ground, for lb many years 

* fhall the fhedder of that blood be mangled by 

* other animals in his next birth, 

169. c Let not him then, who knows this law, 
‘ even affault a Brahmen at any time, nor ftrike 

* him even with grafs, nor caufe blood to gufh 
c from his body. 

170. £ Even here below an unjuft man attains 
< no felicity ; nor he, whcfe wealth proceeds from 
c giving evidence ; nor he, who conftantly 

* takes delight in mifehief. 

171. £ Though opprefied by penury, in con- 

* fequence of his righteous dealings, let him 
c never give his mind to unrighteoufnefs ; for he 

* may obferve the fpeedy overthrow of iniquitous 

* and finful men. 

172. 6 Iniquity, committed in this world, pro- 
c duces not fruit immediately, but , like the 
c earth, in due feafon ; and, advancing by little 
e and little, it eradicates the man who commit- 
£ ted it. 


173. * Yes; 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. 


Ill 


173. c Yes; iniquity, once committed, fails 
‘ not of producing fruit to him, who wrought it; 
c if not in his own perfon, yet in his fons ; or, if 

* not in his fons, yet in his grandfons : 

174. * He grows rich for awhile through un* 
c righteoufnefs; then he beholds good things; 

* then it is, that he vanquifhes his foes; but he 
€ perilhes at length from his whole root up- 
c wards. 

173. ‘ Let a man continually take pleafure in 
6 truth, in juflice, in laudable practices, and in 

* purity; let him chaltife thofe whom he may 

* chaftife in a legal mode ; let him keep in 
c fubjedtion his fpeech, his arm, and his ap- 

* petite : 

176. * Wealth and pleafures, repugnant ro law, 
c let him lhun ; and even lawful adts, which may 
‘ caufe future pain, or be offenfive to mankind. 

177. * Let him not have nimble hands, refllefs 
f feet, or voluble eyes ; let him not be crooked in 

< his ways ; let him not be flippant in his fpeech, 

< nor intelligent in doing mifchief. 

178. e Let him walk in the path of good men; 
c the path in which his parents and forefathers 

* walked : while he moves in that path he can 
' give no offence. 

179. ‘ With an attendant on confecrated fire, 
1 a performer of holy rites, and a teacher of the 
c Vcda\ with his maternal uncle, with his guefl 
c or a dependent, with a child, with a man either 

< aged or Tick, with a phyfician, with his pa- 
‘ ternal kindred, with his relations by marriage, 
‘ and with coufins on the fide of his mother, 

180. - 4 With his mother herfelf, or with his 
€ father, with his kinfwomen, with his brother, 

* with 


112 


OK ECONOMICKS; 


* with his fon, his wife, or his daughter, and 
4 with his whole fet of fervants let him have no 
4 ftrife. 

181. 4 A houfe-keeper, who fhnns altercation 

* with thofe juft mentioned , is releafed from all 
6 fecret faults; and, by fuppreffing all fuch dif- 
4 putes, he obtains a victory over the following 
4 worlds: 

182. 4 The teacher of the Veda fecures him 
4 the world of Brahma'; his father, the world of 
4 the Sun, or of the Prajapeiis; his gueft, the 
4 world of Indra; his attendants on holy fire, 

4 the world of Dev as; 

783. 4 His female relations, the world of ce- 
4 leftial nymphs; his maternal coufins, the world 
4 of the Vifvadevas; his relations by affinity, the 
4 world of waters ; his mother and maternal uncle 
4 give him power on earth ; 

184. 4 Children, old men, poor dependents* 

4 and lick perfons, mull be confidered as rulers 
4 of the pure ether; bis elder brother, as equal 
4 to his father ; his wife and fon, as his own 
4 body ; 

185. 4 His affemblage of fervants, as his own 
4 fhadow ; his daughter, as the higheft object 
4 of tendernefs: let him therefore, when of- 
4 fended by any of thofe, bear the offence without 
4 indignation. 

186. 4 Though permitted to receive prefents, 
4 let him avoid a habit of taking them ; iince, by 
4 taking many gifts, his divine light foon fades. 

187. 4 Let no man of fenfe, who has not fully 
4 informed himfelf of the law concerning gifts of 
4 particular things, accept a prefent, even though 
4 he pine with hunger. 

188. 4 The man who knpws not that law, yet 

4 accepts 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. II3 

4 accepts gold or gems, land, a horfe, a cow, 
« food, raiment, oils, or clarified butter, becomes 

* mere afhes, like wood confumed by fire : 

189. 4 Gold and gems bum up his nourifii- 
4 ment and life; land and a cow, his body; a 
4 horfe, his eyes; raiment, his (kin; clarified 

* butter, his manly drenglh ; oils, his progeny. 

190. 4 A twice born man, void of true dcvo- 
4 tion, and not having read the Veda, yet eager 
4 to take a gift, finks down, together with it, as 
4 with a boat of done in deep water. 

191. 4 Let him then, who knows not the law', 
4 be fearful of prefents from this or that giver ; 

* fince an ignorant man, even by a fmall gift, 
4 may become helplefs as a cow in a bog. 

192. 4 Let no man, apprized of this law, pre- 
4 fent even water to a pried, who adts like a cat, 
4 nor to him, who adls like a bittern, nor to him, 

4 who is unlearned in the Veda; 

193. 4 Since property, though legally gained, 

* if it be given to either of thofe three, becomes 
4 prejudicial in the next world, both to the givpr 
4 and receiver: 

194. 4 As he, who tries to pafs over deep 
1 water in a boat of done, finks to the bottom, 

4 fo thofe two ignorant men, the receiver and the 
4 giver, fink to a region of torment. 

195. 4 A covetous wretch, who continually 
4 difplays the flag of virtue, a pretender, a de- 
4 luder of the people, is declared to be the 
4 man who adts like a cat; he is an injurious 
4 hypocrite, a detradlor from the merits of all 
4 men. 

196. 4 A twice born man, with his eyes de- 
4 jedted, moroie, intent on his own advantage, 

I fly. 


ON ECONOMICKS ; 


H4 

4 fly, and falfely demure, is he who acts like a 
4 bittern. 

197. 4 Such priefts, as live like bitterns, and 

■ fuch as demean themfelves like cats, fall by 
4 that finful conduct into the hell called Andhata - 
4 mijra. 

198. c Let no man, having committed fin, 

* perform a penance under the pretext of auflere 
4 devotion, difguifing his crime under fi&itious 
4 religion, and deceiving both women and low 
4 men: 

199. c Such impoftors, though Brahmens , are 
4 defpifed in the next life, and in this, by all who 
4 pronounce holy texts ; and every religious ad 
4 fraudulently performed gees to evil beings. 

200. 4 He, who has no right to diftinguifhing 
4 marks, yet gains a fubfiflence by wearing falfe 
- marks of diftinftion, takes to himfelf the fin 
4 committed by thofe who are entitled to fuch 
4 marks, and fhall again be born from the womb 
4 of a brute animal. 

201. 4 Never let him bathe in the pool of 
4 another man ; for he who bathes in it without 
c licence , takes to himfelf a fmall portion of the 
4 iins, which the maker of the pool has com- 
4 mitted. 

202. 4 He, who appropriates to his own ufe 
? the carriage, the bed, the feat, the well, the 

■ garden, or the houfe of another man, who has 
4 not delivered them to him, aflumes a fourth 
4 part of the guilt of their owner. 

203. 4 In rivers, in ponds dug by holy perfons^ 

■ and in lakes, let him always bathe ; in rivulets 
‘ 4 alfo, and in torrents. 

204. 4 A wise man Ihould conflantly difeharge 

* all 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. 11^ 

all the moral duties, though he perform not 
conftancly the ceremonies of religion ; fince he 
falls low, if, while he performs ceremonial afts 
only, he difcharge not his moral duties. 

205. c Never lec a prieft eat pare of a facrifice 
not begun with texts of the Veda, nor of one 
performed by a common facrificer, by a woman 
or by an eunuch: 

206. c When thofe perfons offer the clarified 
butter, it brings misfortune to good men, and 
raifes averfion in the deities; fuch oblations, 
therefore, he muff carefully fhun. 

207. * Let him never eat the food of the in¬ 
fane, the wrathful, or the fick ; nor that, on 
which lice have fallen; nor that, which has 
defignedly been touched by a foot; 

2c8. 4 Nor that, which has been looked at by 
the flayer of a prieft, or by any other deadly /inner , 
or has even been touched by a woman in her 
courfes, or pecked by a bird, or approached by 
a dog; 

209. c Nor food which has been fmelled by a 
cow ; nor particularly that which has been pro¬ 
claimed for all comers ; nor the food of aflbeiated 
knaves, or of harlots ; nor that which is con¬ 
temned by the learned in feripture j 

210. ( Nor that of a thief or a publick finger, 
of a carpenter, of an ufurer, ol one who has 
recently come from a facrifice, of a niggardly 
churl, or of one bound with fetters ; 

211. * Of one publickly defamed, of an eunuch, 
of an unchafte woman, or of a hypocrite ; nor 
any l’weet thing turned acid, nor what has been 
kept a whole night; nor the food of a fervile 
man, nor the orts of another $ 

I 2 


212. 4 Nor 


ON ECCNOMICKS ; 


i 16 

212. 4 Nor the food of a phyfician, or of a 

* hunter, or of a difhoneft man, or of an eater 
f of orts ; nor that of any cruel perfon ; nor of 
4 a woman in childbed ; nor of him, who riles 
( prematurely from table to make an ablution ; 
< nor of her whofe ten days of purification have 
' not elapfed $ 

213. ‘ Nor that, which is given without due 
4 honour to honourable men; nor any flefh 
4 which has not been facrificed ; nor the food of 
4 a woman, who has neither-a hufband nor a fon 5 
4 nor that of a foe, *nor that of the whole town, 

4 nor that of an outcaft, nor that on which any 
4 perfon has fneezed ; 

214. 4 Nor that of a backbiter, or of a falfe 
c witnefs j nor of one who fells the reward of his 
‘ facrifice ; nor of a publick dancer, or a tailor; 

‘ nor of him who has returned evil for good; 

215. c Nor that of a blackfmith, or a man of 
€ the tribe called Nijhada , nor of a ftage-plaver, 

‘ nor of a worker in gold or in cane, nor of him 
4 who fells weapons; 

216. 4 Nor of thofe who train hunting dogs, 

* or fell fermented liquor; nor of him who 
4 wafhes clothes, or who dyes them; nor of 
c any malevolent perfon ; nor of one who ig- 
1 norantly fuffers an adulterer to dwell under his 

* roof $ 

217. c Nor of thofe who knowingly bear 
c with the paramours of their own wives, or are 
c conflantlv in fubje&ion to \vorqen; nor food 
c given for the dead before ten days of purification 
4 have pafied ; nor any food whatever, but that 
? which fatisfies him. 

218. 4 Food given by a king, impairs his 

4 manly 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. I 1 7 

manly vigour ; by one of the fervile clafs, his 
divine light; by goldfmichs, his life; by leather- 
cutters, his good name: 

219. ‘ Given by cooks and the like mean arti- 
zans, it deftroys his offspring; by a wafher- 
man, his mufcular drength; but the food 
of knavifh affociates and harlots excludes him 
from heaven : 

220. c The food of a phyfician is purulent; 
that of a libidinous woman, feminal ; that of 
an ufurer, feculent; that of a weapon-feller, 
filthy: 

221. ‘ That of all others, mentioned in order, 
whofe food mud never be tailed, is held equal 
by the wife to the fkin, bones, and hair of the 
dead. 

222. f Having unknowingly fwallowed the 
food of any fuch perfons, he mud fad during 
three days; but, having eaten it knowingly, he 
mud perform the fame harfh penance, as if he 
had taded any feminal impurity, ordure, or 
urine. 

223. € Let no learned pried eat the dreffed 
grain of a fervile man, who performs no pa¬ 
rental obfequies ; but having no other means to 
live, he may take from him raw grain enough 
for a fingle night. 

224. ‘ The deities, having well confidered the 
food of a niggard, who has read the fcriprure, 
and that of ati ufurer, who bedows gifts li¬ 
berally, declared the food of both to be equal 
in quality ; 

225. ‘ But Brahma, advancing towards the 
gods, thus addreffed them: " Make not that 
equal, which in truth is unequal; fince the 
food of a liberal man is purified by faith, while 

I 3 that 


ON ECONOMICKS; 


118 

4 that of a learned mifer is defiled by his want of 
4 faith in what he has read.” 

226. 4 Let each wealthy man continually and 

* feduloufly perform facred rites, and conlecrate 
4 pools or gardens with faith ; fince thole two 

* ads, accomplifhed with faith and with riches 
4 honeflly gained, procure an unperifhable re- 
1 ward : 

227. f If he meet with fit objeds of bene- 
4 volence, let him conflantly bellow gifts on 
4 them, both at facrifices and confecrations, to 
4 the beft of his power and with a chearful heart; 

228. * Such a gift, how frnall foever, bellowed 
4 on requefl without grudging, paffes to a worthy 
4 objed, who will fecure the giver from all evil. 

229. 4 A giver of water obtains content; a 

* giver of food, extreme blifs ; a giver of tila , 

4 defired offspring; a giver of a lamp, unble- 
4 miihed eyefight; 

230. 4 A giver of land obtains landed pro- 
4 perty; a giver of gems or gold, long life; a 
c giver of a houfe, the mod exalted manfion ; a 
4 giver offilver, exquifite beauty; 

231. ‘A giver of clothes, the fame flation 
4 with Chandra ; a giver of a horfe, the fame 
4 flation with Aswi; a giver of a bull, eminent 
4 fortune; a giver of a cow, the manfion of 
4 Su'rya ; 

232. 4 A giver of a carriage or a bed, an ex- 
4 cellent confort; a giver of fafety, fupreme do- 
4 minion; a giver of grain, perpetual delight; 
c a giver of fcriptural knowledge, union with 
4 God : 

233. 4 Among all thofe gifts, of water, food, 

‘ kine, land, clothes, tila y gold, clarified butter, 

* and 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. 


1 *9 


c 

and the reft, a gift of fpiritual knowledge is 

* confcquently the moft important; 

234. ‘ And for whatever pnrpofe a man be- 

* (lows any gift, for a fimilar purpofe he fliall 

* receive, with due honour, a fimilar reward, 

234. * Both he, who rel'peftfully beftows a 
< prefent, and he who refpeftfully accepts ir, (hall 
« go to a feat of blils; but, if they adl otherwife, 

* to a region of horror. 

236. ‘ Let not a man be proud of his rigorous 
« devotion ; let him not, having facrificed, utter 

* a faifehood ; let him not, though injured, infult 
« a prieft; having made a donation, let him never 
c proclaim it: 

2^7. * By faifehood, the facrifice becomes 

* vain ; by pride, the merit of devotion is loft ; 

« by infulting priefts, life is diminifhed ; and by 

* proclaiming a largefs, its fruit is deftroyed. 

238. ‘ Giving no pain to any creature, let 
« him collect virtue by degrees, for the fake of 

* acquiring a companion to the next world, as the 
« white ant by degrees builds his neft ; 

239. * For, in his paftage to the r>ext world, 

€ neither his father, nor his mother, nor his wife, 

« nor his fon, nor his kinfmen, will remain in 
c his company: his virtue alone will adhere 

* to him. 

240. ‘ Single is each man born; fingle he 
< dies ; Angle he receives the reward of hrs good, 

« and fingle the punifhment of his evil deeds: 

241. ‘ When he leaves his corfe, like a log 

* or a lump of clay, on the ground, his kindred 

* retire with averted faces; but his virtue ac- 
c companies his foul. 

242. * Continually, therefore, by degrees, let 

I 4 him 


1 20 


ON EC 0 N 0 MICK 5 ; 

* him colleft virtue, for the fake of fecuring an 
c infeparable companion ; fince with virtue for 

* his guide, he will traverle a gloom, how hard to 
€ be traverfed ! 

243. c A man, habitually virtuous, whofe of- 
1 fences have been expiated by devotion, is in- 
€ ftantly conveyed after death to the higher world, 
c with a radiant form and a body of ethereal 

* fubflance. 

244. f He, who feeks to preferve an exalted 
c rank, muft conftantly form connexions with the 
r higheft: and bed families, but avoid the worft 

* and the meaneft ; 

245. 1 Since a prieft, who connects himfelf 
c with the bed and higheft of men, avoiding the 

* lowed and worft, attains eminence ; but finks, 
1 by an oppofite conduft, to the clafs of the fer- 
c vile. 

246. 1 He, who perfeveres in good a&ions, in 
' fubduing his paflions, in beftowing largeffes, in 

* gentlenefs of manners, who bears hardfhips pa- 

* tiently, who aftfcciates not with the malignant, 

* who gives pain to no fentient being, obtains 
4 final beatitude. 

247. c Wood, water, roots, fruit, and food 

* placed before him without his requeft, he may 
c accept from all men ; honey alfo, and protec- 

* tion from danger. 

248. ‘ Gold, or other alms, voluntary brought 
« and prefented, but unafked and unpromifed, 

* Brahma' confidered as receivable even from a 
< finner : 

249. e Of him, who fhall difdain to accept 
€ fuch alms, neither will the manes eat the foneral 
1 oblations for fifteen years, nor will the fire convey 
‘ the burnt facrifice to the gods. 


25* * A 


AND PRIVATE MORALS. 


121 


250. * A. bed, houfes, blades of cus a, perfumes, 

1 water, flowers, jewels, butter-milk, ground rice, 

« fifh, new milk, fl' ih meat, and green vegetables, 

* let him not proudly re]e£t. 

251. 4 When he wifhes to relieve h»s natural 
« parents or fpiritual father, his wife or others, 

« whom he is bound to maintain, or when he is 
4 preparing to honour deities or guefts, he may 
4 receive gifts from any perfon, but muft not 
4 gratify himfelf with fuch preients: 

2^2. 4 It his parents, however, be dead, or it 
4 he live without them in his own houfe, let him, 

4 when he feeks nourifhmer.t :or himfelf, receive 
4 prefents invariably ( m good men alone. 

253. 4 A labourer in tillage, a family friend, a 
4 herdfman, a Have, a barber, a poor ftranger of- 

• fering his humble duty, are men of the fervile 
4 clafs, who may eat the food of their fuperiours : 

254. * As the nature of the poor ftranger is, 

• as ihe work is, which he deflres to perform, and 
4 as he may fhow moll refpedt to the mafier of the 

• heufe , even thus let him offer his fervice ; 

255. 4 For he, who deferibes himfelf to wor- 
‘ thv men, in a manner contrary to truth, is rhe 
4 moft finful wretch in this world : he is the worft 
4 of thieves, a dealer of minds. 

256. 4 All things have their fenfe afcertained 
4 by fpeech ; in fpeech they have their bafts; and 
4 from fpeech they proceed: confequcntly, a fain- 
4 fier of fpeech falfifies every thing. 

257. 4 When he has paid, as the law diretd:?, 
4 his debts to the fages, to the manes, and to the 
4 gods, by reading tb* Jcrifture , begetting a Jen, 
4 and performing regular Jacrifices, he rftay refign 
4 all to his fon of mature age, and reflde in his 

f family. 


22 ON ECONOMICKS, &C. 

family houfe, with no employment, but that ofan 
umpire. 

258. c Alone, in fome folitary place, let him 
conltantly meditate on the divine nature of the 
foul, for by fuch meditation he will attain 
happinefs. 

259. ‘ Thus has been declared the mode, by 
which a Brahmen , who keeps houfe, muft con¬ 
tinually fubfift, together with the rule of de¬ 
votion ordained for a pupil returned from his 
preceptor ; a laudable rule, which increafes the 
belt of the three equalities. 

260. c A prieft, who lives always by thefe 
rules, who knows the ordinances of the Veda>, 
who is freed from the bondage of fin, lhafl be 
abforbed in the divine efience. 


( * 2 3 ) 


CHAPTER THE FIFTH. 


On Diet , Purification , and Women . 


1. The fages, having heard thofe laws deli¬ 
vered for the condofi of h u)fe-keq:>ers, thus 
addrefi' i the 1 & h-mindcd Bhr r, who pro¬ 
ceeded, in a former birth , from the genius of fire. 

2. c How, Lord, can death prevail over Brah - 

c who know the fcriptural ordinances, and 

‘ pei form their duties as ihey have been declared V 

3. Then he, whofe difpofuion was perfe< 5 t 
virtue, even Bhrigu, the fon of Menu, thus 
anfwered the great Rfbis, € Hear from what 
« fin proceeds the inclination of death, to defiroy 
‘ the chief of the twice born : 

4. c Through a neglect of reading the Veda, 
1 through a dcfertion of approved ufages, through 
‘ lupine- remiBriefs in “performing holy rites , aad 
‘ through various offences in diet, the genius op 
1 death becomes eager to defiroy them. 

5. ‘ Garlick, onions, leeks, and mufhrQom$> 
‘ (which no twice born man mult eat) and all vc- 
c getables railed in dung. 

6. * Red gums or refins, exuding from trees, 

* and juices from wounded fiems, the fruit felu, 

* and the thickened milk of a cow within ten days 
c after her calving, a priefi mufi avoid with great 
‘ care. 

7. € Rice 




124 ON DIET, PURIFfCATION, 

7. ‘ Rice pudding boiled with tila> frumenty, 
c rice-milk, and baked bread, which have not 
c been firft offered to fome deity, flefh meat alfo, 
c the food of gods, and clarified butter, which 
‘ have not firft been touched, while holy texts 

* were recited, 

8. c PYefh miik from a cow, whofe ten days are 

* not paffed, the mijk of a camel, or any qua- 
c druped with a hoof not cloven, that of an ewe, 
c and that of a cow in heat, or whofe calf is dead 
c or abfent from her, 

9. c That of any foreft bead:, except the buffalo, 
c the milk of a woman, and any thing naturally 

* fweet but acidulated, muft all be carefully 
‘ fhunned : 

10. c But among fuch acids, butter-milk may 

* be fwallowed, and every preparation of butter- 
c milk, and all acids extracted from pure flowers, 

* roots, or fruit not cut with iron • 

n. * Let every twice born man avoid carnivo- 
c rous birds, and fuch as live in tov/ns, and qua- 
4 drupeds with uncloven hoofs, except thofe al- 
c lowed by the Veda, and the bird called tittihha; 

11. f The fparrow, the water bird plava , the 
f phenicopteros, the cbacravdca, the breed of the 
c tow r n cock, the JdraJa , the rajjuvdla , the wood- 
c pecker, and the parot male and female ; 

13. c Birds, that ftrike with their beaks, web- 
< footed birds, the coyajhti , thofe who wound 
f with ftrong talons, and thofe who dive to devour 
c fi(h ; let him avoid meat kept at a flaughter- 
c houfe, and dried meat, 

14. ‘ The heron, the raven, the c'hanjana> all 

* amphibious fifh eaters, tame hogs, and fifh of 
c every fort, hut thofe exprefsly permitted . 

1$. e He, 


AND WOMEN. 


12 $ 

15. 4 He, who eats the flefh of any animal, 
4 is called the eater of that animal itfelf ; and a 
4 fifh eater is an eater of all flefh ; from fifh, 
4 therefore, he muft diligently abftain : 

16. 4 Yet the two fifh called pdt'b'ina and rohita y 
4 may be eaten by the gu efts y w hen offered at a re- 
4 part in honour of the gods or the manes ; and fo 

* may the rujtva , the Jitibatioiday and the JaJalha 
4 of every fpecies. 

17. f J^et him noteat the flefh of any folitary 
4 animals, nor of unknown beafts or birds, though 

* by general words declared eatable, nor of any 
4 creature with five claws ; 

18. 4 The hedgehog and porcupine, the lizard 
4 godbdy the gandaca , the tortoife, and the rabbit 
4 or hare , wife legiflators declare lawful food 
4 among five toed animals; and all quadrupeds, 
4 camels excepted, which have but one row of 

* teeth. 

19. 4 The twice born man, who has intention- 

* ally eaten a mufhroom, the flefh of a tame hog, 
4 or a town cock, a leek, or an onion, or garlick, 
4 is degraded immediately; 

20. 4 But having undefignedly tailed either of 

* thofe fix things, he muft perform the penance 
1 Jantapana, or the chdndr'iyana , which anchorets, 

4 praftife ; for other things he mud fall a whole 

* day. 

21. 4 One of thofe harfh penances, called prd- 
4 jdpatya> the twice born man mull perform an- 
4 nually, to purify him from the unknown taint of 
4 illicit food ; but he muft do particular penance 

4 for fuch food intentionally eaten. 

22. 4 Beasts and birds of excellent forts may 

5 be flain by Brahmens for facrifice, or for the 

4 fuflenanco 


I 20 ON DIET, PURIFICATION, 

c fuflenance of thofe, whom they are bound to 

* fupport ; fince Agastya did this of old. 

23. ‘ No doubt in the primeval facrifices by 
c holy men, and in oblations by thofc of the 

* priefily and military tribes, the flefh of fuch 
c beafts and birds, as may be legally eaten, was 
€ prcfented to the deities. 

24. < That which may be eaten or drunk when 

* frejh , without blame, may be fwallowed* if 

* touched with oil, though it has been kept a 
c whole night; and fo may the remains of clari- 
< fied butter : 

25. * And every mefs prepared with barley or 
c w heat, or with drefied milk, may be eaten by 
c the twice born, although not fprinkkd with oil* 

26. c Thus has the food, allowed or forbidden 

* to a twice born man, been comprehenfively men- 

* tioned : I will now propound the fpecial rules 
€ for eating and for avoiding flefh meat. 

27. * He ftiould tafte meat, which has been 
c hallowed for a facrifice with appropriated texts, 
c and once only> when a prieft fhall defire him, and 
c when he is performing a legal a£t, or in danger 

* oflofing life. 

28. * For the fuftenance of the vital fpirit, 

* Brahma 7 created all this animal and vegetable 
€ Jyftem ; and all that is moveable or immoveable, 
c that fpirit devours. 

29. ‘ Things fixed are eaten by creatures with 

* locomotion ; toothlefs animals, by animals with 
c teeth ; thofe w ithout hands, by thofe to whom 
i hands were given ; and the timid by the bold. 

30. f He, who eats according to law , commits 

* no fin, even though every day he tafies the flefh 

* of fuch animals, as may lawfully be tafted ; 
s fince both animals, who may be eaten, and thofe 

* who eat them, were equally created by Brahma'. 

31. ‘ It 


AND WOMEN. 


127 


31. 4 It is delivered as a rule of the gods, that 
4 meat muft be fwallowed only for the putpofe 
4 of facrifice ; but it is a rule of gigantxk dc- 
4 mons, that it may be fwallowed tor any other 
4 purpofe. 

32. 4 No fin is committed by him, who having 
4 honoured the deities and the manes, eats flefh 
4 meat, which he has bought, or which he has 
4 himfelf acquired, or which has been given him 
4 by another : 

33. 4 Let no twice born man, who knows the 
4 law, and is not in urgent diftrefs, eat flefh with- 
4 out obferving this rule ; for he, unable to fave 
4 himfelf, will be devoured in the next world by 
4 thofe animals, whofe flefh he has thus illegally 
4 fwallowed. 

34. 4 The fin of him, who kills deer for gain, 

4 is not fo heinous, with refpedt to the punijhment 
4 in another life, as that of him, who eats flefh 
4 meat in vain, or not previoujly offered as a fa - 
4 crijice: 

35. 4 But the man, who, engaged in holy rites 
4 according to law, refufes to eat it, (hall fink in 
4 another world, for twenty-one births, to the 
4 ftate of a beaft. 

36. 4 Never let-a prieft eat the flefh of cattle 
4 unhallowed with mantras , but let him eat it, 
4 obferving the primeval rule, when it has been 
4 hallowed with thofe texts of the Veda. 

37. 4 Should he have an earneft defire to tafte 
4 flelh meat, he may gratify his fancy by forming 
4 the image of fome beaft with clarified butter 
4 thickened, or he may form it with dough, but 
4 never let him indulge a wifh to kill any beaft 
4 in vain: 

38. ‘ As many hairs 3S grow on the beaft, fo 

1 4 many 


128 ON DI3T, PURIFICATION, 

4 many fimllar deaths fhall the flayer of it, for 

* his own fatisfadlion in this world, endure in die 

* next from birth to birth. 

39. c By the felf-exirting in perfon were hearts 

* created for facrifice ; and the facrifice was or- 
€ dained for the increafe oi this univerfe: the 
c flaughterer therefore of hearts for facrifice is in 
c truth no flaughterer. 

4c. * Gramineous plants, cattle, timber-trees, 
c amphibious animals, and birds, which have been 

* deftroyed for the purpofe of facrifice, attain in 
€ the next world exalted births. 

41. * On a folemn offering to a guert, at a 

* facrifice and in hoiy rites to the manes or to the 

* gods, but on thofe occafions only, may cattle be 
c fiain : this law Menu enacted. 

42. c The twice born man, who knowing the 

* meaning and principles of the Fc'da> flays cattle 
€ on the occafions mentioned, conveys both him- 
€ felf and thofe cattle to the fummit of beatitude. 

43. f Let no twice born man, whofe mind is 
€ improved by learning, hurt animals without the 

* fan&ion of fcripture, even though in preffing 
c diftrefs, whether he live in his own houfe, or in 
‘ that of his preceptor, or in a foreft. 

44. c That hurt, which the fcripture ordains, 
c and which is done in this world of moveable and 
x immoveable creatures, he inuft confider as no 

* hurt at all $ fince law (hone forth from the light 

* of the fcripture. 

45. f He, who injures animals, that are not 
c injurious, from a wifh to give himfelf pleafure, 
c adds nothing to his own happinefs, living or 

* dead; 

46 . * While he, who gives no creature willingly 

* the pain of confinement or death, but feeks 

the 


A>JD WOMEfc. 


I29 


* the good of all Jentient beings enjoys blifs without 

* end. 

47. ‘ He, who injures no animated creature, 

‘ fliall attain without hardfhip whatever he thinks 
« of, whatever he ftrives for, whatever he fixes 
€ his mind on. 

48. ‘ Flefh meat cannot be procured without 
c injury to animals, and the daughter of animals 

* obflru&s the path to beatitude; from flefh mear, 
c therefore, let man abflain : 

49. c Attentively confidering the formation of 
« bodies, and the death or confinement of im- 
c bodied fpirits, let him abflain from eating flefh 

* meat of any kind. 

50. ' The man who forfakes not the law, and 
‘ eats not flefh meat, like a blood thirfly demon, 
c fhall attain good will in this world, and fhall not 

* be affli< 5 led with maladies. 

51. c He, who confents to the death of an 
c animal; he, who kills it; he, who difleds it; 
f he, who buys it; he, who fells it; he, who 

* drefles it; he, who ferves it up ; and he, who 
c makes it his food ; thele are eight principals in 

* the (laughter. 

52. 4 Not a mortal exifls more finful than he, 
c who without an oblation to the manes or the 

* gods, defires to enlarge his own flefh with the 
4 flefh of another creature. 

53. ‘ The man, who performs annually, for a 
( hundred years, an afwamedha , or jacrifice of a 
« horfe , and the man who abflains from flefh meat, 
4 enjoy for their virtue an equal reward. 

54. c By fubfifling on pure fruit and on roots, 

* and by eating fuch grains as are eaten by her- 
c mits, a man reaps not fo high a reward, as by 
4 carefully abflaining from animal food. 

K jj. " Me 


I30 ON DIET, PURIFICATION, 

55. <c Me he (mm fa) will devour in the next 
4 world, whofe flefh I eat in this life thus Jhoitld 
4 a flejh eater fpeak , and thus the learned pro- 

* nounce the true derivation of the word manfa , 
4 or flefh. 

56. c In lawfully tafting meat, in drinking 
4 fermented liquor, in carefling women, there is 

* no turpitude ; for to fuch enjoyments men are 
4 naturally prone $ but a virtuous abftinence from 
4 them produces a fignal compenfation. 

57. c Now will I promulgate the rules of 
4 purification for the dead, and the modes of puri- 
4 fying inanimate things, as the law prefcribes 
4 them for the four clafles in due order. 

58. c When a child has teethed, and when, 
4 after teething, his head has been fhorn, and 
4 when he has been girt with his thread, and 
4 when, being full grown, he dies, all his kindred 
c are impure : on the birth of a child the law is 
4 the fame. 

59. 4 By a dead body, the fapindas are rendered 
4 impure in law for ten days, or until the fourth 
4 day , when the bones have been gathered up, or 
4 for three days, or for one day only, according to 
4 the qualities of the deceafed: 

60. 4 Now the relation of the fapindas , or men 
4 connected by the funeral cake, ceafes with the 
4 feventh perfon, or in the fixth degree of afcent or 
4 defcenty and that of famdnodacas > or thole con- 
4 netted by an equal oblation of water, ends only, 
4 when their births and family names are no longer 
4 known. 

61. 4 As this impurity, by reafon of a dead 
9 kinfman, is ordained for fapindas , even thus it is 
4 ordained on a child-birth, for thofe who feek 
c abfolut£ purity. 


62. 4 Un- 


AND WOMEN. 


T 3 l 

62. ( UncleanneO, on account of the dead, is 
ordained for all; but on the birth of a child, 
for the mother and father: impurity, for ten 
days after the child-birth, afteCts the mother 
only; but the father, having bathed, becomes 
pure. 

63. c A man, having wafted his manhood, is 
purified by bathing; but after begetting a child 
on a parapurva , he mult meditate for three days 
on his impure ftate. 

64. c In one day and night, added to nights 
three times three, the Japindas are purified after 
touching the corpfe ; but the famanodacas in three 
days. 

65. f A pupil in theology, having performed 
the ceremony of burning his deceafed preceptor, 
becomes pure in ten nights : he is equal, in that 
cafe, to the Japindas , who carry out the dead. 

66. c In a number of nights, equal to the 
number of months from conception, a woman 
is purified on a mifcarriage ; and a woman in 
her courfes is rendered pure by bathing, when 
her effufioft of blood has quite (topped. 

67. c For deccaled male children, whofe heads 
have not been (horn, purity is legally obtained 
in one night; but for thofe, on whom that ce¬ 
remony has been performed, a purification of 
three nights is required. 

68. * A dead child under the age of two years, 
let his kinfmen carry out, having decked him 
with flowers , and bury him in pure ground, with¬ 
out collecting his bones at a future time: 

69. c Let no ceremony with fire be performed 
for him, nor that of fprinkling water; but his 
kindred, having left him like a piece of wood 
in the foreft, (hall be unclean for three days. 

K 2 70. * For 


J22 ON DIET, PURIFICATION, 

70. ‘ For a child under the age of three years, 

* the ceremony with water fhall not be performed 
c by his kindred ; but if his teeth be completely 

< grown, or a name have been given him, they 
f may perform it, or not, at their option . 

71. f A fellow ftudent in theology being dead, 
« three days of impurity are ordained ; arid on 

< the birth of a famanodaca , purification is required 
« for three nights. 

72. c The relations of betrothed but unmarried 
c damfels, are in three days made pure; and, in 
c as many, are their paternal kinfmen purified 
c after their marriage : 

73. < Let them eat vegetable food without 
‘ factitious, that is, only with native fait let them 

* bathe for three days at intervals; let them tafle 
‘ no flefh meat-, and let them fleep apart on the 
c ground. 

74 . c This rule, which ordains impurity by rea- 
c fon of the dead, relates to the cafe of one dying 

* near his kinfmen ; but, in the cafe of one dying 
c at a diftance, the following rule muft be ob- 
‘ ferved by thofe who fhare the fame cake, and 
‘ by thofe who fhare only the fame water: 

75. ‘ The man, who hears that a kinfman is 
c dead in a diflant country, becomes unclean, if 

* ten days after the death have not palled, for the 
‘ remainder of thofe ten days only ; 

76. ‘ But if the ten days have elapfed, he is 
c impure for thre^ nights, and, if a year have 

* expired, he is purified merely by touching water. 

77. c If, after the lapfe of ten days, he know 

* the death of a kinfman, or the birth of a male 

* child, he muff purify himfelf by bathing together 

* with his clothes. 

78. * Should a child, whole teeth are not 

grown. 


AND WOMEN. 


T 33 


4 grown, or fhould a [amanodaca die in a diftant 
4 region, the kinfman, having bathed with his 
4 apparel, becomes immediately pure. 

79. 4 If, during the ten days, another death or 
4 another birth intervene, a Brahmen remains im- 
4 pure only till thole ten days have elapfed. 

80. c A fpiritual teacher being dead, the fages 
4 dec’are his pupil impure for three days; but for 
4 a day and a night,, if the fon or wife of the 
4 teacher be decealed ; fuch is the facred ordi- 
* nance. 

81. 4 For a reader of the whole Veda y who 
4 dwells in the fame houfe, a man is unclean three 
4 nights; but for a maternal uncle, a pupil, an 
4 officiating prieft, and a diftant kinfman, only 
4 one night winged with two days. 

82. 4 On the death of a military king, in whofe 
4 dominion he lives, his impurity lafis while the 

' ‘ fun or the ftars give light ; but it lajls a whole 
4 day, on the death of a prieft who has not read 
4 the whole Veda y or of a fpiritual guide, who has 
4 read only part of it, with its Angas. 

83. 4 A man of the facerdotal clafs becomes 
4 pure in ten days ; of the warlike, in twelve ; 
4 of the commercial, in five ; of the fervile, in 
4 a month. 

84. 4 Let no man prolong the days of impurity; 
4 let him not intermit the ceremonies to be per- 
4 formed with holy fires ; while he performs thofe 
4 rites, even though he be a Japinda , he is not 
4 impure 

85. 4 He, who has touched a Cbandala , a wo- 
4 man in her courfes, an ouccaft for deadly fin, a 
4 new born child, a corpfe, or one who has touch- 
4 ed a corpfe, is made pure bv bathing. 

K Z 


86 . ‘ If, 


1J4- ON DIET, PURIFICATION, 

86. c If, having fprinkled his mouth with 
f water, and been long intent on his devotion, he 
c fee an unclean perfon, let him repeat, as well as 
€ he is able, the folar texts of the Veda, and thofe 

* which confer purity. 

87. r Should a Brahmen touch a human bone 
1 moift with oil, he is purified by bathing; if it 
< be not oily, by rtroking a cow, or by looking at 
‘ the fun, having fprinkled his mouth duly with 
r water. 

88 . c A rtudent in theology (hall not perform 
r the ceremony of pouring water at obfequies, un- 
c til he have completed his courfe of religious a< 5 ts; 
‘ but if, after the completion of them, he thus 
€ make an offering of water, he becomes pure in 
c three nights. 

89. c For thofe, who difcharge not their pre- 
c fcribed duties ; for thofe, whofe fathers were of 
1 a lower clafs than their mothers ; for thofe, 

* who wear a drefs of religion unauthorized by the 
c Veda-, and for thofe, who illegally kill themfelves, 
*,the ceremony of giving funeral water is forbid- 
? den by law ; 

90. c And for women imitating fuch hereticks, 

* as wear an unlawful drefs, and for fuch women 

* as live at their own pleafure, or have caufed an 

* abortion, or have rtricken their hufbands, or 
c have drunk any fpirituous liquor. 

91. c A ftudent violates not the rules of his or- 
c der, by carrying out, when dead, his own in * 
4 ftrufror in the Vedas , who inverted him with his 

* holy cord, or his teacher of particular chapters, 
€ or his reverend expounder of their meaning, or 
c his father, or his mother. 

92. c Let men carry out a dead Sudra by the 
c fouthern gate of the town ; but the twice born, 

* in 


AND WOMEN. 


1 35 

c in due order, by the wedern, northern, and 
4 eaftern gates. 

93. 4 No taint of impurity can light on kings 

* or dudents in theology, while employed in dij- 

* charging their feveral duties , nor on thofe who 
‘ have a&ually begun a facrifice ; for the fird are 
1 then placed on the feat of Indra, and the others 
< are always equally pure with the celtftial fpirit. 

94.. 4 To a king, on the throne of magnanimity, 
c the law afcribes inftant purification, becaufe his 
€ throne was raifed for the protedtion of his peo- 
€ pie and the fupply of their nourifhment: 

95. 4 It is the fame with the kinjmen of thofe 
c who die in battle, after the king has been fiain, 
4 or have been killed by lightning, or legally by 
4 the king himfelf, or in defence of a cow, or of a 
9 pried ; and with all thofe whom the king 
4 wifhes to be pure. 

96. 4 The corporeal frame of a king is ccm- 
c pofed of particles from S 6 ma> Acni, Surya, 
4 Pavana, Indra, Cuve'ra, Varuna, and 
4 Y \ma, the eight guardian deities of the world : 

97. 4 By thofe guardians of men in fubdance is 
4 the king pervaded, and he cannot by law be 
4 impure ; fince by thofe tutelar gods are the 
4 purity and impurity of mortals both caufed and 
4 removed. 

98. 4 By a foldier difcharging the duties of his 
4 clafs, and flain in the field with brandifhed wea- 
4 pons, the highed facrifice is, in that indant, 
4 complete ; and fo is his purification : this law 
4 is fixed. 

99. 4 A pried having performed funeral rites, 
4 is purified by touching water; a foldier, by 
4 touching his horfe or elephant, or his arms; 
4 a hufbandman, by touching his goad, or the hal- 

K 4 ‘ ter 


3 56 ON DIET, PURIFICATION, 

c ter of his cattle; a fervant, by touching his 

4 ftaff. 

ico. c This mode of purifying Japindas, O chief 
4 of the twice born, has been fully declared to 
4 you ! learn now the purification required on the 
4 death of kinfmen lefs intimately connedted. 

101. 4 A Brahmen , having caried out a dead 
4 Brahmen , though not a Japinda, with the affedtion 
4 of a kinfman, or any of thofe nearly related to 
4 him by his mother, becomes pure in three 
4 days ; 

102. £ But, if he tafle the food offered by their 
4 fapindas , he is purified in ten days; and in one 
4 day, if jfe neither partake of their food, nor dwell 
4 in the fame houfe. 

103. 4 If he voluntarily follow a corpfe, whe- 
4 ther of a paternal kinfman or of another, and 
4 afterwards bathe with his apparel, he is made 
4 pure by touching fire and tafting clarified 
4 butter. 

104. 4 Let no kinfman, whilfl any of his own 
c clafs are at hand, caufe a deceafed Brahmen to be 
4 carried out by a Si dra j fmce the funeral rite, 
4 polluted by the touch of a feryile man, obfirudls 
4 his paflage to heaven. 

105. 4 Sacred learning* auftere devotion, fire, 
4 holy aliment, earth, the mind, water, fmearing 
4 with cow-duog, air, prefcribed adts of religion, 
4 the fun, and time, are purifiers of imbodied 
4 fpirits \ 

106. 4 But of all pure things, purity in acquir- 
4 hig wealth is pronounced the mod excellent: 
4 fince he, who gains wealth with clean hands, is 
4 truly pure ; not he, who is purified merely with 
4 earth and water. 


107. c By 


AND WOMEN. 


*37 


107. 4 By forgivenefs of injuries, rhe learned 
c are purified ; by liberality, thofe who have neg- 
4 lecled their duty ; by pious meditation, thole 

* who have fecret faults ; by devout aufterity, 

* thole who bed know the Veda. 

108. 4 By water and earth is purified what 
4 ought to be made pure ; a river, bv its current; 

4 a woman, whofe thoughts have been impure, by 
4 her monthly difcharge, and the chief of twice 
4 born men, by fixing his mind wholly on God. 

109. 4 Bodies are cleanfed by water ; the mind 
4 is purified by truth; the vital fpirit, by theology 
4 and devotion ; the undei (landing, by clear 
4 knowledge. 

110. 4 Thus have you heard me declare the 
4 precife rules for purifying animal bodies: hear 
4 now the modes of reftoring purity to various 
4 inanimate things. 

111. 4 Of brilliant metals, of gems, and of every 
4 thing made with Hone, the purification, ordained 
4 by the wife, is with afhes, water, and earth. 

112. 4 A golden vefiel, not fmeared, is cleanfed 
9 with water only ; and every thing produced in 
4 water, as coral , Jhells or pearls, and every (tony 
4 fubftance, and a filver vefifel not enchafed. 

11 3. 4 From a jundlion of water and fire arofe 
4 gold and filver; and they two, therefore, are bed 
4 purified by the elements whence they fprang. 

114. 4 VefiTels of copper, iron, brafs, pewter, 
4 tin and lead, may be fitly cleanfed with allies, 
4 with acids, or with water. 

115. 4 The purification ordained for all forts of 
4 liquids, is by llirring them with rtf/tf-grafs ; for 
4 cloths folded by fprinkling them with hallowed 
4 water ; for wooden utenfils, by planeing them. 

116, k ter 


38 CN DIET, PURIFICATION, 

u6. f For the facrificial pots to hold clarified 
butter and juice of the moon plant, by rubbing 
them with the hand, and wafhing them, at 
the time of the facrifice : 

117. c Implements to wafh the rice, to contain 
the oblations, to cad them into the fire, to col¬ 
led, winnow, and prepare the grain, mud be 
purified with water made hot. 

118. * The purification by fprinkling is or¬ 
dained for grain and cloths in large quantities ; 
but to purify them in fmall parcels, which a 
man may eafily carry , they mud be wafhed. 

119. ‘ Leathern utenfils, and fuch as are made 
with cane, mud generally be purified in the fame 
manner with cloths; green vegetables, roots, 
and fruit, in the fame manner with grain ; 

120. c Silk and woollen duff, with fa; ine earths ; 
blankets from Nepala with pounded arijhtas> or 
nimha fruit; vefts and long drawers, with the 
fruit of the Bilva ; mantles r'cjhuma , with white 
mudard feeds. 

121. 6 Utenfils made offhells or horn, of bones 
or of ivory, mud be cleanfed by him who- 
knows the law, as mantles of cjhumd are puri¬ 
fied, with the addition of cows urine or of water. 

122. c Grafs, firewood, and draw, are purified 
by fprnkling them with water; a houfe, by 
rubbing, brulhing, and fmearing with cow-dung; 
an earthen pot, by a fecond burning: 

123. 4 But an earthen pot, which has been 
touched with any fpirituous liquor, with urine, 
with ordure, with fpittle, with pus, or with 
blood, cannot, even by another burning, be ren¬ 
dered pure. 

124. * Land is cleanfed by five modes; by 

* fvveeping 


and w min. 


139 


c (weeping, by fmearing with cow-dung, by (brink- 
< ling with cow's urine, bv fcraping, or by letting 
« a cow pafs a day and a night on it. 

4 A thing nibbled by a bird, fmelt at bv 
* a cow, fhaken with a foot, fneeaed on, or defiled 
4 by lice, is.purified by earth lcattered over it. 

126. 4 As long as the fcent or moifture, caufed 
f by any impurity, remain on the thing foiled, io 
4 long muft earth and water be repeatedly uicd in 
4 all purifications of things inanimate. 

127 4 The gods declared three pure things 
4 peculiar ro Brahmens 5 what has been defiled 
4 without their knowledge, what, in cafes ofdoubr, 
c t h e y fprinkle with water; and what they com- 

4 mend with their fpeech. 

1->8. c Waters are pure, as far as a cow goes to 
4 quench her third in them, if they flow over 
4 clean earth, and are fullied by no impurity, but 
4 have a good fcent, colour, and tafie. 

12(). f The hand of an artift, employed in his art , 

4 is always pure; fo is every vendible commodity, 

4 when expofed to fale ; and that food is always 
4 clean, which a ftudent in theology has begged 
4 and received: fuch is the facred rule. 

130. 4 The mouth of a woman is conftantly 
4 pure ; a bird is pure on the fall of fruit, which 
4 he has pecked; a fucking animal, on the flowing 
4 of the milk; a dog, on his catching the deer: 

1 31. 4 The flefh of a wild beaft (lain by dogs, 
c Menu pronounces pure ; and that of an animal 
4 flain by other carnivorous creatures, or by men 
4 of the mixed clals, who fubfift by hunting. 

132. 4 All the cavities above the navel are pure, 

4 and all below it, unclean ; fo are all excretions 
4 that fall from the body. 

* 133* * Gnats 


1 


4 o 


ON DIET, PURIFICATION, 


133. ( Gnats, clear drops from the mouth of a 
fpeaker, a fhadow, a cow, a horl'e, fun beams, 
dull:, earth, air and fire, muft all be confidered 
as clean, even when they touch an unclean 
thing. 

134. c For the cleanfing of veflels, which have 
held ordure or urine, earth and water muft be 
ufed, as long as they are needful; and the fame 
for cleanfing the twelve corporeal impurities: 

135. c Oily exudations, feminal fluids, blood, 
dandruff, urine, feces, ear-wax, nail-parings, 
phlegm, tears, concretions on the eyes, and 
iweat, are the twelve impurities of the human 
frame. 

136. c By the man who defires purity, one piece 
of earth, together with water , muft be ufed for the 
conduit of urine, three for that of the feces ; fo, 
ten for one hand, that is> the left ; then feven for 
both : hut if necefjary, more muft he ufed . 

137. c Such is the purification of married men ; 
that of ftudents muft be double ; that of hermits, 
triple; that of men wholly reclufe, quadruple. 

138. c Let each man fprinkle the cavities of his 
body, and tafte water in due form, when he has 
difcharged urine or feces; when he is going to 
read the Vida ; and, invariably, before he takes 
his food: 

139. f Firft, let him thrice tafte water; then, 
twice let him wipe his mouth, if he he of a 
twice horn clafs , and defire corporeal purity ; but 
a woman or fervile man may once refpedively 
make that ablution. 

140. * SudraSy engaged in religious duties, 
muft perform each month the ceremony of 
{having their heads 3 their food muft be the 

4 orts 


AND WOMEN. 


I 4 l 


‘ orts of Brahmens ; and their mode of purifica- 
« tion, the fame wich that of a Vaifya. 

141. ‘ Such drops of water, as tall from the 
« mouth or any part of the body, render it not 
« unclean ; nor hairs of the bta d that enter the 

< mouth i nor what adheres awhile to the teeth. 

142. c Drops, which trickle on the feet of a 

< 1Tl an holding water for others, are held equal to 

• waters flowing over pure earth t by them oe is 
‘ not defiled. 

143. ‘ He, who carries in any manner an m- 
« animate burden, and is touched by any thing 
‘ impure, is cleanfed by making an ablution, 

« without laving his burden down. 

144. * Having vomited, or been purged, let 
« him bathe and tafle clarified butter, but, it lie 

< have eaten already, let him only perform an ab- 

* lution : for him, who has been connected wit.i 
c a woman, bathing is ordained by law. 

14-. « Having (lumbered, having fneezed, hav- 
« ing eaten, having fpitten, having told untruths, 
‘ having drunk water, and going to read facred 
« books, let him, thoueh pure, walh his mouth. 

146. 4 This perfect fyftem of rules for purify- 
4 ing men of all clafies, and for cleanfing inani- 
4 mate things, has been declared to you : hear 
4 now the laws concerning women. 


147. 4 Bv a girl, or by a young woman, or 
by a woman advanced in years, nothing mull 
be done, even in her own dwelling place, ac¬ 
cording to her mere pleafure: 

148. ‘ In childhood mud a female be depen¬ 
dent on her father; in youth, on her hufband ; 
her lord being dead, on her Tons j if Jhe have no 
Jon on the near kinfmen of her bu'hand j ij he 

4 left 


42 ON DIET, PURIFICATION, 

left no kinfmen , on thofs of her father ; if Jhe have 
no faternal kinfmen , on the fovereign : a woman 
mud never feek independence. 

149. f Never let her wifh to feparate herfelf 
from her father, her hufband, or her Tons ; for, 
by a feparation from them, the cxpofes both 
families to contempt. 

150. ‘ She muff always live with a cheerful 
temper, with good management in the affairs 
of the houfe, with great care of the houfehold 
furniture, and with a frugal hand in all her 
expences. 

151. c Him, to whom her father has given 
her, or her brother with the paternal afient, let 
her obfequioufly honour, while he lives j and, 
when he dies, let her never negledt him. 

152. f The recitation of holy texts, and the 
facrifice ordained by the lord of creatures, are 
ufed in marriages for the fake of procuring 
good fortune to brides ; but the fir ft gift, or 
troth flighted by the hufband, is the primary 
caufe and origin of marital dominion. 

153. c When the hufband has performed the 
nuptial rites with texts from the Peda, he gives 
blils continually to his wife here below, both in 
feafon and out of feafon; and he will give her 
happinefs in the next world. 

154. * Though inobfervant of approved ufages, 
or enamoured of another woman, or devoid of 
good qualities, yet a hufband muff conffamly 
be revered as a god by a virtuous wife. 

1 55. ‘ No facrifice is allowed to women apart 
from their hufbands, no religious rite, no faff¬ 
ing : as far only as a wife honours her lord, fo 
far fhe is exalted in heaven. 


1 ^6. c A 


AND WOMEN. 


M3 


i ;6. 4 A faithful wife, who wifhes to attain 
c in heaven the manfion of her hufband, ■ 1 do 
« nothing unkind to him, be lie living or dc 

1^7. 4 Lecher cmaciare her body, by nvmg 
« voluntarily on pure flowers, roots, and f it; 
g but let her not, when her lord is deceafed, even 

* pronounce the name of another man. 

158. 4 Let her concinue till death forgiving all 

* injuries, performinghnrfh duties, avoiding very 
4 fenfual pleaftire, and cheerfully praftifing the 
1 incomparable rules of virtue, v iieh \ t 
« followed by fuch women, as were devoted to 
4 one only hufband. 

159 ‘ Many thoufands of Brahmens , having 

< avoided fcnfuality from their early youth, and 
4 having left no ifTue in their families, have af» 

4 cended, never the!ejs , to heaven; 

160. 4 And, like thofe abftemious men, a vir- 
4 tuous wife afeends to heaven, though (lie have 
4 no child, if, after the deceafe of her lord, fhe 
c devote herfelf to pious aufterity : 

161. 4 But a widow, who, from a wifli to bear 
4 children, flights her decealed hufband by marry - 
c ing again , brings difgrace on herfelf here below, 
4 and (hall be excluded from the feat of her lord. 

162. 4 IfTue, begotten on a woman by any 
4 other than her hufband> is here declared to be 
4 no progeny of hers ; no more than a child, 
4 begotten on the wife of another man, belongs to 
4 the begetter : nor is a fecond hufband allowed, 
4 in any part of this code, to a virtuous woman. 

163. 4 She, who negleds her former (purva) 
4 lord, though of a lower clafs, and takes another 
4 {para) of a higher, becomes defpicablc in this 
4 world, and is called parapurvd , or one who had 
4 a different hujband before . 

164. 4 A 


14+ ON DIET, PURIFICATION, ScC. 

- 164. c A married woman, who violates the 

4 duty which the owes to her lord, brings infamy 

* on herfelf in this life, and, in the next, (hall enter 
‘ the womb of a fhakal, or be affiidted with ele- 
c phantiafis,and other difeafes, which punifh crimes; 

165. ‘ While Hie, who flights not her .lord, 

* but keeps her mind, fpeecn, and body, devoted 
c to him, attains his heavenly manfion, and by 
( good men is called Jadhv /, or virtuous . 

166. c Yes; by this courfe of life it is, that a 
c woman, whofe mind, fpeech, and body are 
‘ kept in fubje&ion, acquires high renown in this 
c world, and, in the next, the fame abode with 
‘ her hufband. 

167. f A twice born man, verfed in facred 

* ordinances, mull burn with hallowed fire and fit 

* implements of faerifice, his wife dying before 
c him, if fhe was of his own clafs, and lived by 
c thefe rules: 

168. c Having thus kindled facred fires and 
c performed funeral rites to his wife, who died 
c before him, he may again marry, and again 

* lighc the nuptial fire. 

169. c Let him not ceafe to perform day by 

* day, according to the preceding rules, the five 
c great lacraments; and having taken a lawful 
c confort, let him dwell in his houfe during the 

* fecond period of his life. 


( 45 ) 


CHAPTER THE SIXTH. 

On Devotion ; or on the Third and Fourth 
Orders . 


1. c Having thus remained in the order of a 
i houfe-keeper, as the law ordains, let the twice 
c born man, who had before completed his ftu- 
1 dentfhip, dwell in a foreft, his faith being firm 
1 and his organs wholly fubdued. 

2. c When the father of a family, perceive? his 
c mufcles become flaccid and his hair gray, and 
c fees the child of his child, let him then feck 
c refuge in a foreft : 

3. * Abandoning all food eaten m towns, and all 
c his houfehold utenfils, let him rep.ir to the 
€ lonely wood, committing the care of his wife to 

* her fons, or accompanied by her, ifJhe chufe to 
€ attend him . 

4. * Let him take up his confecrated fire, and 
c all his domeftick implements of making oblations 
‘ to it, and, departing from the town to the foreft, 
€ let him dwell in it with complete power over his 

* organs of fenje and of afiion. 

5. 1 With many forts of pure food, fuch as holy 

* fages ufed to eat, with green herbs, roots, and 

L ‘ fruit, 




146 ON devotion; or on the 

* fruit, let him perform the five great facraments 
1 before mentioned, introducing them with due 
‘ ceremonies. 

6. c Let him wear a black antelopes’s hide, or 

* a vefture of bark; let him bathe evening and 
€ morning; let him fuffer the hairs of his head, 

* his beard, and his nails to grow continually. , 

7. • From fuch food, as himfelf may eat, let 

* him, to the utmoft of his power, make offerings 

* and give alms; and with prefents of water, roots, 

‘ and fruit, let him honour thole who vifit his 

* hermitage. 

8. 1 Let him be conftantly engaged in reading the 

* Veda; patient of all extremities, univerfaily be- 
1 nevolent, with a mind intent on the Supreme 
c Being ; a perpetual giver, but no receiver of 
6 gifts ; with tender affedion for all animated 

* bodies. 

9. 1 Let him, as the law direds, make oblations 

* on the hearth with three facred fires ; not omit- 
f ting, in due time, the ceremonies to be performed 
£ at the conjundion and oppofition of the moon. 

10. c Let him alfo perform the facrificeordained 

* in honour of the lunar conftellations, make the 

* prefcribed offering of new grain, and folemnize 
1 holy rites every four months, and at the winter 
1 and fummer folftices. 

11. c With pure grains, the food of ancient 

* fage s, growing in the vernal and autumnal fea- 

* fons, and brought home by himfelf, let him feve- 
‘ rally make, as the law ordains, the oblations of 
4 cakes and boiled grain ; 

12. 6 And, having prefented to the gods, that 

* pureft oblation which the wild woods produced, 

* let him eat what remains, together with fome 
.nati v e fait, which himfelf colleded. 

13. ‘ Let 


THIRD AND FOURTH ORDERS. I47 

13. 4 Let him eat green herbs, flowers, roots, 
and fruit, that grow on earth or in water, 
and the productions of pure trees, and oils 
formed in fruits. 

14. ‘ Honey and flefli meat he rnuft avoid, and 
all forts of mufhroorns, the plant bkufirina , that 
named fighruca, and the fruit of the JleJhmataca. 

15. 4 In the month djwina let him caft away the 
food of fages, which he before had laid up, and 
his vefture, then become old, and his herbs, 
roots, and fruit. 

16. 4 Let him not eat the produce of plowed 
land, though abandoned by any man who 
owns it, nor fruits and roots produced in a 
town, even though hunger opprefs him. 

17. 4 He may eat what is mellowed by fire, and 
he may eat what is ripened by time ; and either 
let him break hard fruits with a ftone, or let his 
teeth ferve as a peftle. 

18. 4 Either let him pluck enough for a day, 
or let him gather enough for a month ; or let 
him collect enough for fix months, or lay up 
enough for a year. 

19. 4 Having procured food, as he is able, lie 
may eat it at eve or in the morning; or he 
may take only every fourth, or every eighth, 
fuch regular meal ; 

20. 4 Or, by the rules of the lunar penance, he 
may eat a mouthful more each day of the bright, 
and a mouthful lefs each day ot the dark fort¬ 
night ; or he may eat only once, at the clofe of 
each fortnight, a mefsof boiled grains : 

21. 4 Or he may conftantly live on flowers and 
roots, and on fruit matured by time, which has 
fallen fpontaneoufly, ftri&ly obferving the laws 
ordained for hermits. 

I2 


22 . * Let 


4 § * ON DEVOTION : OR ON THE 

22. c Let him Hide backwards and forwards en¬ 
tile ground ; or let him Hand a whole day on 
tiptoe ; or let him continue in motion rifing and 
fitting alternately ; but at funrife, at noon, and 
at funfet, let him go to the waters and bathe. 

23. ‘ In the hot feafon, let him fit expofed to 
five fires, four blazing around him with the fun 
above ; in the rains, let -him Hand uncovered, 
without even a mantle , where the clouds pour the 
heavieft fhowers ; and in the cold feafon, let him 
wear humid vefture; and let him increafe by 
degrees the aufterity of his devotion : 

24. c Performing his ablution at the three Sava - 
nas , let him give fatisfa&ion to the manes and 
to the gods ; and, enduring harfher and 
harfher mortifications, let him dry up his bodily 
frame. 

25. ‘ Then having repofited his holy fires, as the 
law directs, in his mind, let him live without 
external fife, without a manfion, wholly filent, 
feeding on roots and fruit; 

26. c Not folicitous for the means of gratifica¬ 
tion, chafle as a fiudent, Deeping on the bare 
earth, in the hants of pious hermits, without 
one felfifh affe&ion, dwelling at the roots of 
trees. 

27. c From devout Brahmens let him receive 
alms to fupport life, or from other houfe-keep- 
ers of twice born clafifes, who dwell in the 
foreft : 

28. c Or the hermit may bring food from a 
town, having received it in a bafket of leaves, 
in his naked hand, or in a potfherd ; and then 
let him fwallovv eight mouthfuls. 

29. c Thefe and other rules mud a Brahmen , 
who retires to the woods, diligently pra&ife ; 

c and. 


THIRD AND FOURTH ©RDERS. 


I49 

* and, for the purpofe of uniting his foul with the 

* Divine Spirit, let him ltudy the various Upa - 
4 yiifhads of fcripture, or chapters on the e(fence ami 
4 attributes of God, 

30. 4 Which have been ftudied with reverence 
4 by anchorites verfed in theology, and bv houfe- 
4 keepers, who dwelt afterwards in forefts, for the 
4 fake of increafing their fublime knowledge and 
4 devotion, and for the purification of their bodies. 

31. 4 Or, if he has any incurable difeafe, let him 
4 advance in a flraight path, towards the invinci- 
4 ble north enjlern point, feeding on water and air, 
4 till his mortal frame totally decay, and his foul 
4 become united with the Supreme. 

32. 4 A Brahmen , having fhuffled off his body 
4 by any of thofe modes, which great fages prac- 
4 tifed, and becoming void of forrow and fear, 
4 rifes to exaltation in the divine eflencc. 

33. 4 Having thus performed religious ads in 
4 a fore ft during the third portion of his life, let 
4 him become a Sannyafi for the fourth portion of 
4 it, abandoning all fenfual affedions, and wholly 
4 repoftng in the Supreme Spirit : 

34. 4 The man who has patted from order to 
4 order, has made oblations to fire on his refpeftive 
4 changes of fate , and has kept his members in 
4 fubjedion, but, tired with fo long a courfe of giving 
4 alms and making offerings, thus repoles himfelf 
4 entirely on God, (hall be raifed, after death, to 
4 glory. 

35. 4 When he has paid his three debts to the 
4 fages , the manes , and the gods, let him apply his 
4 mind to final beatitude ; but low (hall He fall 
4 who prefumes to feek beatitude without hav- 
4 ing difeharged thofe debts; 

l 3 


36. 4 Aftci 


jjo ON DEVOTION ; OR ON THE 

36. 4 After be has read the Vedas in the form 
prefcribed by law, has legally begotten a fon, 
and has performed facrifices to the beft of his 
power, he has paid his three debts , and may then 
apply his heart to eternal blifs ; 

37. 4 But if a Brahmen have not read the Veda , 
if he have not begotten afon, and if he have not 
performed facrifices, yet fhall aim at final bea¬ 
titude, he fhall fink to a place of degradation. 

38. 6 Having performed the facrifice of Pra 
ja'peti, accompanied with a gift of all his 
wealth, and having repofited in his mind the faerie 
ficial fires, a Brahmen may proceed from his 
houfe, that is , from the [econd order , or he may pro- 
ceed even from the firjt , to the condition of a 
Sannyajt . 

39. 4 Higher worlds are illuminated with the 
glory of that man, who pafifes from his houfe 
into the fourth order, giving exemption from 
fear to all animated beings, and pronouncing 
the myflick words of the Veda : 

40. 4 To the Brahmen , by whom not even the 
fmallefl dread has been occafioned by fentient 
creatures, there can be no dread from any quar¬ 
ter whatever, when he obtains a releafe from 
his mortal body. 

41. 4 Departing from his houfe, taking with him 
pure implements, his water-pot and faff, keeping 
filence, unallured by delire of the objects near 
him, let him enter into the fourth order. 

42. 4 Alone let him conftantly dwell, for the 
fake of his own felicity; obfervingthe happinefs 
of a folitary man, who neither forfakes nor i$ 
forfaken, let him live without a companion. 

^3. c Let him have no culinary fire, no domi- 
, ‘ cil 4 


THIRD AND FOURTH ORDERS. I^I 

cil; let him, when very hungry, go to the town 
for food ; let him patiently bear difeafe; let his 
mind be firm ; let him ftudy to know God, and 
fix his attention on God alone. 

44. 4 An earthen water-pot, the roots of large 
trees, coarfe vefture, total folitude, equanimity 
toward all creatures, thefe are the charadte- 
riflicks of a BritJmen fet free. 

45. * Let him not with for death ; let him not 
vvilh for life ; let him expedt his appointed time, 
as a hired fervant expedts his wages. 

46. 4 Let him advance his foot purified by 
looking down, left he touch any thing impure ; let 
him drink water purified by {training with 
a cloth, left he hurt fome infeft; let him, if he 
chufe to /peak, utter words purified by truth ; let 
him by all means keep his heart purified. 

47. 4 Let him bare a reproachful fpeech with 
patience; let him fpeak reproachfully to no 
man ; let him not, on account of this frail and 
fever jh body, engage in hoftility with any one 
Jiving. 

48. 4 With an angrv man, let him not in his turn 
be angry ; abuled, let him fpeak mildly ; nor 
let him utter a word relating to vain illufory 
things and confined within feven gates, the five 
organs of fenfe, the heart and the intellect ; or this 
world, with three above and three below it . 

49. 4 Delighted with meditating on the Su¬ 
preme Spirit, fitting fixed in fuch meditation, 
without needing any thing earthly, without one 
fenfual defire, without any companion but his 
own foul, let him live in this world leeking the 
bills of the next. 

50. 4 Neither by explaining omeas and prodi- 

L 4 ? gies. 


1$1 ON devotion; or on the 

4 gies, nor byfkill in aftrologyand palmiftry, nor 

* by cafuiftry and expofitions of holy texts, let 
€ him at any time gain his daily fupport. 

51. 4 Let him not go near a houfe frequented 

* by hermits, or priefts, or birds, or dogs, or other 

* beggars. 

52. 6 His hair, nails, and beard being clipped, 
1 bearing with himadiffi, a ftafF, and a water-pot, 
4 his whole mind being fixed on God, let him 
< wander about continually, without giving pain 
4 to animal ar vegetable beings. 

53. 4 His dilhes muft have no fradlure, nor 
4 mufi they be made of bright metals : the puri- 
4 fication ordained for them muft be with water 
4 alone, like that of the veflels for a facrifice. 

54. ‘ A gourd, a wooden bowl, an earthen difti, 
4 or a bafket made of reeds, has Menu, fon of 
? the Self-exifting, declared fit vefiels to receive 
4 the food of Brahmens devoted to God. 

55. 4 Only once a day let him demand food ; 
f let him not habituate him to eat much at a time ; 
4 for an anchorite, habituated to eat much, be- 
f comes inclined to fenfual gratifications. 

56 . 4 At the time when the fmoke of kitchen fires 
c has ceafed, when the peftle lies motionlefs, when 
4 the burning charcoal is exinguiffied, when 
4 people have eaten, and when dilhes are removed, 
4 that is , late in the day , let the Sannydji always 

4 beg food. 

57. 4 For milling it, let him not beforrowful; 
‘ nor for gaining it, let him be glad ; let him care 

* only for a Efficiency to fupport life, but let him 

5 not be anxious about his utenfils. 

58. 4 Let him conltantly difdain to receive 

* food after humble reverence ; iince, by rec^iv- 


THIRD AND FOURTH ORDERS. 153 

( ing it in confequence of an humble falutation, a 
1 Sannynjt , though free, becomes a captive. 

59. ‘ By eating little and by fitting in folitary 
f places, let him reftrain thofe organs which arc 
( naturally hurried away by fenfual defires. 

60. € By the coercion of his members, by the 
€ abfence of hate and affe&ion, and by giving no 

* pain to fentient creatures, he becomes fit for 
i immortality. 

61. ‘ Let him reflect on the tranfmigrations 
c of men caufed by their finful deeds, on their 
c downfal into a region of darknefs, and their 

* torments in the manfion of Yama ; 

62. ‘ On their feparation from thofe whom 
c they love, and their union with thofe whom 
‘ they hate, on their ftrength overpowered by old 
c age, and their bodies racked with difeafe; 

63. 6 On their agonizing departure from this 
c corporeal frame, their formation again in the 
f womb, and the glidings of this vital fpirit 
c through ten thoufand millions of uterine paf- 

9 % e s; 

64. ‘ On the mifery attached to embodied fpi- 
c rits from a violation of their duties, and the un- 
€ perifhable blifs attached to them from their 
‘ abundant performance of all duties, religious 
1 and civil. 

65. ‘ Let him refledf alfo, with exclufive appli- 
4 cation of mind, on the fubtil indivifable efifence 
‘ of the Supreme Spirit, and its complete exiftence 
c in all beings, whether extremely high or ex- 
i tremely low. 

66. * Equahminded towards all creatures, in 
e what order foever he may have been placed, let him 
* fully difeharge his duty though he bear not the 

e 1 vifiblc 


54 ort devotion; or on the 

vifible marks of his order : the vifible mark, 
or mere name of his order, is by no means an ef¬ 
fective difcharge of his duty ; 

67. c As, although the fruit of the tree cataca 
purify water, yet a man cannot purify water by 
merely pronouncing the name of that fruit: he 
mufi throw it, when pounded , into the jar. 

68. 6 For the fake of ps elerving minute animals 
by night and by day, let him walk, though with 
pain to his own body, perpetually looking on 
the ground. 

69. 4 Let a Sannyafi , by way of expiation for 
the death of thofe creatures, which he may have 
deflroyed unknowingly by day or by night, 
make fix fupprefiions of his breath, having duly 
bathed : 

70. 6 Even three fupprefiions of breath, made 
according to the divine rule, accompanied with 
the triverbal phr'afe ( bhurbhuvah fwah) and the 
trileteral fyliable (om) may be confidered as the 
highcft devotion of a Brahmen ; 

71. 6 For as the drofs and impurities of metal- 
lick ores are confumed by fire, thus are the finfui 
ads of the human organ confumed by fuppref- 
fions of the breath, while the myjlick words, and the 
meafare’s of the gayatri are revolved in the mind - 

72. ‘ Let him thus, by fuch fupprefiions of 
breath, burn away his offences; by reflecting 
intenfely on the fleps of afcent to beatitude, let 
him dejlroy Jin ; by coercing his members, let 
him reltrain all fenfual attachments; by meditat¬ 
ing on the intimate union of his own foul and the 
divine eifence, let him extinguifh all qualities 
repugnant to the nature of God. 

73. 4 Let him obferve, with extreme applica- 

‘ tion 


THIRD AND FOURTH ORDERS. 155 

f tion of mind, the progrefs of this internal fpirit 
1 through various bodies, high and low ; a progrefs 
4 hard to be difeerned by men with unimproved 
*intelle£ls. 

74. ‘ He, who fully underflands the perpetual 
€ omniprefence of God, can be led no more cap- 
4 tive by criminal a< 5 Vs; but he, who poffefles not 

* that fublime knowledge, fhall wander again 
4 through the world. 

75. 4 By injuring nothing animated, by fub- 
4 duing all fenfual appetites, by devout rites 
4 ordained in the Veda , and by rigorous mortifi- 
4 cations, men obtain, even in this life, the 
4 date of beatitude. 

76. 4 A manfion with bones for its rafters and 
4 beams; with nerves and tendons, for cords; 

* with mufcles and blood, for mortar; with fkin, 
4 for its outward covering ; filled with no fweet 
4 perfume, but loaded with feces and urine ; 

77. 4 A manfion infefted by age and by for- 
c row, the feat of malady, harralfed with pains, 
4 haunted with the quality of darknefs, and inca- 
4 pable of (landing long ; fuch a manfion of the 

* vital foul let its occupier always cheerfully 
4 quit: 

78. 4 As a tree leaves the bank of a river, 
4 when it falls in, or as a bird leaves the branch of 
4 a tree at his pleajure , thus he, who leaves his 
4 body by necejjity or by legal choice, is delivered 
4 from the ravening (hark, or crocodile of the 

* world. 

79. 4 Letting his good a£ts defeend (by the 
4 law of the Veda,) to thofe who love him, 

* and his evil deeds, to thofe who hate him, 
4 he may attain, through devout meditation, the 
4 eternal fpirit. 

80. * When, 


156 GN devotion; or on the 

So, c When, having well confidered the nature 
c and confequence of fin, he becomes averie 

* from all fenfual delights, he then attains blifs 

* in this world ; blifs which (hall endure after 

* death. 

81. 6 Thus having gradually abandoned all 
€ earthly attachments, and indifferent to all pairs 
€ of oppofite things, as honour and dijhonour , and the 
‘ like , he remains abforbed in the divine effence. 

82. ‘ All that has now been declared, is ob- 
€ tained by pious meditation ; but no man who is 
‘ ignorant of the Supreme Spirit, can gather the 

* fruit of mere ceremonial adfs. 

83. 4 Let him conftantly ftudy that part of the 
c Veda , which relates to facrifice; that which 

* treats of fubordinate deities; that which reveals 

* the nature of the fupreme God ; and whatever is 

* declared in the Upani/hads. 

84. 6 This holy fcripture is a fure refuge, even 
c for thofe who underhand not its meaning, and 

of courfe, for thofe who underhand it ; this Veda 
f is a fure refource for thole who feek blifs above ; 
‘ this is a fure refource for thofe who feek blifs 
6 eternal. 

85. ‘ That Brahmen , who becomes a Sannyaji 
c by this difcipline, announced in due order, fhakes 
‘ off (in here below, and reaches the moh 
‘ high. 

80. * This general law has been revealed to 
c you for anchorites with fubdued minds : now 
‘ learn the particular difcipline of thofe who be- 
c come reclufes according to the Veda, that is, of 
‘ anchorites in the fir ft of the four degrees. 

87. 6 The hudent, the married man, the her- 

* mit, and the anchorite, are the offspring, though 
‘ in four orders, of married men keeping houfe; 

88. ‘ And 


THIRD AND FOURTH ORDERS. 


*57 

88 . ' And all, or even any of thofe orders, 
4 affiimed in their turn, according to the facred 

* ordinances, lead the Brahmen, who adts by the 
4 preceding rules, to the higheft manfion * 

89. ‘ But of all thofe, the houfe-keeper obferv- 
4 ing the regulations of the Sruti and Smrtti , 
4 may be called the chief; fince he fupports the 
‘ three other orders. 

90. * As ail rivers, female and male, run to 
1 their determined place in the fea, thus men of all 
4 other orders, repair to their fixed place in the 

* manfion of the houfe-keeper. 

91. ‘ By Brahmens , placed in thefe four orders, 
4 a tenfold fvftem of duties mud ever be fedu- 
4 loufiy pradtifed : 

92. 4 Content, returning good for evil, refift- 
4 ance to fenfual appetites, abftinence from illicit 
4 gain, purification, coercion of the organs, 
4 knowledge of feripture, knowledge of the 
4 Supreme Spirit, veracity, and freedom from 
4 wrath, form their tenfold fyftem of duties. 

93. 4 Such Brahmens , as attentively read the 
4 ten precepts of duty, and after reading, care- 
4 fully pradtife them, attain the moll exalted 
4 condition. 

94. 4 A Brahmen having pradtifed with organs 
4 under command, this tenfold lyftem of duty, 

4 having heard the Upanijhads explained, as the 

* law diredts, and who has difeharged his three 
4 debts, may become an anchorite, in the houfe of 
4 his Jon, according to the Veda; 

95. 4 And, having abandoned all ceremonial 
4 adts, having expiated all his offences, having ob- 
4 tained a command over his organs, and having 
4 perfedtly underftood the feripture, he may live 

4 at 


1^8 ON DEVOTION, &C, 

* at his eafe, while the houfehold affairs are 

* conducted by his fon. 

96. c When he thus has relinquiftied all forms* 

* is intent on his own occupation, and free from 
c every other defire, when, by devoting himfelf to 

* God, he has effaced fin, he then attains the fu- 

* preme path of glory, 

97. ‘ This fourfold regulation for the facer- 
1 dotal clafs, has thus been made known to you; 

* a juft regulation, producing endlefs fruit after 
6 death : next, learn the duty of kings, or the 

* military clafs.* 


( *59 ) 


CHAPTER THE SEVENTH. 

On Government, and Publick Law ; or on the 
Military Clafs. 


1. 4 I will fully declare the duty of kings £ 

4 and (bow how a ruler of men fhould condudt 
4 himlelf, in what manner he was framed, and 
4 how his ultimate reward may be attained by him . 

2. 4 By a man of the military clafs, who has 
4 received in due form the inveftiture which the 
4 Veda preferibes, great care mu ft be ufed to 
4 maintain this whole ajfembhige cf Saws. 

3. 4 Since, if the world had no king, it would 
4 quake on all fides through fear, the ruler of 
4 this univerfe, therefore, created a king, for the 
4 maintenance of this fyftem, both religious and 
4 civil, 

4. 4 Forming him of eternal particles drawn 
4 from the fubitance of In dr a. Pay an a, Y ama, 
4 Su'rya, of Agni and Varuna, of Chandra 
4 and Cuve'ra : 

5. 4 And fince a king was compofed of parti* 
4 cles drawn from thofe chief guardian deities, he 
4 confequently furpaftes all mortals in glorv- 

6. 4 Like the fun, he burns eyes and hearts ; 
4 nor can any human creature on earth even gaze 
4 on him. 

7. 4 He 




ON GOVERNMENT OR ON 


x6o 


7. c He is fire and air ; he, both fun and 

* moon; he, the god of criminal juftice; he, s 

* the genius of wealth ; he, the regent of waters ; 
c he, the lord of the firmament. 

8. ‘ A king, even though a child, muft not 
€ be treated lightly, from an idea that he is a 
€ mere mortal: no; he is a powerful divinity* 
€ who appears in a human fhape. 

9. i Fire burns only one perfon, who carelefsly 
c goes too near it; but the fire of a king in wrath 
6 burns a whole family, with all their cattle and 

* goods. 

10. 6 Fully confidering the bufinefs before 
c him, his own force, and the place, and the time, 
‘ he aftumes in fucceflion all lorts of forms, fo t 
‘ the fake of advancing juflice. 

11. ‘ He, fure, muft be the perfetft effence of 

* majefty, by whofe favour Abundance rifes on 
€ her lotos, in whofe valour dwells conqueft ; in 

* whofe anger, death. 

12. ‘ He, who fhews hatred of the king, 
‘ through delufion of mind, will certainly perifh ; 
€ for fpeedily will the king apply his heart to that 
c man’s perdition. 

13. c Let the king prepare a juft compenfa- 
€ tion for the good, and a juft punifhment for the 

* bad: the rule of ftrid juftice let him never 
1 tranfgrefs. 

14. * For his ufe Brahma 7 formed, in the be- 
i ginning of time, the genius of punifhment, with 
c a body of pure light, his own fon, even ab- 
c ftracft criminal juftice, the protestor of all created 

* things: 

15. 6 Through fear of that genius, all fentient 
( beings, whether fixed or locomotive, are fitted 
‘ for natural enjoyments and fvverve not from duty. 

16. * When 


THE MILITARY CLASS. 


l6l 

16. * When the king, therefore, has fully con- 
fidered place and time, and his own ftrengrh, 
and the divine ordinance, let him juftly inflict 
punifhment on all thofe who adt unjuftly. 

17. 4 Punifhment is an adtive ruler ; he is the 
true manager of publ ck affairs; he is the dif- 
penfer of laws ; and wife men call him the 
fponfor of all the four orders for the dilcharge 
of their feveral duties. 

18. 4 Punifhment governs all mankind ; punifh- 
ment alone preferves them; punifhment wakes, 
while their guards are afbep; the wife confider 
punifhment as the perfection of juftice. 

19. 4 When rightly and confidcrarely inffidled, 
it makes all the people happy ; but, inflidted 
without full confideration, it wholly deftroys 
them all. 

20. 4 If the king were not, without indolence, 
to punifh the guilty, the Wronger would roaft 
the weaker, like fifh, on a fpit; ( or according to 
one reading , the ftionger would opprefs the 
weaker, like fifh in their element;) 

21. 4 The crow would peck the confecrated 
offering of rice ; the dog would lick the clari¬ 
fied butter; ownerfhip would remain with none; 
the lowed would overfet the higheft. 

22. 4 The whole race of men is kept in order 
by punifhment; for a guiltlefs man is hard to 
be found; through fear of punifhment, indeed, 
this univerfe is enabled to enjoy its bleffings; 

23. 4 Deities and demons, heavenly fonglters 
and cruel giants, birds and ferpents, are made 
capable, by juft correction, of their feveral en¬ 
joyments. 

24. 4 All daffies would become corrupt; all 

M * barriers 


j 6 z on government; or on 

c barriers would be deftroyed, there would be 
c total confufion among men, if punifhnnent either 
( were not inflicted, or were inflided unduly : 

25. c But where punifhnnent, with a black hue 
' and a red eye, advances to dcftroy fin, there, if 

* the judge difcern well, the people are undif- 
c turbed. 

26. c Holy fages confider as a fit difpenfer of 
e criminal juftice, that king, who invariably fpeaks 
< truth, who duly confiders all cafes, who under- 
' flands the facred books, who knows the diftinc- 

* tions of virtue, pleafure, and riches ; 

27. £ Such a king, if he juftly inftid legal 
c punifhments, greatly increafes thofe three means 
€ of happinefs, but punifhment itfeif fhall deftroy 
f a king, who is crafty, voluptuous, and wrathful: 

28. f Criminal juftice, the bright efifence of 

* majeftv, and hard to be fupported by men with 
c unimproved minds, eradicates a king, who 
€ fwerves from his duty, together with all his 

* race : 

29. * Punifhnnent fhall overtake his caflles, 

* his territories, his peopled hand with all fixed 

* and moveable things that exift on it: even the 
1 gods and the fages, who lofe their oblations , will 
c be afflicted and afcend to the fky. 

30. c Juft punifhment cannot be inflided by 

* an ignorant and covetous king, who has no wife 

* and virtuous affiftant, whofe underftanding has 

* not been improved, and whofe heart is addided 

* to fenfuality : 

31. c By a king wholly pure, faithful to his 

4 promife, obfervant of the fcriptures, with good # 

* afliftants and found underftanding may punifh- 
r ment be juftly infiidcd. 

32. c Let 


THE MILITARY CLASS* lt >3 

qi. 4 Let him in his own domains aCt with 
c juftice, chadile foreign foes with rigour, .behave 

* without duplicity to his adcCtionate friends, and 
« with lenity tp Brahmens . 

33. « Of a king thus difpofed, even though 

* he (ubfid bv gleaning, or, be bis treafure ever Jo 
‘ (maU t the fame is far fpread in the world, like 
« a di op of oil in water; 

3 . c But of a king with a contrary difpofition, 

< with pafiions unfubdued, be bis riches ever Jo 
c great , the fame is contracted in the world, like 
« clarified butter in the fame element. 

35. f A king was created as the protestor of 
c all thofe clafies and orders, who from the firll 
« to the lad, difeharge their feveral duties ; 

3b. 4 And all that mud be done by him, for 
1 the protection ot his people, with the adidance 

< of good minifters, I will declare to you, as the 
c law diredts, indue order. 

37. 4 Let the king, having rifen at early dawn, 
c rdpeCtfully attend to Br'bmens , learned in the 

< three Vedas , and in the fcience of ethicks; and 
« by their decifion let him abide. 

38. ‘ Condantly mud he fhow refpeCt to 
1 Brahmens , who have grown old, both in years 
( and in piety, who know the feriptures, who in 
« body and mind are pure; for he, who honours 
f the" aged, will perpetually be honoured even by 
f cruel demons: 

39. 4 From them, though he may have ac- 
c quired moded behaviour by bis own good JenJe 
« and by Judy, let him continually learn habics 
4 of modedy and compofure ; fince a king, whole 
4 demeanour is humble and compoled, never 
4 perifhes. 

M2 40. € While, 


164 


ok government; or on 


40. c While, through want of fuch humble 

* virtue, many kings have perifhed with all their 
€ poffeflions, and, through virtue united with 

* modefty, even hermits have obtained kingdoms. 

41. c Through want of that virtuous humility 
c Ve na was utterly ruined, and fo was the great 
c king Nahusha, and Suda'sa, and Yavana, 
c (or by a different reading , and Suda man, the fon 
e of Piyavana) and Sumuc’ha, and Nimi ; 

42. c But by virtues with humble behaviour, 
Prit’ku and Menu acquired fovereignty; 

c Cuve'ra, wealth inexhauftible; and Viswa'- 
c mitra, fon of Ga'dhi, the rank of a pried, 
4 though born in the military clajs . 

43. c From thofe who know the three Vedas , 

* let him learn the triple dodrine compriftd in 

* them, together with the primeval fcience of 

* criminal judice and found policy, the fyftems 

* of logick and metaphyficks, and lublime theo- 
logical truth : from the people he mud learn 

c the theory of agriculture , commerce , and ether 

* practical arts. 

44. c Day and night mud he drenuoufly ex- 
c ert himfelt to gain complete vidory over his 

* own organs ; fince that king alone, whofe organs 

* are completely fubdued, can keep his people 
*■ firm to their duty. 

45. c W r ith extreme care let him fhun eighteen 

* vices, ten proceeding from love of pieafure, 

* eight fpringing from wrath, and all ending in 

* mifery; 

46. ‘ Since a king, addicted to vices arifing 

* from love of pieafure, mud lofe both his wealth 

* and his virtue, and, addided to vices arifing 

* from anger, he may lofe even his life from the 

* pub lick rejentrnent. 

47. * Plunt- 


THE MILITARY CLASS. 


r6$ 

47. ‘ Hunting, gaming, fleeing by day, cen- 
Turing rivals, excefs with women, intoxication, 
Tinging, inftrumental muTick, dancing, and ufe- 
lels travel, are the ten-fold Tct of vices produced 
by love of pleafure: 

j8. c Talebearing, violence, inTidious wound¬ 
ing, envy, detraction, unjuft: Teizure of property, 
reviling, and open aflaulr, are, in like manner, 
the eightfold Tct of vices to which anger gives 
birth. 

49. ' A felfifh inclination, which all wife men 
know to be the root of thofe two lets, let him 
Tupprefs with diligence: both fets of vices are 
conftantly produced by it. 

50. ' Drinking, dice, women, and hunting, 
let him confider as the four mud pernicious 
in the fet, which love of pleafure occafiops: 

51. f Battery, defamation, and injury to pro¬ 
perty, let him always confider as the three moft 
heinous in the fet, which arifcs from wrath; 

52. * And in this feven-fold afiemblage of vices, 
too frequently prevailing in all kingdoms, let 
an enlightened prince confider the firft, and fo 
forth in order, as the moft abominable in 
each fer. 

53. ' On a comparifon between death and 
vice, the learned pronounce vice the more 
dread:ul ; fince, after death, a vicious man finks 
to regions lower and lower, while a man, free 
from vice, reaches heaven. 

54. ' The king muft appoint Teven or eight 
minifters, who muft be lworn by touching a 
Jacred image and the like ; men, whofe anceltors 
were fervants of kings; who are verfed in the 
holy books; who are pcrfonally brave; who 

M3 'arc 


166 ON GOVERNMENTi OR ON 

< 

* are fkilled in the ufe of weapons; and whofe 
lineage is noble. 

5;. f Even an aft eafy in itfelf is hard forne- 

e times to b° performed by a Tingle man, efpe- 

e cially if he has no affidant near: how much 

* harder muft it be to perform clone the bufmefs of a 

* kingdom wich great revenues! 

56. f Let him perpetually confult with thofe 
c minifters on peace and war, on his forces, on 

* his revenues, on the protection of his people, 
< and on the means of bellowing aptly the wealth 
c which he has acquired: 

57. c H. v ng afeertained the feveral opinions 
‘ of his counleilors, firft apart and then collectively, 

* let him do what is mod beneficial for him' in 

* pubiick affa’rs. 

58 c To one l/arned Brahmen ) didinguilhecf 
f among them all, let the king impart his momen- 

* tous counfel, relating to fix principal articles. 

eg. c To him, with full confidence, let him 

* intrufl all franfaClions; and with him, having 
e taken his final refolution, let him begin all his 
€ meafures. 

60. c He. mu (IT ike wife appoint other officers j 
1 men of integrity, well informed, (leadv, ha- 
c biruated to gain wealth, by honourable means, 

* and tried by experience. 

6:. f As many officers as the due performance 
( of his bufiriefs requires, not fiothful men, but 
‘ aftive , able, and well indrudted, lb many, and no 

* more, let him appoint. 

62. c Among thofe let him employ the brave, 
e the fk-lful, the well born, and the honed, in his 
c mine? of geld or gems , and n other fimilar works 
c for amaffir.g wealth \ but the pufillanimous, in 
? the recedes of his palace/ 

65. f Lee 


trtE MILITARY CLASS. 


167 

6 j. 4 Let him likewife appoint an ambadador, 

* verfed in all rhe Siftras> who underftands hints, 
4 external figns and a&ions, wbofe hand and heart 
4 are pure, whole abilities are grear, and whofe 
4 birth was illuflrious : 

64. * ThaUroyal ambadador is applauded mod, 

* who is generally beloved, pure within and with- 

* out, dextrous in bufinefs, and endued with an 
4 excellent memory ; who knows countries and 
4 times, is handfome, intrepid and eloquent. 

6 c. 4 The forces of tflb realm mud be im- 
4 mediately regulated bv the commander in chief; 
4 the aflual inflidlion of punifhment, by the of- 
4 fleers of criminal judice ; the treafury and the 
4 country, bv rhe king himfelf; peace and War, 
4 by the ambadador; 

66. 4 For it is the ambadador alone who unites, 
4 who alone disjoints the united j that is, he tranf- 
4 a<ds the bufinefs, by Which kingdoms are at 
4 variance or in amitv. 

67. 4 In the tranfadtion of affairs let the ambaf- 
4 fador comprehend the vifible figns and hints, and 
4 difcover the a< 5 ls, of the foreign king, by the 
4 figns, hints, and a< 5 ts of his confidential fervants, 
4 and the meafures, which that king wifhes to 
4 take by the character and conduct cf his miniders. 

68. 4 Thus, having learned completely from 
4 his ambadador all the defigns ot the foreign 
4 prince, let the king fo apply his vigilant care, 

4 that he bring no evil on himfelf. 

69. 4 Let h'm fix his abode in a didridt contain- 
4 ing open champaigns ; abounding with grain j 
4 inhabited chiefly by the virtuous ; not infected 
4 with maladies ; beautiful to the fight; furround- 
4 ed by fubmidive mountaineers , forcJlcrs y or other 

M 4 4 neigh* 


j 63 on government; or on 

neighbours; a country in which the fubjc&s 
may live at eafe. 

7c. c There let him refide in a capital, having, 

‘ by way of a fortrefs, a dcfert rather more than 

* twenty miles round it, or a fortrefs of earth, a 
4 fortrefs of water, or of trees, a fortrefs of armed 
‘ men, or a fortrefs of mountains. 

71. c With all poftible care let him fecure a 

* fortrefs of mountains; for, among thofe juft 

* mentioned, a fortrefs of mountains has many 

* tranfcendent properties, 

72. ‘ In the three firft of them live wild beafts, 

* virrdn, and aquatick animals; in the three laft, 
€ apes, men, and gods, in order as they are narned: 

73. c As enemies hurt them not in the fhtiter 
c of their feveral abodes, thus foes hurt not a 
c king who has taken refuge in his durga , or place- 
‘ of difficult accefs, 

74. c One bowman, placed on a wall, is a 
c match in war for a hundred enemies; and a 
c hundred, for ten thoufand ; therefore is a fort 
c recommended. 

7 c. ‘ Let that fort be fupplied with weapons, 

* with m-ney, with grain, with beafts, with Brah - 
c mens, with artificers, with engines, with grafs, 

* and with water. 

76. f In the centre of it let him raife his own 

* palace, well finifhed in all its parts, completely 
c defended, habitable in every feafon, brilliant with 
f white fucco, furrounded with water and trees: 

77. c Having prepared it for his manfion, let 

* him chufe a corifort of the fame clafs with him- 

* felf, endued with all the bodily marks of excel- 
1 lence, born of an exalted race, captivating his 

* heart, adorned with beauty and the heft qualities. 

78. c He muft appoint alfo a domeltick prieft, 

* and 


the military class. 


16.9 

9 and retain a performer of facrifices, who may 
« folemnize the religious rites of Irs family, and 
c thofe periormed with three facred fires. 

79. * Let the king make facrifices, accom- 
f panied with gifts of many different kinds; and 
' for the full difeharge of "hi; duty, let him give 

* the Brahmens both legal enjoyments and mo- 

* derate wealth. 

80. 4 His annual revenue he may receive from 
« his whole dom.nion hrough his collectors ; but 

* let him in this world oblerve the divine ordi- 
« nances; let him a& as a father to his people. 

8 . ‘ Here and there he mud appoint many 

* forts of intelligent fupervifors, who mav infpeCb 
4 all the ads of the officers engaged in his bufi- 

* nefs. 

82. c To Brahmens returned from the manfions 
4 of their preceptors, let him ffiow due refped ; 

4 for that is called a precious unperiffiable gem, 

1 depofited by kings with the facerdotal clafs : 

83. 4 It is a gem, which neither thieves or foes 
4 takeaway; which never periffies: kings muft, 
c therefore, dep<ffit with Brahmens that indeflruc- 
4 tible jewel of refpeftfnl frefents. 

8 . 4 An oblation *n the mouth, or band , of a 
f Brhhmen , is far better than offerings to holy fire ; 
4 it never drops: it never dries: it is never 
4 confumed. 

£ A gift to one not a Brahmen produces 
4 fruit of a middle ftandard j to one who calls 
4 himfelt a Brahmen , double; ro a well read 
4 Brahmen , a hundred thou fa nd fold ; to one who 

* has read all the Vedas , infinite. 

86. 4 Of a gift made with faith in the Sdftra* 

♦ to a perl'on highly deferving it, the giver Ihall 

4 indubitably 


7° 


on government; or cn 

indubitably gain the fruit after death, be the 
prefent fmall or great. 

87. e A kinc, while he protects his people, 
being defied by an enemy of equal, greater, or 
lefs iorce, mutt by no means turn his face from 
battle, but mult remember the duty of his mi¬ 
litary clafs: 

88 . f Never to recede from combat, to protect 
the people, and to honour the priefts, is the 
higheit duty of kings and enfures their felicity. 

89. ‘ Thofe lulers of the earth, who, defirous 
of defeating each other, exert their utmoil 
ftrength in battle, without ever averting their 
faces, afcend after death dire&ly to heaven. 

90. ‘ Let no man, engaged in combat, fmite 
his foe with /harp weapons concealed in wood, 
nor with arrows mifchievoufly barbed, nor with 
poifoned arrows, nor with darts blazing with fire; 

91. c Nor let him in a car or on horjeback (trike 
his enemy alighted on the ground; nor an ef¬ 
feminate man ; nor one who fues for life with 
clofed palms; nor one whofe hair is loofe and 
obftrutAS his fighty nor one, who fits down fa * 
tigiied^ nor one, who fays, “ I am thy captive 

92. c Nor one, who (leeps ; nor one, who has 
loft his coat of mail ; nor one, who is naked; 
nor one, who is difarmed ; nor one, who is a 
fpe&ator, but not a combatant; nor one, who 
i& fighting with another man : 

93. 4 Calling to mind the duty of honourable 
men, let him never (lay one, who has broken 
his weapon ; nor pne, who is afflicted with pru 
vate fcrrow ; nor one, who has been grievoufly 
wounded ; nor one, who is terrified; nor one, 
who turns his back. 

94* € The 


THT MlLffAKY CLA$ 3 . 


T 7 f 

94. * The foldier, indeed, who fearing and 
turning his back, h ppens to be (lain by his 
foes in an engagement, (hall take upon himfcif 
all tlifc fin of his commander, whatever it he ; 

9 '. * And the commander (hall take to himftlf 
the fruit cf all the good condtift, which the fol¬ 
dier, who turns his back and is killed, had pre- 
vioufly IK red up for a future life. 
g'\ ‘ Cars, horftfs, elephinrs, umbrellas, habi¬ 
liment^, except the ,eWe!s which may adorn them , 
grain, cattle, women, all forts of liquids and 
metals, except gold and filver, are the lawful 
prizes of the man who takes them in war; 

97. * But of thofe prizes, rhe captors mult 
lay the mod valuable bciore the king ; fuch is 
the rule in the Veda, concerning rhem ; and the 
king fhould diftribute among the whole army 
what has not been feparately taken. 

98. f Thus has been declared the blamelefs 
primeval law for military men; from this law a 
king muft never depart, when he aracks his foes 
in battle. 

99. * What he has not gained from his fee , let 
him drive to gain; What he has acquired, let 
him preferve with care ; what he preferves, let 
him augment ; and what he has augmented, let 
him bellow on the* deferving. 

100. c This is the four-fold rule, which he rrlufl 
confider as the fure mean9 of attaining the great 
object of man, bdppirlejs; and !er him pradife 
it fully without intcrmilfion, without indolence : 

I61. c what he has not gained, let him drive 
to gain by military ftrenglh; wlut he has ac¬ 
quired, W him preferve by careful infpe&ion ; 
v/hat he has prefervtd, let him augment by 


172 ON GOVERNMENT ; OR ON 

* legal modes of jncreafe ; and what he has aug- 

* mented, let him difpenfe with juft liberality. 

102. 4 Let his troops be conftantly exercifed ; 
c his prowefs conftantly difplayed ; what he 

* ought to fecure, conftantly fecured ; and the 
c weaknefs of his foe, conftantly inveftigaced. 

103. ‘ By a king, whole forces are always ready 
c for action, the whole world may be kept in awe ; 
c let him then, by a force always ready, make all 
c creatures living his own. 

104. c Let him adt on all occafions without 

* guile, and never with infincerity ; but, keeping 
c himfelf ever on his guard, let him difcover the 
f fraud intended by his foe. 

105. c Let not his enemy difcern his vulne- 
€ rable part, but the volunerable part of his enemy 
c let him well difcern: like a tortoife, let him 
€ draw in his members under the Jhell of conceal- 
c ment, and diligently let him repair any breach 

* that may be made in it. 

106. c Like a heron, let him mufe on gaining 
c advantages ; like a lion, let him put forth his 
c ftrength ; like a wolf, let him creep towards his 
c prey ; like a hare, let him double to fecure his 

* retreat. 

107. c When he thus has prepared himfelf for 

* conqueft, let him reduce all oppofers to fubmif- 
c fion by negotiation and three other expedients, 
c namely, frefents, divifon , and force of arms : 

108. * If they cannot be reitrained by the three 
c firft methods, then let him firmly, but gradu- 
1 ally, bring them to fubjedtion by military force. 

109. * Among thofe four modes of obtain- 
< jng fuccefs, the wife prefer negotiation and war 
4 for the exaltation of kingdoms. 


1 iq. * As 


THE MILITARY CLASS. 


'73 


i to. * As a hufbandman plucks up weeds and 
preferves his corn, thus let a king deftroy his 
opponents and fecure his people. 
hi. ' That king, who, through weaknefs of 
intelledf, rafhly opprefles his people, will, to¬ 
gether with his family, be deprived both of 
kingdom and life : 

112. ‘ As by the lofs of bodily fuftenance, the 
lives of animated beings are deftroyed, thus, 
by the diftrefs of kingdoms, are deftroyed even 
the lives of kings. 

113. 1 For the fake of protedting his domini¬ 
ons, let the king perpetually obferve the follow¬ 
ing rules ; for, by protedting his dominions, he 
will increafe his own happinefs. 

114. f Let him place, as the protedlors of his 
realm, a company of guards, commanded by an 
approved officer, over two, three, five, or a 
hundred diftridts, according to their extent. 

115. ' Let him appoint a lord of one town with 
its diftridf, a lord of ten towns, a lord of twenty, 
a lord of a hundred, and a lord of a thoufand. 

1 16. * Let the lord of one town certify of his 
own accord to the lord of ten towns any robberies , 
tumults , or other evils, which arile in his dif- 
tridt, and which he cannot JuppreJs ; and the lord 
of ten, to the lord of twenty : 

I 17. * Then let the lord of twenty towns no¬ 
tify them to the lord of a hundred ; and let the 
lord of a hundred tranfmit the information him- 
felf to the lord of a thoufand townfhips. 

II 8. * Such food, drink, wood, and other ar¬ 
ticles, as by law fhould be given each dav to the 
king by the inhabitants of the townfhip, let the 
lord ot one town receive as his perquijiie : 

1 19. c Let 


*74 


ON GOVERNMENT* OR ON 


no, 4 Let the lord of ren towns enjoy the 
4 produce of two plough lands, or as math ground 
4 as can be tilled with two ploughs , each drawn by 
4 fix bulls ; the lord of twenty, that of five plough- 
‘ lands; the lord of a hundred, that of a village 

* or fmall town 3 the lord of a thoufand, that of a 
4 large town. 

120. 4 The affairs of thofe townjhips , either 
4 jointly or feparately tranfaeled, let another mi- 
4 nider of rhe king, infpeft , who fhould be well 
4 affie&ed, and bv no means remifs. 

121. f In every laige town or city, let him ap- 
4 point one fuperintendent of all affairs, elevated in 
4 rank, formidable in power, difiinguifhcd as a 
‘ planet among ftars : 

122. c Let that governor from time to time 
4 furvey ail the reff in perfon, and by means of his 
4 emifiaries, let him perft&ly know their conau< 5 t 
4 in their feveral aid: icls. 

123. f Since thefervants of the king, whom he 
4 has appointed guardians of diftri&s, are generally 
4 knaves, who feize what belongs to other men, 

* from luch knaves let him defend his people : 

1-24. f Of fuch evil minded fervants, as wring 

4 wealth from fubje&s attending them on bufinefs, 
4 let the king confilcate all the pofleflions, and 
4 banifh them from his realm. 

125. c For women, employed in the fervice of 
4 the king, and for his whole fet of menial fer- 
x vants, let him daily provide a maintenance, 

4 in proportion to their dation and to their 
4 work : 

1 2 b. 4 One pana of copper mud be given each 
4 day as w-ages to the lowed fervant, with two 
4 cloths for apparel every half year, and a drona of 

4 grain 


the military class. 


I7 5 


c grain every month ; to the higheft mttft be given 
4 wages in the ratio of fix to one. 

nj. 4 Having afcertained the rates ofpur- 
c chafe andfale, the length of the way, the txpcn- 
c ces of food and of condiments, the charges of 
* fecuring the goods carried, and the neat profits 
4 of trade, let the king oblige traders to pay taxes 
1 on their Jaleable commodities: 

i a 3 . 4 After full confideration, let a king fo 
4 levy thofe taxes continually in his dominions, 

4 that both he and the merchant may receive a 
4 juft compenfation for their feveral a£ls. 

129. 4 As the leech, the fuckling calf, and 
4 the bee, take their natural food by little and 
4 little, thus mull a king draw from his domi- 
4 nions an annual revenue. 

130. 4 Of cattle, of gems, of gold and filver, 

4 added each year to the capital flock, a fiftieth part 
4 may be taken by the king ; of grain an eighth 
4 part, a fixth, or a twelfth, according to the dif - 
K ference of the foil, and the labour necejj'ary to cul- 
4 tivate it. 

131. 4 He may alfo take a fixth part of the 
• clear annual increafe of trees, flefii meat, honey, 

4 clarified butler, perfumes, medical fubftances, 

4 liquids, flowers, roots, and fruit, 

132. 4 Of gathered leaves, potherbs, graft, 

4 utenfils made with leather or cane, earthen pots, 

4 and all things made of ftone. 

133. 4 A king, even though dying with want , 

4 mull not receive any tax from a Brahmen learned 
4 in the Vedas , nor fuffer inch a Brahmen, refiding 
4 in his territories, to be afiMtd with hunger : 

1 34. 4 Ot that king, in whofe dominion a learned 
4 Brahmen is ’ affli&cd wich hunger, the whole 

4 kingdom. 


ON GOVERNMENT; OR ON 


76 

kingdom will in a fhort time be afflicted with 
famine. 

i 3‘ The king, having afcertained his know¬ 
ledge of fcriprure and good morals, muff allot 
him a fuirable maintenance, and protedf him on 
all fides, as a father protects his own fon : 
i 36. f By that religious duty, which fuch a Brah¬ 
men pern 1 iris rach day, under the full protection 
of the f>ve rign, ;he life, wealth, and dominions 
of his protedtor fhall be greatly increafed. 

137. ‘ Let the king o«der a mere trifle to be 
paid, in the name of the annual tax, by the 
meaner inhabitants of his realm, who fubfifls 
by petty trafflck : 

138. ‘ By low handicrafts men, artificers, and 
fervile men, who fupport themfelves by labour, 
the king may caufe woik to be done for a day 
in each monrh. 

1.9. * Let him not cut up his own root by tak¬ 
ing no revenue , nor the root of other men by 
excels of covetoufncfs; for by cutting up his 
own root and theirs y he makes both himfelf and 
them wrerched. 

14-0 5 1 .et him, confidering the diverjity of cafes, 
be Qccafionally fharp, and occaficnally mild, fince 
a king, duly fharp and mild, becomes univer- 
fally appiovech 

141. ‘ When tired of overlooking the affairs 
ol men, let him aflign the ftation of fuch an in - 

fpeffor to a principal minifter, who well knows 
his duty, who is eminently learned, whofe paf- 
flons are fubdued, and whofe birth is exalted. 

142. ‘ Thus muft he proteCt his people, dif- 
charging, with great e^rtion, and without 
languor, all thofe duties, which the law requires 
him to perform, 

143. c That 


THE MILITARY CLASS. 


iy) 

143. f That monarch, whofe fubje&s are car¬ 
ried from his kingdom by ruffians, while they 
call aloud for protection, and he barely looks 
on them with his minifters, is a dead, and not 
a living king. 

144. ‘ The higheft duty of a military man is 
the defence of his people, and the king who 
receives the confideration juft mentioned, is 
bound to difcharge that duty. 

145. ‘ Having rifen in the laft watch of the 
night* his body being pure, and his mind at¬ 
tentive, having made oblations to fire, and fhown 
due refpefl to the priefts, let him enter his hall 
decently fplendid i 

146. ‘ Standing there, let him gratify his fub- 
jects, before he difmifs them, with kind looks and 
words ; and, having difmififed them all, let him 
take fecret council with his principal minifters: 

147. c Afcending up the back of a mountain, 
or going privately to a terrace, a bower, a foreft, 
or a lonely place, without lifteners, let him con- 
fult with them unobferved. 

148. ‘ That prince, of whofe weighty fecrets all 
afiemblies of men are ignorant, fhall attain do¬ 
minion over the whole earth, though at firfi he 
pofiefs no trealure. 

149. ‘ At the time of confutation, let him re¬ 
move the ltupid, the dumb, the blind and the 
deaf, talking birds, decripit old men, women, 
and infidels, the difeafed and the maimed; 

150. ‘ Since thole, who are difgraced in this 
life , by reajon offins formerly committed , are apt to 
betray fecret council; fo are talking birds ; and 
fo above all are women : them he mult for that 
reafon diligently remove. 

N 


151. ' At 


78 ON GOVERNMENT 5 OR ON 

151. * At noon or at midnight, when his fa¬ 
tigues have ceafed, and his cares are difperfed, 
let him deliberate, with thole minifters or alone, 
on virtue, lawful pleafure, and wealth ; 

152. ‘ On the means of reconciling the acqui- 
fition of them, when they oppofe each other ; 
on bellowing his daughters in marriage, and on 
preferving his Ion sfrom evil by the bejt education ; 

153. s On fending ambafladors and mefiengers ; 
on the probable events of his meafures ; on the 
behaviour of his women in the private apart¬ 
ments 5 and on the ads even of his own emif- 
faries. 

154. * On the whole eightfold bufinefs of 
kings, relating to the revenue , to their exfences, 
to the good or bad conduct of their minifters , to 
legiftation in dubious cafes, to civil and criminal 
jitftice, and to expiations for crimes , let him refled: 
with the greatell attention 5 on his five forts of 
fpies, or aftive and artful youths, degraded ancho¬ 
rets , diftrefed hujbandmen, decayed merchants, and 
fictitious penitents, whom he muft pay and fee pri¬ 
vately on the good will or enmity of his neigh¬ 
bours, and on the fiate of the circumjacent 
countries. 

155. c On the condud of that foreign prince, 
who has moderate ftrength equal to one ordinary 
foe, but no match for two ; on the defigns of 
him, who is willing and able to be a conqueror; 
on the condition of him, who is pacifick, but a 
match even for the former unallied ; and on that 
of his natural enemy let him feduloufly me¬ 
dicate ; 

156. c Thofe four powers, who, in one word, 
are the root or principal ftrength of the countries 

7 * round 


THE MILITARY CLASS. 


*79 

1 round him, added to eight others, who are called 
4 /£<? branches, and are as many degrees of allies 

* and opponents varioufly diftinguifhed , are declared 
4 to be twelve chief' objects of the royal con - 

* fideration \ 

157. 4 And five other heads, namely, their 

* minifters, their territories, their ftrong holds, 

4 their treafuries, and their armies, being applied 
c to each of thofe twelve , there are in all, together 
4 with them , feventy-two foreign objeCts to be care - 
4 fully inveftigated . 

158. c Let the king confider as hoftile to him* 

4 the power immediately beyond him, and the 
4 favourer of that power ; as amicable, the power 

* next beyond his natural foe ; and as neutral, 

4 the powers beyond that circle : 

159. 4 All thofe powers let him render fubfer- 
4 vient to his interests by mild meafures and the 
4 other three expedients before mentioned, either fe- 
4 parate or united, but principally by valour and 
4 policy in arms and negotiation. 

160. f Let him constantly deliberate on the fix 
c meafures of a military prince, namely , waging 

* war, and making peace or alliance, marching to 
c battle, and fitting encamped, diltributing his 
4 forces, and feeking the protection of a more 
4 powerful monarch : 

161. 4 Having confidered the pofture of affairs, 

4 let him occafionally apply to it the meafure of 
4 fitting inactive, or of marching to aCtion, of 
4 peace, or of war, of dividing his force, or of 
4 feeking protection. 

162. 4 A king muft know, that there are two 
4 forts of alliance and war ; two, of remaiqing en- 
4 camped, and of marching ; two likewife, of 

N 2 4 d : viding 


l8o ON GOVERNMENT; OR ON 

4 dividing his army, and of obtaining protection 
4 from another power. 

163. 4 The two forts of alliance, attended with 

* prefent and future advantages, are held to he 

* thofe, when he aCts in conjunction with his ally, 

4 and when he aCts apart from him. 

164. 4 War is declared to be of two forts ; 

4 when it is waged for an injury to himfelf, and 
4 when it is waged for an injury to his ally, with a 
c view to harafs the enemy both in feafon and out 
4 of feafon. 

165. c Marching is of two forts, when deflruc- 
4 live aCts are done at his own pleafure by himfelf 
4 apart, or when his ally attends him. 

166. 4 The two forts of fitting encamped are* 

4 firft, when he has been gradually weakened by 
4 the Divine Power, or by the operation of paft 
4 fins, and, feccndly> when, to favour his ally, he 
4 remains in his camp. 

167. 4 A detachment commanded by the king 
4 in perfon, and a detachment commanded by a 
4 general officer, for the purpofe of carrying fome 
4 important point, are declared by thofe, who wiil 
4 know the fix meafures, to be the two modes of 
4 dividing his army. 

168. 4 The two modes of feeking protection, 

4 that his powerful fupport may be proclaimed in 
4 all countries, are, when he wiffies to be 

* fecure from apprehended injury,, and, next y when 
4 his enemies actually affail him. 

169. 4 When the king knows with certainty, 
4 that at fome future time his force will be greatly 
4 augmented, and when, at the time prefent, he 
4 fuftains little injury, let him then have recourfe 
4 to peaceful meafures ; 

170. 4 But, when he fees all his fubjeCts confi- 
c derably firm in ftrength, and feels himfelf highly 

4 exalted 


THS MILITARY CLASS. I 8 I 

* exalted in power, let him proted his dominions 
‘ by war. 

171. ‘ When he perfedly knows his own 
c troops to be cheerful and well fupplied, and 

* thofe of his enemy quite the reverie, let him 
4 eagerly march againft his foes; 

172. 4 But when he finds himfelf weak in 
' beafts of burden and in troops, let him then fit 

* quiet in camp, ufing great attention, and pad- 
c fying his enemy by degrees. 

173. « When a king lees his foe flronger in all 
f refpeds than himfelf, let him detach a part of 

* his army, to keep the enemy amujed , and fecure 
‘ his own fafety in an inaccejfible place ; 

174. ‘ But when he is in all places aflailable 
f by the hoflile troops, let him fpeedily feek the 
f protection of a juft and powerful monarch. 

175. 1 Him, who can keep in fubjedion both 
‘ his own fubjeds and his foes, let him conftantly 
4 footh by all forts of attentive refped, as he 

* would honour his father, natural or fpiritual: 

176. * But if, even in that fituation, he find 
‘ fuch protedion a caufe of evil, let him alone, 

* though weak, wage vigorous war without fear. 

177. f By all thefe expedients let a politick 
< prince ad with fuch wifdom, that neither allies, 
4 neutral powers, nor foes, may gain over him 
4 any great advantage. 

178. 4 Perfedly let him confider the ftate of 

* his kingdom, both adually prefent and probably 

* future, with the good and bad parts of all his 
4 adions: 

179. 4 That king (hall never be overcome by 
4 his enemies, who forefees the good and evil, to 

* enfue from his meafures ; who, on prefent oc- 
f cafions, takes his refolution wich prudent fpeed, 

N 3 4 and 


iSl ON GOVERNMENT ; OR ON 

€ and who weighs the various events of his paft 
c conduft. 

180. * Let him fo arrange all his affairs, that 

* no ally, neutral prince, or enemy, may obtain 

* any advantage over him : this, in a few words, 

( is the fum of political wifdom. 

181. f When the king begins his march again# 
f the domains of his foe, let him gradually aa- 
‘ vance, in the following manner, againft the 
c hoftile metropolis. 

182. ■ Let him fet out on his expedition in the 

* fine month Margasirjha , or about the month of 
c Phdlguna and Chaitra , according to the number 
€ of his forces, that he may find autumnal or vernal 
c crops in the country invaded by him : 

183. c Even in other feafons, when he has a 
c clear profpecft of vidlory, and when any difafier 

* has befallen his foe, let him advance with the 
f greater part of his army. 

184. f Having made a due arrangement of 

* affairs in his own dominions, and a difpofition 
f fit for his enterprize, having provided all things 
c neceffary for his continuance in the foreign 

* realms, and having feen ail his fpies difpatched 
c with propriety, 

185. ( Having fecured the three forts of ways, 
‘ over water , on plains , and through forefis y and 
e placed his fix-fold army, elephants y cavalry , cars y 

* infantry , officers y and attendants , in complete 
€ military form, let him proceed by fit journeys 
1 toward the metropolis of his enemy : 

186. f Let him be much on his guard againft 
c every fecret friend in the fervice of the hoftile 
c prince, and againft emiflaries, who go and re- 

turn; for in fuch friends he may find very 

* dangerous foes* 


187. e On 


THE MILITARY CLASS. 1 83 

1 37. c On his march let him form his troops 
4 either like a fiaff, or in an even column ; like a 
4 wain, or in a wedge with the apex foremoft ; like 
4 a boar, or in a rhomb with the van and rear 
4 narrow and the centre broad ; like a Macara or 
4 Jea monjler, that is, in a double triangle with apices 
1 joined ; like a needk or in a long line ; or like 
4 the bird of Vishnu, that is, in a rhomboid with 
4 the wings far extended : 

188. ‘ From whatever fide he apprehends 
4 danger, to that fide let him extend his troops; 
4 and let him always conceal himfclf in the midft 
4 of a fquadron, formed like a lotos flower. 

189. 4 Let him caufe his generals and the chief 
4 commander under himfelf to a< 5 t in all quarters; 
4 and from whatever fide he perceives a defign of 
4 attacking him, to that fide let him turn his front. 

190. 4 On all fides let him ftation troops of 
4 foldiers, in whom he confides, diftinguifhed by 
4 known colours and other marks; who are ex- 
4 cellent both in fuflaining a charge and in charge 
4 ing, who are fearlefs and incapable of defertion. 

1 91. 4 Let him at his pleafure order a few men 
4 to engage in a clofe phalanx, or a large number 
4 of warriours in loofe ranks; and, having formed 
f them in a long line like a needle, or in three di- 
4 vifions like a thunderbolt, let him give orders 
4 for battle. 

192. ‘ On a plain, let him fight with his armed 
4 cars and horfes ; on watery places, with manned 
4 boats and elephants; on ground full of trees 
4 and fhrubs, with bows ; on cleared ground, with 
4 fwords and targets, and other weapons. 

193. 4 Men born in Curucfhetra , near lndrap - 
4 reft'ha, in Matfya , or Virata, in Panchala, or 
4 Canyacubja x and in Surafena , in the dillridl of 

N 4 4 Mat'hurct 


184 on government; or on 

c Mat'hurti , let him caufe to engage in the van ; 

* and men, born in other countries > who are tall 
c and light. 

194. * Let him, when he has formed his 
c troops in array, encourage them with Jlocrt am- 
1 matedfpeeches ; and then let him try them com- 
c pletely : let him know likewife how his men feve- 
€ rally exert themfelves, while they charge the foe. 

195. f If he block up his enemy, let him fit 
€ encamped, and lay wafte the hoftile country ; 
c let him continually fpoil the grais, water, and 

* wood of the adverfe prince. 

196. ( Pools, wells, and trenches, let him de- 

* ftrov : let him harafs the foe by day, and alarm 

* him by night. 

197. 4 Let him fecretlv bring over to his party 

* all luch leaders as he can fafely bring over; let 
c him be informed of all that his enemies are 
c doing ; and, when a fortunate moment is of- 
€ fered by heaven, let him give battle, pufhing 
‘ on to conqueft and abandoning fear: 

198. ? Yet he fhould be more fedulous to re- 
c dnce his enemy by negotiation, by well applied 
‘ gifts, and by creating divifions, ufing either ail 
c or fome of thofe methods, than by hazarding at 
€ any time a aecifive adlion, 

199. ‘ Since victory or defeat are not furely 
c forefeen on either fide, when two armies engage 
€ in ihe field : let the king then, if other expedients 
1 prevail , avoid a pitched battle: 

200. f But, fhould there be no means of ap- 
f plying the three before-mentioned expedients, let 

* him, after due preparation, fight fo valiantly*, 

< that his enemy may be totally routed. 

201. 4 Having conquered a country, let him 
■ refpeft the deities adored in if, and their vir- 

1 tuous 


THE MILITARY CLASS, 


«»5 

tuous priefts; let him alfo diftribute largeflcs 
to the people, and caufie a full exemption from 
terrour to be loudly proclaimed. 

202. 4 When he has perfectly afcertained the 
conduct and intentions of all the vanquifhed, let 
him fix in that country a prince ol the royal 
race, and give him ptecile inllrudions. 

203. * Let him eftablilh the laws ot the con¬ 
quered nation as declared in their books ; and let 
him gratify the new prince with gems, and Gther 
precious gifts . 

204. 4 The feizure of definable property, though 
it caufie hatred, and the donation of it, though 
it caufe love, may be laudable or blameable on 
different occafions: 

205. 4 All this conduft of human affairs is con- 
fidered as dependent on ads afcribed to the 
deity, and on ads afcribed to men; now the 
operations of the deity cannot be known by any 
intenfenefs of thought, but thofe of men may be 
clearly difcovered. 

206. 4 Or the vidor, confidering an ally, ter¬ 
ritory, and wealth as the triple fruit of conqueft, 
may form an alliance with the vanquifhed prince, 
and proceed in union with h;m, ufiing diligent 
circumfpedion. 

207. 4 He fhould pay due attention to the 
prince who fupported his caufie, and to any 
other prince of the circumjacent region, who 
checked that fupporter, fo that both from a well- 
wifher and from an opponent, he may 1‘ecure the 
fruit of his expedition. 

208. 4 By gaining wealth and territory a king 
acquires not fo great an incrcale of flrength, as 
by obtaining a firm ally, \*ho, though weak, 
may hereafter be powerful. 

209, * That 


186 on government; or on 

209. 4 That ally, though feeble, is highly ef- 
4 timable, who knows the whole extent of his 
4 duties, who gracefully remembers benefits* 

4 whofe people are Satisfied, or , who has a gentle 
4 nature , who loves his friend, and perfeveres in 
4 his good resolutions. 

210. f Him have the fages declared an enemy 
4 hard to be fubdued, who is eminently learned, 

4 of a noble race, perfonally brave, dextrous in 
4 management, liberal, grateful, and firm. 

211. Good nature, knowledge of mankind, 

4 valour, benignity of heart, and incefiant libe- 
4 rality, are the aftemblage of virtues which adorn 
c a neutral prince, whoje amity mujl be courted . 

212. 4 Even a Salubrious and fertile country, 
4 where cattle continually increafe, let a king 
c abandon, without hefitation, for the fake of pre- 
* Serving himfelf: 

213 ‘ Againft misfortune let him preferve his 
4 wealth : at the expence of his wealth let him 
4 preferve his wife ; but let him at all events pre- 
4 Serve himfelf even at the hazard of his wife and 
4 his riches. 

214. 4 A wife prince, who finds every fort of 
4 calamity rufhing violently upon him, fhould 
f have recourfe to ail juft expedients, united or 
4 Separate: 

21 v 4 Let him confider the bufinefs to be ex- 
4 pedited, the expedients collectively, and himfelf 
4 who muft apply them ; and taking refuge com- 
4 pletelv in thofe three, let him ftrenuoufly labour 
4 for his own profperity. 

216. 4 Having confulted with his minifters, 
4 in the manner before prefcribcd on all this mqfs 
4 of publick affairs ; having ufed exercile becoming 
4 a warriour % and having bathed after it y let the 

1 king 


THE MILITARY CLASS. 1 8 7 

€ king enter at noon his private apartments for 
4 the purpofe of taking food. 

217. ‘ There let him eat lawful aliment, pre- 
1 pared by fervants attached to his pcrlbn, who 

* know the difference of times and are incapable 
4 of perfidy, after it has been proved innocent by 
4 certain experiments , and hallowed by texts of the 

* Veda, repulfiveof poifon. 

2 8. 4 Together with all his food let him fwal- 
f low fuch medical fubftances as refift venom ; 

* and let him conftantly wear with attention fuch 
4 gems as are known to repel it. 

219. * Let his females, well tried and attentive, 

* their drefs and ornaments having been exa- 
4 mined, left Jome weapon Jhould be concealed in them , 

* do him humble fervice with fans, water, and 
4 perfumes : 

220. c Thus let him take diligent care, when 
4 he goes out in a carriage or on horfeback, when 
4 he lies down to reft, when he fits, when he 
4 takes food, when he bathes, anoints his body 
4 with odorous ejfences , and puts on all his habili- 
4 ments. 

221. 4 After eating, let him divert himfelf with 
‘ his women in the receftes of his palace ; and, 
4 having idled a reafonable time, let him again 
€ think of publick affairs : 

222. When he has dreffed himfelf completely, 

* let him once more review his armed men, with 

* all their elephants, horfes, and cars, their accou- 
4 trements and weapons. 

223. 4 At funfet, having performed his religious 

* duty, let him privately, but well armed, in his 
4 interior apartment, hear what has been done by 

* his reporters and emiffaries : 


224. 4 Then, 


l83 ON GOVERNMENT, &C. 

224. * Then, having difmiffed thofe informers, 
c and returning to another fecret chamber, let him 
c go, attended by women, to the inmoft recefs of 
* his manfion for the fake of his evening meal; 

225. c There, having a fecond time eaten a lit- 
c tie, and having been recreated with mufical 
6 ftrains, let him take reft early, and rife refrefhed 
c from his labour. 

226. c This perfect fyftem of rules let a king, 
c free from illnefs, cbfcrve 5 but when really af- 
4 Aided with difeafe, he may incruft all thefe affairs 
‘ to his officers/ 



( ,8 9 ) 


CHAPTER THE EIGHTH. 

On ’'judicature ; and on Law, Private and 
Criminal 


/. 4 A king, defirous of infpedting judicial pro- 
< cccdings mud enter his court of juftice, com- 
4 poled and fedate in his demeanour, together 
4 with Brahmens and counfellors, who know how 
1 to give him advice: 

2. 4 There, either fitting or (landing, holding 

* forth his right arm, without oftentation in hrs 

* drefs and ornaments, let him examine the affairs 

* of litigant parties. 

3- 4 Each day let him decide caufes one after 
1 another, under the eighteen principal titles of 

* law, by arguments and rules drawn from local 

* uiages, and from written codes : 

4. 4 Or thofe titles , the firll is debt, on loans 

* for confumption ; the fecond , depofits, and loans 

* for ufe; the third, fale without ownerfhip ; the 
' fourth , concerns among partners ; the fifth , futr- 

* tradlion of what has been given ; 

5. 4 The fixth , non-payment of wages or hire; 
c the feventby non performance of agreement ; 
' the eighth , refciffion of fale and purchal'c ; the 

* ninth , difputes between matter and lervant; 

6. 4 The tenth, Cornells on boundaries ; the 

eleventh 




190 on judicature; and on law, 

9 eleventh and twelfth , afiault and flander; the 
4 thirteenth , larceny; the fourteenth , robbery and 

* other violence ; the fifteenth, adultery ; 

7. 4 ‘The fifteenth , altercation between man and 
4 wife, and their leveral duties; the feventeenth , 
9 the law of inheritance; the eighteenth, gaming with 
4 dice and with living creatures: thefe eighteen 
c titles of law are fettled as the ground work of 
4 all judicial procedure in this world. 

8. 4 Among men, who contend for the moft 
T part on the titles juft mentioned, and on a few 
1 mifcellaneous heads not comprifed under them , let 
4 the king decide caufes juftly, obferving prime- 
4 val law; 

9. 4 But when he cannot infpedt fuch affairs in 
4 perfon, let him appoint, for the infpe&ion of 
4 them, a Brahmen of eminent learning ; 

to. 4 Let that chief judge, accompanied by 
4 three afteftors, fully confider all caufes brought 
4 before the king; and, having entered the court 
4 room, let him fit or ftand, but not move back - 

* wards and forwards. 

11. c In whatever country three Brahmens , 

4 particularly fkilled in the three feveral Vedas , lit 
4 together with the very learned Brahmen ap- 
4 pointed by the king, the wife call that ajfembly 
4 the court of Brahma 1 with four faces. 

12. 4 WHENjuftice, having been wounded by 
4 iniquity, approaches the court, and the judges 
4 extradl not the dart, they alfo fhall be wounded 
4 by it. 

13. 4 Either the court muft not be entered by 
4 judges , parties , and witneffes, or law and truth 
4 muft be openly declared : that man is criminal, 

4 who either fays nothing, or fays what is falfe 
4 or unjuft* 


14. 4 Where 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 19 i 

14. € Where juftice is deftroyed by iniquity, 
and truth by falfe evidence, the judges, who 
bafely look on, without giving redre/s , (hall alfo 
be deftroyed. 

15. 4 Juftice being deftroyed, will deftroy; 
being preferved, will preferve: it mult never 
therefore be violated. “ Beware, O judge, left 
juftice being overturned, overturn both us and 
thyfelf.” 

16. c The divine form of juftice is reprefented 
as Vr',Jha , or a bull , and the gods confider him, 
who violates juftice, as a Vnjhala , or one who 
(lays a bull : let the king, therefore, and his 
judges bew are of violating juftice. 

17. * The only firm friend, w ho follows men 
even after death, is juftice; all others are ex- 
tindl with the body. 

18. c Of injuftice in decifions , one quarter falls 
on the party in the caufe; one quarter, on his 
witnefles ; one quarter, on all the judges; and 
one quarter on the king ; 

19. ‘ But where he, who deferves condemna¬ 
tion fhall be condemned, the king is guiltlefs, 
and the judges free from blame : an evil deed 
fhall recoil on him who committed it. 

20. ( A Brahmen fupported only by his clafs, 
and one barely reputed a Brahmen, but without 
performing any lacerdotal a<fts, may, at the king's 
pleafure, interpret the law' to him : Jo may the 
two middle clajfes ; but a Siidra , in no cafe w hat¬ 
ever. 

21. 1 Of that king, who ftupidly looks on, 
while a Siidra decides caufes, die kingdom it- 
felf fhali be embarrafted, like a cow in deep 
mire. 


22. c The 


92 CN judicature; and on law, 

22. f The whole territory, which is inhabited 
by a number of Si'edras , overwhelmed with 
atheifts, and deprived of Brahmens , muftfpeedily 
perifh, affiidted with death and difeafe. 

2 3. < Let the king or his judge , having feated 
himfelfon the bench, his body properly clothed, 
and his mind attentively fixed, begin with doing 
reverence to the deities, who guard the world ; 
and then let him enter on the trial of caufes : 

24. c Underftanding what is expedient or in¬ 
expedient, but confidering only w hat is law or 
not law, let him examine all difputes between 
panies, in the order of their feveral clafifes. 

25. c By external figns let him fee through the 
thoughts of men ; by their voice, colour, coun¬ 
tenance, limbs, eyes, and adlion : 

26. c From the limbs, the look, the motion 
of the body, the gelticulation, the fpeech, the 
changes of the eye 3nd the face, are dilcovered 
the internal workings of the mind. 

27. 1 The property of aftudent and of an infant', 
whether by defcent or otherwife, let the king 
hold in his cuftody, until the owner (hall have 
ended his ftudentfhip, or until his infancy ftiall 
have ceafed in his Jixteenth year, 

28. c Equal care mud be taken of barren 
women, of women without Tons, whoje hujhands 
have married other wives , of women without 
kindred, or whofe hufbands are in diftant places, 
of widows true to their lords, and of women 
afflidled with illnefs. 

29. c Such kinfmen, as hy any pretence , ap¬ 
propriate the fortunes of women during their 
lives, a juft king muft punilh w r ith the feverity 
due to thieves. 

30. c Three 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 1 93 

30. 4 Three years let the king detain the pro- 

* pertv of which no owner appears, after a difttutt 
4 proclamation: the owner appearing within the 
4 three years, may take it ; but, after that term, 
4 the king may confifcate it. 

31. * He, who fays 44 This is mine,” mud be 
4 duly examined ; and if, before he vifpeft it, he 
4 declare its form, number, and other circum- 
4 fiances, the owner mud: have his property; 

32. 4 But if he (how not at what place and 
4 time it was loft, and fpecify not its colour, 
4 fhape, and dimenfions, he ought to be amerced ; 

33. 4 The king may take a fixth part of the 
4 property fo detained by him, or a tenth, or a 
4 twelfth, remembering the duty of good kings. 

34. 4 Property loll by one man , and found by 
1 another, let the king fecure, by committing it 
4 to the care of truft-worthy men ; and thofe, 
4 whom he (hall convidt of dealing it, let him 
4 caufe to be trampled on by an elephant. 

35. 4 From the man who (hall fay with truth, 
44 This property, which has been kept, belongs 
44 to me,” the king may take a fixth or twelfth 

* part, for having fecured it; 

36. 4 But he who (hall fay fo falfely, may be 
4 fined either an eighth part of his own property, 

4 or elfe in fome l'mall proportion, to the value 
4 of the goods falfely claimed, a juft calculation 
4 having been made. 

37. 4 A learned Brahmen, having found a 
4 treafure formerly hidden, may take it without 
4 any deduction ; fince he is the lord of all; 

38. 4 But of a treafure anciently repofited un- 
4 der ground, which any other fubjeft or the king 
4 has difeovered, the king may lay up half in his 
4 treafury, having given half to the Brahmens. 

O 39* 4 Of 


194 on judicature; and on law, 

39. c Of old hoards, and precious minerals in 
€ the earth, the king is entitled to half by reafon 
4 of his general protection, and becaufe he is the 
f lord paramount of the foil. 

40. ‘ To men of all claffes, the king muft 
4 reftore their property, which robbers have 
4 feized ; fince a king, who takes it for himfelf, 
4 incurs the guilt of a robber. 

41. ‘ A king who knows the revealed law, 
4 muft enquire into the particular laws of claffes, 
4 the laws or ufages of diftridts, the cuftoms of 
4 traders, and the rules of certain families, and 
4 eftablifh their peculiar laws, if they be not re - 
4 pugnant to the law of God ; 

42. ‘ Since all men, who mind their own 
« cuftomary ways of proceeding, and are fixed in 
4 the difcharge of their feveral duties, become 
4 united by affedtion with the people at large, 

* even though they dwell farafunder. 

43. c Neither the king himfelf, nor his officers 
4 muft ever promote litigation ; nor ever negledl 
4 a law fuit inftituted by others. 

44. ‘ As a hunter traces the lair of a wounded 
4 beaft by the drops of blood; thus let a king 
4 inveftigate the true point of juftice by deliberate 
4 arguments : 

43. * Let him fully confider the nature of 
4 truth, the date of the cafe, and his own perfon ; 
4 and next, the witneffes, the place, the mode, 

* and the time ; firmly adhering to all the rules 
<J of pradlice : 

46. ‘ What has been pra&ifed by good men and 
4 by virtuous Brahmens, if it be not inconfiflent 
4 with the legal cuftoms of provinces or diftridts, 
4 of claffes and families, let him eftablifh. 

47. 4 When 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 195 

47. * When a creditor fues before him for the 
recovery of his right from a debtor, let him 
caufe the debtor to pay what the creditor fhali 
prove due. 

48. ‘ By whatever lawful means a creditor 
may have gotten potfeffion of his own property, 
let the king ratify fuch payment by the debtor, 
though obtained even by compulfory means ; 

49. c By the mediation of friends, by fuit in, 
court, by artful management, or by diftrefs, a 
creditor may recover the property lent; and 
fifthly, by legal force. 

50. € That creditor, who recovers his right 
from his debtor, muft not be rebuked by the 
king for retaking his own property. 

51. f In a fuit for a debt, which the defendant 
denies, let him award payment to the creditor 
of what, by good evidence, he fhali prove due, 
and exadt a fmall fine, according to ike circum- 
Jlances of the debtor . 

52. ‘ On the denial of a debt, which the de¬ 
fendant has in court been required to pay, the 
plaintiff mud call a witnefs who was prefent at 
the place of the loan, or produce other evidence, 
as a note and the like. 

53. ‘ The plaintiff, who calls a witnefs not 
prefent at the place where the ccntradi was made, 
or, having knowingly called him, difclaims him 
as his witnefs ; or who perceives not, that he 
afferts confufed and contradictory fadts ; 

54. * Or who, having ftated what he defigns 
to prove, varies afterwards from his cafe j or 
who, being queftioned on a fadt which he had 
before admitted, refufes to acknowledge that 
very fadt; 

O 2 


55 - ‘ Or 


196 ON judicature; and on law, 

55. t Or who has converfed with the witneffes 
c in a place unfit for fuch converfation ; or who 

* declines anfwering a queftion properly put; or 
€ who departs from the court; 

56. 6 Or who, being ordered to fpeak, (lands 

* mute; or who proves not what he hasalledged; 

* or who knows not w hat is capable or incapa- 
c ble of proof; fuch a plaintiff lhall fail in that 
c fuit. 

57. c Him who has faid “ I have witneffes,” 

* and being told to produce them, produces them 

* not, the judge muft on this account declare 

* nonfuited. 

58. ‘ If the plaintiff delay to put in his plaint, 

* he may, according to the nature of the cafe , be 
c corporally punifhed or juflly amerced ; and if 

* the defendant plead not within three fortnights, 

< he is by law condemned. 

59. c In the double of that fum, which the 
c defendant falfely denies, or on which the com- 
c plainant falfely declares, (hall thofe two men, 
c wilfully offending againft juftice, be fined by 
c the king. 

60. c When a man has been brought into 
c court by a fuitor for property, and, being called 

* on to anfwer, denies the debt, the caufe fhould 

* be decided by the Brahmen who reprefents the 
c king, having heard three witneffes at lead. 

61. 6 What fort of witneffes muft be pro- 
c duced by creditors and others on the trial 
c of caufes, I will comprehenfively declare ; and 
c in what manner thofe witneffes muft give true 
c evidence. 

62. c Married houfe-keepers, men with male 
‘ iffue, inhabitants of the fame diftrift, either of 

* the 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 


*97 

the military, the commercial, or thefervile clafs, 
are competent, when called by the party, to give 
their evidence ; not any perfons indi.fcrimin.irdv, 
except in fuck cafes of urgency as will Joon be 
mentioned. 

63. ‘ Juft and fenfible men of all the four clafles 
may be witnefTes on trials ; men, who know 
their whole duty,and are free from covetoufnefs; 
but men of an oppofite character the judge muft 
rejedt. 

64. ‘ Thofe muft not be admitted who have a 
pecuniary intereft ; nor familiar friends ; nor 
menial fervants; nor enemies ; nor men for¬ 
merly perjured; nor perfons grievoufly dif- 
eafed; nor thofe who have committed henious 
often ces. 

65. ‘ The king cannot be made a witnefs; nor 
cooks and the like mean artificers ; nor public 
dancers nor fingers ; nor a prieft of deep learn¬ 
ing in fcripture ; nor a ftudent in theology ; nor 
an anchoret fecluded from all worldly con¬ 
nexions ; 

66. ‘ Nor one wholy dependent ; nor one of 
bad fame ; nor one who follows a cruel occu¬ 
pation ; nor one who adts openly againft the 
law ; nor a decripit old man ; nor a child ; nor 
one man only, unlefs he be dijlinguifhed for virtue ; 
nor a wretch of the loweft mixed clafs ; nor one 
who has loft: the organs of fenfe ; 

67. * Nor one extremely grieved ; nor one in¬ 
toxicated ; nor a madman ; nor one tormented 
with hunger or thirft; nor one opprefied by 
fatigue ; nor one excited by luft ; nor one in¬ 
flamed by wrath ; nor one who has been con¬ 
victed of theft. 

0 3 


63. 1 Women 


198 ON JUDICATURE ; AND ON LAW, 

6£. c Women fhould regularly be witnedfes for' 
c women ; twice born mm. for men alike twice 

* born ; good fervants and mechanicks, for fer- 
c vanrs and mechanicks; and thofe of the lowed: 
€ race, for thofe of the lowed:; 

69. * But any perfon whatever, who has podtive 
c knowledge of iranfattions in the private apart* 

* ments of a houfe, or in a foreft, or at a time 

* of death, may give evidence between the 
parties : 

70. ‘ On failure of witnejfes duly qualified, evi- 
€ dence may, in fuch cafes , be given by a woman, by 

* a child, or by an aged man, by a pupil, by a 
( kinfman, by a flave, or by a hired fervant; 

71. c Yet of children, of old men, and of the 
c difeafed, who are all apt to fpeak untruly, the 

* judge muft confider the teftimony as weak ; and 
‘ much more, that of men with difordered minds : 

72. ‘ In all cafes of violence, of theft and 

* adultery, of defamation and adfault, he mud: not 

* examine too ftri&ly the competence of wit- 
c nedTes. 

73. f If there be contradi&ory evidence, let the 
c king decide by the plurality of credible wit- 
€ nedTes ; if equality in number, by fuperiority in 
f virtue ; if parity in virtue, by the tedimony of 
c fuch twice born men as have bed: performed 
( publick duties. 

74. ‘ Evidence of what has been feen, or of what 
c has been heard, as Jlander and the like , given by 

* thofe who faw or heard it, is admidTable ; and a 
€ witnefs who fpeaks truth in thofe cafes, neither 

* deviates from virtue nor lofes his wealth ; 

75. ‘ But a witnefs, who knowingly fays any 
f thing, before an adfembly of good men, differ- 
[ ent from what he had feen or heard, (hall fall 

f headlong 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 

* headlong, after death, into a region of horrour, 
‘ and be debarred from heaven. 

76. ‘ When a man fees or hears any thing, 
c without being then called upon to atteft it, yet if 
‘ he be afterwards examined as a witnefs, he muft 
1 declare it, exactly as it was feen, and as it was 

* heard. 

77. ‘ One man, untainted with covetoufnefs and 
1 other vices, may in fome cajes be the foie witnefs, 
‘ and will have more weight than many women, 

* bccaufe female underftandings are apt to waver; 

* or than many other men who have been tar- 
c nifhed with crimes. 

78. c What witneffes declare naturallv or with • 
1 out bias , muft be received on trials; but what 
‘ they improperly fay, from fome unnatural bent, 
c is inapplicable to the purpofes of juftice. 

79. ‘ The witneffes being affembled in the 
c middle of the court-room, in the prefence of 
‘ the plaintiff and the defendant, let the judge 
c examine them, after having addreffed them all 
1 together in the following manner : 

80. “ What ye know to have been tranfa&ed 
<c in the matter before us, between the parries re- 
“ ciprocally, declare at large and with truth ; for 
“ your evidence in this caufe is required.” 

81. * A witnefs, who gives teftimony with 
‘ truth, (hall attain exalted feats of beatitude 
‘ above, and the higheft fame here below : luch 

* teftimony is revered by Brahma' himfelf; 

82. ‘ The witnefs who fpeaks falfely, lhall be 
‘ faff bound, under water , in the fnaky cords of 
1 Varltna, and be wholly deprived of power to 

* //cape torment , during a hundred tranfmigrations: 
1 let mankind, therefore, give nofalfe teftimony. 

O 4 83. 4 By 


200 ON judicature; and on law, 

83. e Bv truth is a witnefs cleared of fin ; by 
■ truth is juftice advanced : truth muft, therefore*, 
6 be fpoken by witnefifes of every clafs. 

84. ‘ The foul itfelf is its own witnefs ; the 

* foul itfelf is irs own refuge; offend not thy 
c confcious foul, the fupreme internal witnefs of 
5 men ! 

83. c The finful have faid in their hearts 1 
None fees us,” Yes; the gods diftin£Uy fee 

* them ; and fo does the fpirit within their breafts. 

86. 6 The guardian deities of the firmament, of 

* the earth, of the waters, of the human heart, 
1 of the moon, of the fun, and of fire, of pu- 
c nifhment after death, of the winds, of night, of 
4 both twilights, and of juftice, perfectly know 

* the ftate of all fpirits clothed with bodies. 

87. e In the forenoon let the the judge, being 
c purified, feverally call on the twice born, being 
e purified alfo, to declare the truth, in the pre- 
c fence of fome image , a fymbol of the divinity, and 
? of Brahmens , while the witneffes turn their faces 

* either to the north or to the eaft. 

88. 4 To a Brahmen he muft begin with faying, 
“ Declare to a Cfhatriya , with faying “ De- 
“ clare the truth to a Vaifya , with comparing 
4 perjury to the crime of ftealing kine, grain, or 
4 gold ; to a Sadr a, with comparing it in fome or all 
‘ of the following fentences, to every crime that men 
f can commit. 

89. “ Whatever places of torture have been 
cc prepared for the flayer of a prieft, for the mur- 
cc derer of a woman or of a child, for the injurer 

of a friend, and for an ungrateful man, thofe 
“ places are ordained for a witnefs who gives falfe 
£ c evidence. 

90. Ci The 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 201 

90. <c The fruit of every virtuous aft, which 
“ thou hall done, O good man, fince thy birth, 
t( fhall depart from thee to dogs, if thou deviate 
i( in fpeech from the truth. 

91. “ O friend to virtue, that Supreme Spirit, 
“ which thou believed one and the fame with 
“ tbyfelf, refides in thy bofom perpetually, and is 
“ an all knowing infpeftor of thy goodnefs or 
“ of thy wickednefs. 

92. “ If thou beed not at variance, by [peaking 
“ falfely , with Yama, or the fubduer of all; with 
“ Vaivaswata, or the punifher ; with that great 
“ divinity who dwells in thy bread , go not on a 
<c pilgrimage to the river Ganga, nor to the plans 
<( of Guru, for thou haft no need of expiation . 

93. “ Naked and fhorn, tormented with hun- 
“ ger and third, and deprived of light, Hull the 
“ man who gives falfe evidence, go with a 
“ potlherd to beg food at the door of his enemy. 

94. “ Headlong, in utter darknefs, lhall the 
Ct impious wretch tumble into hell, who, being 
•“ interrogated m a judicial inquiry, anfwers one 
i( queftion falfely. 

95. “ He, who in a court of juftice gives an 
€C imperfect account of any tranfadtion, or afierts 
<c a faft of which he was no eye-witnefs, fhall re- 
“ ccive pain infteadof pleafure , and referable a man, 
tc who eats lilh with eager nefs and fwallows the 
“ fharp bones. 

96. “ The gods are acquainted with no better 
tc mortal in this world, than the man, of whom 
<c the intelligent lpirir, which pervades his 
“ body, has no diftrud, when he prepares to give 
f ( evidence. 

97. “ Hear, honed man, from a jud enumcra- 

iC tion 


'20 *. on judicature; and on law, 

“ tion in order, bow many kinfmen, in evidence 
cc of different forts, a falfe witnefs kills or incurs 
“ the guilt ofhlling : 

98. 44 He kills five by falfe teftimony concern- 
44 ing cattle in general ; he kills ten by falfe tef- 
44 timony concerning kine; he kills a hundred 
44 by falfe evidence concerning horfes ; and a 
44 thoufand by falfe evidence concerning the hu- 
44 man race : 

99. 44 By fpeaking falfely in a caufe concerning 
44 gold, be kills the born and the unborn ; by 
44 fpeaking falfely concerning land, be kills 
44 every thing animated : beware then of fpeaking 
44 falfely in a caufe concerning land! 

100. 44 Thefages have held falfe evidence con- 
44 cerning water, and the poffefiion or enjoyment 
44 of women, equal to falfe evidence concerning 
44 land ; and it is equally criminal in caufes con- 
44 cerning pearls and other precious things formed 
44 in water, and concerning all things made of 
44 ftone. 

ic 1. 44 Marking well all the murders which are 
ct comprehended in the crime of perjury, declare 
“ thou the whole truth with precifion, as it was 
iC heard, and as it was feen by thee.” 

102. 4 Brahmens who tend herds of cattle, who 
c trade, who pradtife mechanical arts, who profefs 
4 dancing and finging, who are hired fervants or 
‘ ufurers, let the judge exhort and examine as if 
c they were Sudras . 

103. c In fome cafes, a giver of falfe evidence 
4 from a pious motive, even though he know the 
4 truth, fhall not lofe a feat in heaven ; fuch evi- 
4 dence wife men call the fpeech of the gods. 

104. * Whenever the death of a man, who had 

6 not 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 20 $ 

* not been a grievous offender , cither of the fcrvilc, 

* the commercial, the military, or the faccrdotal 
4 clafs, would he occafioned bv true evidence, 

* from the known rigour of the king, even though 
< the fiult arofefrom inadvertence or err our, tall'e- 

* hood may be fpoken : it is even preferable to 
1 truth. 

105. 4 Such witneffes mud offer, as oblations to 
4 Saraswati', cakes of rice and milk addreffed 
4 to the goddefs of fpeech ; and thus will they 
‘ fully expiate that venial fin of benevolent falfe- 
4 hood : 

106. 4 Or fuch a witnefs may pour clarified 
4 butter into the holy fire, according to the facred 
4 rule, hallowing it with the texts called cujbmanda, 

4 or with thole which relate to Varuna, beg’.n- 
4 ing with ltd ; or with the three texts appropriated 
4 to the water gods. 

107. ‘ A man who labours not under illnefs, 
4 yet comes not to^ive evidence in cafes of loans 
4 and the like, within three fortnights aft r due 
4 fummons , (hall take upon himfelf the whole debt, 
4 and pay a tenth part of it as a fine to the king . 

108. 4 The witnefs, who has given evidence, 
4 and to whom, within feven days after, a misfor- 
4 tune happens from difeafe, fire, or the death of 
4 a kinfman, lhall be condemned to pay the debt 
4 and a fine. 

109. ‘ In cafes, where no witnefs can be 
4 had, between tw'o parties oppofing each other, 

* the judge may acquire a knowledge of the truth, 

* by the oath of the parties ; or if he cannot other- 
i wife perfectly afeertain it. 

110. 4 By the feven great Rajhis, and by the 

* deities themfelves, have oaths been taken, for 

1 4 the 


204 ON JUDICATURE ; AND ON LAW, 

the purpofe of judicial proof; and even 
‘ Vasisht’ha, being accufed by Viswamitra of 
£ murder , took an oath before the king Suda'man, 

* fon of PlYAVANA. 

111. ‘ Let no man of fenfe take an oath in 

* vain, that is, not in a court of juftice , on a trifling 
i occafion ; for the man, who takes an oath in 

* vain, fhall be punifhed in this life and in the 

* next: 

112. ‘ To women, however, at a time of dal- 
c liance, or on a propofai of marriage, in the 

* cafe of grafs or fruit eaten by a cow, of wood 
c taken for a facrifice, or of a promife made for 

* the prefervation of a Brahmen , it is no deadly fin 

* to take a light oath. 

113. c Let the judge caufe a pried; to fwearby his 

* veracity; a foldier by his horfe or elephant, 
c and his weapons ,* a merchant by his kine, grain, 
< and gold ; a mechanick, or fervile man, by />/- 
e precaiing on his own head , if he fpeak falfely , all 
f poflible crimes; 

114. * Or, on great occajions , let him caufe the 
c party to hold fire, or to dive under water, or 
‘ feverally to touch the heads of his children 

* and wife : 

115. c He, whom the blazing fire burns not, 
( whom the water foon forces not up, or meets with 
‘ no fpeedy misfortune, mufl be held veracious in 
c his teftimony on oath. 

116. ‘ Of the fage Vasta, whom his younger 

* half brother formerly attacked, as the /on of a 
c fertile woman , the fire, which pervades the 
c world, burned not even a hair, by reafon of his 

* perfect veracity. 

117. c Whenever falfe evidence has been 

* given in any fuit, the king muft reverfe the 

* judgement* 


205 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 

‘ judgement ; and whatever has been done, mud 
‘ be confidered as undone. 

118. c Evidence, given from covetoufnefs, 
c from diftradtion of mind, from Jerrour, from 
‘ friendfhip,from luft, from wrath, from ignorance, 
c and from inattention, muft Up held invalid. 

119. ‘ The didindtions of punifhment for a 

< falfe witnefs, from either of thofe motives, I will 
c propound fully and in order. 

120. ‘ If he fpeak falfely through covetoufnefs, 

‘ he (hall be fined a thoufand panas ; if through 

< didr.-dtion of mind, two hundred and fifty, or the 
‘ lowed amercements ; if through terrour, two 
‘ mean amercements ; if through friendfhip, tour 

* times the lowed ; .tin 

121. c If through lud, ten times the lowest 

< amercement ; if through wrath, three times the 
‘ next or middlemoR ; it through ignorance, two 
‘ hundred complete ; if through inattention, a 
€ hundred only. 

122. * Learned men have fpecineu thefe pu~ 

< nidimen’-s, which zvere ordained by fage legifla- 
c tors for perjured witnedes, with a view to prevent 
‘ a failure of juftice and to redrain iniquity. 

12^. * Let a jud prince banifh men of the three 

* lower clades, if they give falfe evidence, having 
c fird levied the fine ; but a Brahmen let him only 

124. f Menu, fon of the Self-exidcnt, has named 

< ten places of punifhment, which are appropriated 
« to the three lower clafles ; but a Brahmen mud 

* depart from the realm unhurt in any one of 

* t ^ em : , . 

!25, « The part of generation, the belly, the 

< tongue, the two hands, and fifthly, the iwQhet, 


cy yrr'icAir^H; and oy law. 


sc? 


* the erf. the nofe, both ears, the properry, and, h 
4 £ capt:al uy ?, the whole bodv. 

icn. 4 Let the kmg, having confidered and af- 
4 c; :m ned the frequency of a fimilar oflence, the 

* : .rd time, the abilirvof the craminsl twpay 

1 - >, and the crime itfelf, caafe puniihment 

4 to fa 1 on rhofe alone who deferve it. 

127. * Ur; aft purifhment deflrcrs reputation 

* c uring life, and fame after death ; it even ob- 

* dtruets, in the next life, the path to heaven : 
‘ mruft purifhment, therefore, let the king by all 

* means avoid. 


12S. 4 A king who inflicts purdlhmect on fuch 
• a? deferve it Dot, and inflict? no punilhment on 
4 fuch as deferve it, brings infamy on himfelf, 
4 vc Je he lives, and thali flnk, when he dies, to a 
4 region of torment. 

119. 4 Find, iet him punilh bv gentle admoni- 
4 tioo ; sr'terwards, by harlh reproof; thirdly, by 
4 deprivation of property; after that, by corpo- 
4 ral pain: 

130. 4 Bur, when even bv corporal punifhment 
4 he cannot refhrain fuch offenders, let him apply 
4 to them ail the four modes with rigour. 

131. 4 Those names of copper, filrer, and 
4 ~:dd weights, which are common!v jfed among: 

O w ^ ^ ^ ^ w 

4 men, for the pnrpcfe of worldly buflneiY, I will 
4 now comprehen lively explain. 

1:2. 4 The very final 1 mote, which may be cif- 
4 cerred in 2 fan-beam pafrng through a krtice, 
4 is the leafl vitble quantity, and men cal; it a 
4 TruCjrim : 


c 

c 


T * 

kr . 

Eight of thofe tr^nrhats 

are fuppofe 

equal m 

we:gn: to one minute poppy-ieed ; tore 

of th: *e 

dec5 are ecual to creU-ck 

mu it ^rd- feed 

and tnree of thole lead, to a white : 

muflard-feed 



134. c Sh 


c 


P R IT ATE AKD CXIMIHAL. 2 ZJ 

134. 9 Six white muftard-feeds are equal to a 
9 middle fized barley-corn; three fuch barley- 

* corns to one raftica, or feed of the Guyd; five 
1 ra&icat of gold are one mdjka, and fixteen fuch 
9 mdjhas one fuverna : 

135. • Four juvernas make a pals ; ten pclas 

* a dharana ; but two raciicas of fiiver weighed 

* together, are confidered as one mv hoc a; 

136. 4 S.xteen of thofe mjfhacas are a fiiver 
1 dbmrana, or purjna; but a carfia , or eighty 
c rachcas of copper, is called a or cjrjkepajuu 

' 137. ‘ Ten dharaMos of fiiver are known oy the 
9 name of a fatem ina ; and the weight of four 
9 Jtrjrmas has alfo the appellation of a uifo a. 

138. 4 Now' two hundred and fifty pastas are 
9 declared to be the firft cr Uwefi amercement; 
9 five hundred of them are confidered as the 
4 mean ; and a thoufand as the highefL 

139. 4 A DE 2 T being admitted by the de- 
1 fendant, he muft pay five in the hundred, as a 
9 fine to the king; but, if it be denied end 

9 twice as much : this law was enacted by Menc. 

140. 4 A lender of money may take, in ad- 

* dition to his capital, the interef: allowed by 
9 Vasisht'ha, that is , an eightieth part of a 
9 hundred, or one and a charter by the month, if 
9 he have a pledge ; 

141. 1 Or, if be have no pledge, he may take 
9 two in the hundred by the month , remembering 

* the dutv of good men : for, by thus taking 

* two in the hundred, he becomes not a (inner 

* for gain. 

142. 4 He may thus take, im proportion to the 
9 rtfk , and in the direct order of the dalles, two 

* in the hundred from a prUft, three frim a 


so8 on judicature; and on law, 

4 four from a merchant ; and five from a tnechamck 
4 cr fervile man , but never more, as interefl by 

4 the- month. 

143. 4 If he take a beneficial pledge, or a pledge 
4 to be ufed for his profit , he muft have no other 
4 interelt on the loan ; nor, after a great length 
4 of time, or when the profits have amounted to the 
4 debt , can he give or fell fuch a pledge, though 
4 he may ofifign it in pledge to another. 

144 4 A pledge to be kept only muft not be 
4 uled by force, that is, againft confent : the pawner 
4 fo ufing it muft give up his whole interefl, or 
4 muft fatisfy the pawner, if it be Jpoiled or worn 
4 out , by paying him the original price of it; 
4 otherwife, he commits a theft of the pawn. 

145. 4 Neither a pledge without limit , nor a 
4 dtpofit, are loft to the owner by lapfe of time : 
4 they are both recoverable, though they have 
4 long remained with the bailee. , 

146. 4 A milch cow, a camel, a riding horfe, 
4 a bull , or other beafi which has been fent to be 
4 tamed for labour, and other things uled with 
4 friendly affent, are not loft, by length of time , to 
4 the owner. 

147. 4 In general, whatever chattel the owner 
4 fees enjoyed by others for ten years, while, 

4 though prefent, he fays nothing, that chattel he 
4 fhall not recover: 

148. 4 If he be neither an idiot, nor an infant 
4 under the full age of fifteen years, and if the 
4 chattel be adverfely poireffed in a place where 
4 he may fee it, his property in it is extindt by 
4 law^, and the adverfe poffeffor fhall keep it. 

149. 4 A pledge, a boundary of land, the 
4 property of an infant, a depofit either open or 

in 


Private and criminal. 


20g 

in a cheft fealed, female Haves, the wealth of 
a king, and of a learned Brahmen , are not loft 
in confequence ot adverfe enjoyment. 

150. ‘ The fool, who fecretly ufes a pledge 
without, though not againft the affent of the 
owner, fhall give up half of hi$ intereft, as a 
compenfation for fuch ufe. 

151. * Interest on money received at once* 
not month by month , or day by day, as it ought , 
muft never be more than enough to double the 
debt, that is, more than the amount of the princi¬ 
pal paid at the fame time: on grain, on fruit, on 
wool or hair, on beafts of burden, lent to be paid 
in the fame kind of equal value , it muft not be 
more than enough to make the debt quintuple. 

152. ' Stipulated intereft beyond the legal rate, 
and different from the preceding rule, is invalid ; 
and the wife call it an ulurous way of lending: 
the lender is entitled, at moft> to five in the 
hundred. 

153. c Let no lender for a month, or for two or 
three months at a certain intereft , receive fuch 
intereft beyond the year; nor any intereft, 
which is unapproved ; nor intereft upon intereft 
by previous agreement ; nor monthly intereft ex¬ 
ceeding in time the amount of the principal ; 
nor intereft exadted from a debtor, as the price 
of the rijk , when there is no publick danger or dif- 
trefs ; nor immoderate profits from a pledge to 
be ufed by way of intereft. 

154. * He, who cannot pay the debt at the 
fixed time , and wifhes to renew the contract, 
may renew it in writing, with the creditor's af¬ 
fent, if he pay all the intereft then due ; 

f 5 5. ‘ But if by Jome unavoidable accident , he 
cannot pay the whole intereft, he may infert, as 
P 4 principal 


210 ON JUDICATURE; AND ON LAW, 

c principal in the renewed contract, fo much of the 
c intereft accrued as he ought to pay. 

156. c A lender at intereft on the rijk of fafe 
c carriage, who has agreed on the place and time, 
c fhall not receive fuch intereft, if by accident the 

* goods are not carried to the place, or within 
f the time : 

157. c Whatever intereft or price of the rtjk 
1 fhall be fettled between the parties, by men well 
c acquainted with fea voyages or journeys by land, 

* with times and with places, fuch intereft (hall 
1 have legal force. 

158. c The man who becomes furety for the 
c appearance of a debtor in this world, and pro- 
c duces him not, fhall pay the debt out of his 
c own property ; 

159. c But money due by a furety, or idly 
c promifed to mitficians and attreffes, or loft at 

* play, or due for fpirituous liquors, or what re- 
c mains unpaid of a fine or toll, the fon of the furety 
c or debtor fhall not in general be obliged to pay : 

160. f Such is the rule in cafes of a furety for 
c appearance or good behaviour ; but if a furety 

* for payment fhould die, the judge may compel 
f even his heirs to difcharge the debt. 

161. c On what account then is it, that after. 

* the death of a furety other than for payment, 
c the creditor may in one cafe demand the debt 
c of the heir , all the affairs of the deceafed being 
1 known and proved ? 

162. c If the furety had received money from 
1 the debtor, and had enough to pay the debt, 
c the fon of him who fo received it, fhall dif- 
4 charge the debt out of his inherited property: 
c this is a facred ordinance. 

163. £ A contract made by a perfon intoxicated 

‘ or 


PRIVATE’ AND CRIMINAL. £n 

r or infane, or grievoufly difordered, or wholly 
r dependent, by an infant or a decrepit old man, 

* or in the name of another, by a perfon without 
1 authority, is utterly null. 

161. 4 That plaint can have no efFeft though 
4 it may be fupported by evidence, which con- 
4 tains a caule of action inconfiftent with pofitive 
4 law or with fettled ufage. 

165. f When the judge difcovers a fraudulent 
4 pledge or fale, a fraudulent gift and acceptance, 

4 or in what ever other cafe he deteds fiaud, let 
4 him annul the whole tianfadion. 

166. 4 If the debtor be dead, and if the money 
4 borrowed was expended for the ufe of his fa- 
4 milv, it muft be paid by that family, divided 
c or undivided, out of their own eftate. 

167. 4 Should even a (lave make a contrad 
4 in the name of his abjent mafter for the behoof of 
c the family, that mailer, whether in his own 
4 country or abroad, fhall not refeind it. 

168. 4 What is given by force to a man who 

* cannot accent it legally , what is by force enjoyed, 
c by force caufed to be written, and all other 
4 things done by force or againjl free confent> Mi- 
4 nu has pronounced void. 

169. 4 Three are troubled by means of others, 
€ namely, witnefles, fureties, and infpe&ors of 
c caufes ; and four collett wealth flowly 5 with 
4 benefit to others, a Brahmen, a money-lender, 
4 a merchant, and a king. 

170. 4 Let no king, how indigent foever, take 
4 any thing which ought not to be taken; nor 
4 let him, how wealthy foever, decline taking 
c that which he ought to take, be it ever fo fmall : 

171. 4 By taking what ought not to be taken, 

P 2 4 and 


til on judicature; and on law, 

f and by refuting whan ought to be received, the 
( king betrays his own weaknefs, and is loft both 

* in this world and in the next; 

172- ‘ But by taking his due, by adminiftering 

* juftice, and by protefting the weak, the king 
( augments his own force, and is exalted in the 
c next world and in this. 

173. * Therefore, let the king, like Yama, 
refigning what may be pleafing or unpleafing 

c to himfelf, live by the drift rules of Yama, 
c his anger being repreffed, and his organs kept 

* in fubjeftion. 

174. ‘ That evil-minded king, who, through 

* infatuation, decides caufes with injuftice, his 

* enemies, through the difaffeRicn of his people, 

* quickly reduce to a ftate of dependence; 

175. ‘ But him, who fubduing both lull and 

* wrath, examines caufes with juftice, his people 

* naturally feek, as rivers the ocean. 

176. ‘ The debtor who complains before the 

* king, that his creditor has recovered the debt 

* by his own legal aft, as before-mentioned , fhall be 
c compelled by the king to pay a quarter of the 
c fum as a fine , and the creditor fhall be left in 
4 poflefiion of his own. 

177. ‘ Even by perfonal labour fhall the debtor 

* pay what is adjudged, if he be of the fame clafs 
c with the creditor, or of a lower; but a debtor 
c of a higher clafs muft pay it according to his in - 

* come y by little and little. 

178. ‘By this fyftem of rules let the king 
c decide, with equal juftice^ all difputes between 
‘ men oppofing each other, having afcertained 
8 the truth by evidence or the oaths of the parties. 

179. 4 A sensible man fhould make a dcpofit 

4 with 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL 


213 


< with fome perfon of high birth, and of good 
f morals, well acquainted with law, habitually 
« veracious, having a large family, wealthy and 
4 venerable. 

180. Whatever thing, and in whatever manner 
9 a perfon (hall depofit in the hands of another, 

* the fame thing, and in the fame manner, ought 
« to be received back by the owner; as the de- 
4 livery •was, fo mu ft be the receipt. 

181. c He, who reftores not to the depofitor, on 

9 his requeft, what has been depofited, may firft 
‘ be tried by the judge in the f owing manner , the 
9 depofitor himfelf being abfent. 

1&2. c On failure of witnefies, let the judge ac- 
4 tuallv depofit gold, or precious things , with the 
4 defendant, by the artful contrivance of fpies, who 
9 have pafled the age of child-hood, and whole 
9 perfons are engaging'*. 

183. 4 Should the defendant reftore that depo- 
4 fit .in the manner and fhape in which it was 
4 bailed by the fpies , there is nothing in his hands, 

4 for which others can jufllv accufe him ; 

184. 4 But if he reftore not the gold, or 
4 precious things , as he ought, to thofe emifTaries, 

4 let him be apprehended and compelled to pay 
4 the value of both depofits; this is a fettled rule. 

185. 4 A depofit, whether lealed up or not, 
4 fhould never be redelivered, while the depofitor 
4 is alive, to his heir apparent or preemptive : 
4 both forts of depofits, indeed, are extinct, or can - 
4 not be demanded by the heir , if the depofitor die, 
4 in that cafe ; but nor, unlefs he die, for fhould the 
4 heir 'apparent keep them , the depofitor himfelf may 
4 fue the bailee : 

186. 4 But, if a depofitary by his own free a & 
* (hall deliver a depofit to the heir of a deceafed 
J> ^ * bailor. 


2.14 ON JUDICATURE J AND ON LAW, 

c bailor, he muff not be harafTed with claims of a 
1 fimilar kind , ei'her by the king, or by that heir; 
187. c And, if fimilar claims be made y the king 

* muft decide the queftions after friendly admoni- 

* tion, without having recourfe to artifice ; for the 

* honeft difpofition ot the man being proved, the 
4 judge muft proceed with mildnefs. 

18. 4 Such is the mode of afcertaining the right 
4 in all rhele cafes of a depofit : in the cafe of a 
€ depofit fealed up, the bailee fhall incur no cen- 
4 fure on the re delivery, unlcfshe have filtered the 
' Jeal or taken put fomething. 

189 * If a depofit be feized by thieves or def- 
4 troyed by verm me , or walked away by water, or 
4 confumed by fire, the bailee fhall not be obliged 
4 to make it good, unlefs he took part of it for 
4 himfelf. 

190. 4 The defendant, who denies a depofit, and 
4 the plaintiff' who afterts it, let the king try by all 

* forts of expedients, and by the modes of ordeal 
4 prefcribed in the Veda. 

191. 4 He who reftores not a thing really der 
4 pofited, and he, who demands what he never 
4 bailed, fhall both, for a fecond offence , be pu r 
4 nifhed as thieves, if gold , pearls y or the like be 
4 demanded ; or,- in the cafe of a trifling demand , fhall 

* pay a fine equal to the value of the thing claimed : 

192. 4 For the firft offence, the king fhould 
4 compel a fraudulent depofttary, without any dif~ 

4 tin&ion betweeen a depofit under feal or open, 

* to pay a fine equal to its value. 

193. 4 That man, who, by falfe pretences, gets 
4 into h s hands the goods of another, fhall, toge- 
4 ther with his accomplices, be punifhed by vari- 
4 ous degrees of whipping or mutilation, or even 
? by death. 

194. 4 Regular fa) 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 215 

194. € Regularly, a depofit fhould be produced, 
the fame in kind and quantity as it was bailed, 
by the fame and to the fame perfon, by whom 
and from whom it was received, and before the 
fame company, who were witnejfes to the depofit : 
he who produces it, in a different manner, ought 
to be fined ; 

195. 4 But a thing, privately depofited, fhould 
be privately reflored by and to the perfon, by 
and from whom it was received : as the bailment 
was , fo Jhould be the delivery, according to a rule 
in the Veda. 

196. 4 Thus let the king decide caufes concern¬ 
ing a depofit, or a friendly loan for ufe, without 
fhowing rigour to the depofitarv. 

197. 4 Him, who fells the property of another 
man, without the affent of the owner, the judge 
fhall not admit as a competent witnefs, but fhall 
treat as a thief, who pretends that he has com¬ 
mitted no theft: 

198. 4 If, indeed he be a near kinfman of the 
owner, he fhall be fined fix hundred panas ; but, 
if he be neither his kinfman or a claimant under 
him, he commits an offence equal to larceny. 

199. 4 A gift or fale, thus made by any other 
than the true owner, muff, by a fettled rule, be 
confidered, injudicial proceedings, as not made. 

200. 4 Where occupation for a time fhall be 
proved, but no fort of title fhall appear, the Jale 
cannot be Jupported: title, not occupation, is 
eflential to its fupport; and this rule alfo is fixed. 

201. 4 He who has received a chattel, by pur- 
chale in open market, before a number of men, 
juftly acquires the abfolute property, by having 
paid the price of it, if he can produce the vendor ; 

P 4 202. 4 But 


21 6 ON JUDICATURE; AND ON LAW, 

202. 4 But if the vendor be not producible, and 
4 the vendee prove the publick fale, the latter muft 
* be difmiffed by the king, without punifhment ; 
4 and the former owner, who loft the chattel, may 
e take it back, on paying the vendee half its value . 

203. 4 One commodity mixed with another, 
4 fhail never be fold as unmixed ; nor a bad com- 
4 modity as good ; nor lefs than agreed on ; nor 
4 any thing kept at a diftance or concealed, left 
4 Jome defedl in it fhould he difcovered. 

204. 4 If after one damfel has been fhown, another 
4 be offered to the bridegroom, who had furchajed 
4 leave to marry her from her next kinfman , he may 
4 become the hufband of both for the fame price ; 
4 this law Menu ordained. 

205. c The kinfman, who gives a damfel in 
4 marriage, having fir ft openly told her blemifhes, 
4 whether fhe be infane, or difordered with ele- 
4 phantiafis, or defiled by connexion with a man, 
4 fhal] fuffer no punifhment. 

206. 4 If an officiating prieft, a&ually engaged 
c in a facrifice, abandon his work, a ffiare only, 
4 in proportion to his work done, fhail be given to 
? him by his partners in the bufinefs, out of their 
f common fay t 

207. ‘ But if he difcontinue his work without 
4 fraudy after the time of giving the facrificial fees, 
4 he may take his full fhare, and caufe what re- 
4 mains to be performed by another prieft. 

208. 4 Where, on the performance of folemn 
4 rites, a fpecifick fee is ordained for each part of 
4 them, fhail he alone, who performs that part, 
4 receive the fee, or ihall all the priefts take the 
4 perquifites jointly ? 

209. 4 At feme holy rites , let the reader of the 
f Tajurveda take the car, and 

1 


the Brahmdy or fu- 
4 jperintending 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 


217 

* perintending pried, the horfe ; or, on cnictber 

* occafion, lec the reader of the R'gve'da takr rhe 
4 horfe, and the chanter of the Samaveda receive 
1 the carriage, in which the purchaied materials 

* of the facnfice had been brought. 

210. 1 A hundred cows being difiributable among 
1 fixteen priejls , the four chief or firfi Jet, are en- 
? titled to near half, or forty eight; the next four 
4 to half of that number ; the third fet, to a third 
4 part of it; and the fourth fet, to a quarter : 

211. 4 According to this rule, or in proportion 
4 to the work , mull allotments of fhares be given 
4 to men here below, who, though in conjunction, 

4 perform their leverai parts of the bufinefs. 

212. 4 Should money or goods be given, or 
4 promi/ed as <1 gift, by one man to another who 
4 afks it for fome religious aft, the gift (hall be 
4 void, if that aft be not afterwards performed : 

213. 4 If the money be delivered, and the re- 
4 ceiver, through pride or avarice, rcfufe in that 
4 cafe to return it, he fhall be fined onefuvcrna b'j 
4 the king, as a punifhment for his thefr. 

214. 4 Such, as here declared, is the rule or- 
4 dained for withdrawing what has been given : 

* 1 will, next, propound the law for non-payment 
4 of wages. 

21 5. 4 That hired fervant or workman, who, 

* not from any diforder but from infolehce, fails 
4 to perform his work according to his agreement, 

* fhall be fined eighc ratticas, and his wages or 
f hire fhall not be paid. 

216. 4 But. if he be really ill, and, when reftored 
4 to health, fhall perform his work according to 

* his original bargain, he fhall receive his pay 
% even for a very long time : 

217. c Yet, 


2l8 ON JUDICATURE j AND ON LAW, 

217. c Yet, whether he be Tick or well, if the 
4 work ftipulated be not performed by another for 
4 him or by himjelf \ his whole wages are forfeited, 

* though the work want but a little of being 

* complete. 

218. * This is the general rule concerning work 
€ undertaken for wages or hire: next 1 will fully 
4 declare the law concerning fuch men as break 

* their promifes. 

219. f The man, among the traders and other 
4 inhabitants of a town or diftrift, who breaks a 
4 promife through avarice, though he had taken 
4 an oath to perform it, let the king banifh from 
4 his realm $ 

220. 4 Or, according to circumftances, let the 

* judge, having arrefted the promife-breaker, con- 

* demn him to pay fix nijbcas , or four fiivernas, or 
4 one fatamana of filver, or all three if he defervt 
€ Jucb a fine . 

221. 4 Among all citizens, and in all clafles, let 
‘ a juft king oblerve this rule for impofing fines on 

* men who fhall break their engagements. 

222. 4 A man who has bought or fold any 
4 thing in this world, that has a fixed price, and is 
4 not perijhable , as land or metals , and wifhes to 
4 refcind the contract, may give or take back fuch 
4 a thing within ten days ; 

223. 4 But, after ten days, he fhall neither give 
4 nor take it back : the giver or the taker, except 
4 by ccnfent , fhall be fined by the king fix hundred 
4 pamis . 

224. 4 The king himfelf fhall take a fine of 
4 ninety-fix panas from him who gives a blemifhed 
4 girl in marriage , for a reward, without avowing 
4 her blemifh y 


5 


225. 4 But 


FRJVATE AND CRIMINAL. 2I9 

225. 4 But the man, who, through malignity, 
4 fays of a damfel, that (he is no virgin, (hall be 
4 fined a hundred panas, if he cannoc prove her 
4 defilement. 

226. * The holy nuptial texts are applied folely 
4 to virgins, and no where on earth to girls who 
4 have loft their virginity ; fince thofe women are 
4 in general excluded from legal ceremonies : 

227. 4 The nuptial texts are a certain rule 
4 in regard to wedlock, and the bridal contract is 
4 known by the learned to be complete and irrevo - 
4 cable , on the leventh ftep cf the married fair, hand 
4 in band , after thofe texts have been pronounced. 

228. 4 By this law, in all bufinels whatever here 
4 below, muft the judge confine, within the path 
4 of reditude, a perfon inclined to refcind his 
4 contra# of lale and purchafe. 

229. 4 I now will decide exadly, according to 
4 principles of law, the contefts ufually arifing from 
4 the fault of fuch as own herds of cattle, and of 
4 fuch as are hired to keep them. 

230. 4 By day the blame falls on the herdfman; 
4 by night on the owner, if the cattle be fed and 
4 kept in his own houfe ; but, if the place of their 
4 food and cuftody be different, the keeper incurs 
4 the blame. 

231. 4 That hired fervant, whofe wages arn 
4 paid with milk, may, with the afient of the 
4 own r, milk the beft cow out of ten : fuch are 
4 the wages ofherdfmcn, unlefs they be paid in a 
4 different mode. 

232. 4 The herdfman himfelf (hall make good 
4 the lofs of a beaft, which through his want of 
4 due care, has ftrayed, has been deftroyed by 
4 reptiles, or killed by dogs, or has died by falling 
4 into a pit j 

233. * But 


22 © ON JUDICATURE; AND ON £AW, 

233. ‘ But he fhall not be compelled to make 
€ it good, when robbers have carried it away, if, 
‘ after frefh proclamation and purfuit, he give 
c notice to his matter in a proper place and feafon. 

234. i When cattle die, let him carry to his 
1 matter their ears, their hides, their tails, the 

* fkm below their navels, their tendons, and the 

* liquor exuding from their foreheads: : let him 

* alfo point out their limbs. 

235. c A flock of goats or of fheep being at- 

* tacked by wolves, and the keeper not going to 

* repel the attack , he fhall be refponfible for every 
c one of them, which a wolf fhall violently kill ; 

236. c But, if any one of them, while they 

* graze together near a wood, and the fhepherd 
c keeps them in order, (hall be fuddenly kdled 
‘ by a wolf fpringing on it, he fhall not in that cafe 
c be refponfible. 

237. c On all fides of a village or fmall town 

* let a fpace be left for pafture, in breadth either 
‘ four hundred cubits, or three cafts of a large 
ff flick ; and thrice that fpace round a city or con- 
c fiderable town: 

238. c Within that patture ground, if cattle do 
f any damage to grain in a field uninclofed with 
c a hedge, the king fhall not punifh the herdf- 
c man. 

239. c Let the owner of the field inclofe it with 
c a hedge of thorny plants 3 over which a camel 
( could not look ; and let him flop every gap, 

* through which a dog or a boar could thiufl: 

* his head. 

240. * Should cattle, attended by a herdfman, 

* do mifchief near a highway, in an inclofed field 
4 of near the village, he fhall be fined a hundred 

* Yanas $ 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 221 

‘ panas ; but againft cattle which have no keeper, 

* let the owner of the field fecure it. 

241. € In other fields, the owner Seattle doing 
‘ mifehief fhall be fined one panel and a quarter ; 

* but, in all places, the value of the damaged 
f grain mud be paid: fuch is the fixed ruie con- 

* cerning a hufbandman. 

242. * For damage by a cow before ten days 
1 have pafied fince her calving, by bulls kept for 
c impregnation, and by cattle confecraicd to the 

* deity, whether attended or unattended. Menu 
€ has ordained no fine. 

243. c If land be injured, by the fault of the 
' farmer himfelf, as if he fails to fow it in due time , 

* he fhall be fined tt n times as much as the king's 

* fhare of the crop, that might otherwife have been 

* raifed ; but only five times as much, if it was 
€ the fault of his fervants without his knowledge. 

244. 4 Thele rules let a juft prince obierve in 

* ali cafes of tranfgreflion by matters, their cattle, 

* and their herdlmen. 

245. c If a conteft arife between two villages, 

* or landholders , concerning a boundary, let the 

* king, or his judge, afeertain the limits in the 

* month of 'JyaiJht'ba , when the land-marks are 
1 feen more Uiftinctly. 

246. c When boundaries firfl are eftablifhed , let 

* ftrong trees be planted on them, Vatas , Pippalas , 

* Palajas , Salmalts, Salas or Talas; or fuch trees 
c (like the Udumbara or Vajradru) as abound in 
9 milk ; 

247. * Or cluflering fhrubs, or Venus of differ- 
9 ent forts, or Sami- trees, and creepers, or Saras , 
1 and clumps of Cubjacas : and mounds of earth 
c fhould be raifed on them, fo that the land-mark 
c may not eafily periQi: 


24$. * Lakes 


222 ON JUDICATURE | AND ON LAW* 

248. * Lakes and wells, pools and ftrearhs, 
4 ought alfo to be made on the common limits, 
4 and temples dedicated to the gods. 

249. c The perfons concerned, reflecting on 
4 the perpetual trefpaffes committed by men here 

* below through ignorance of boundaries, jfhould 

* caufe other land-marks to be concealed under 

* ground: 

250. 4 Large pieces of (tone, bones, tails of 
4 cows, bran, afhes, potfherds, dried cow-dung, 
4 bricks and tiles, charcoal, pebbles and fand, 

251. * And fubftances cf all forts, which the 
4 earth corrodes not even in a long time, fhould 

* be placed in jars not appearing above ground on 

* the common boundary. 

252. 4 By fuch marks, or by the courfe of a 
4 ftream, and long continued poflWTion, the judge 

* may afeertain the limit between the lands of two 
4 parties in litigation : 

253. 4 Should there be a doubt, even on the 
c inlpedtion of thofe marks, recourfe muft be had, 

* for the decifion of fuch a conteft, to the declara- 
4 tions ot witneffes. 

254. 4 Thofe witneffes muft be examined con- 

* cerning the land-marks, in the prefence of all 
4 the townfmen or villagers, or of both the con- 
4 tending parties: 

255. 4 What the witneffes, thus affembled and 
c interrogated, fhall pofitively declare con cerng 
4 the limits, muft be recorded in writing, together 
4 with all their names. 

256. 4 Let them, putting earth on their heads, 

4 wearing chaplets of red flowers and clad in red 
4 mantles, be fworn by the reward of all their 
4 feveral good adtions to give corredt evidence 
4 concerning the metes and bounds. 

257. 4 Veracious 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 223 

257. 4 Veracious witnefies, who give evidence 
4 as the law requires, are abfolved from their fins; 

* but fuch as give it unjudly, fliall each be fined 
4 two hundred panas. 

258. 4 If there be no witneffes, let four men, 

4 who dwell on all the four Tides of the two vil- 
4 lages, make a decifion concerning the boundary, 

* being duly prepared, like the witnejjes , in the 
4 prefence of the king. 

259. 4 If there be no fuch neighbours on all 
4 Tides, nor any men, nor any men whofe an- 
4 ceftors had lived there fince the villages were 
4 built, nor other inhabitants of towns, who can 

* give evidence on the limits, the judge mud ex- 
4 amine the following men, who inhabit the woods ; 

260. 4 Hunters, fowlers, herdfmen, fifhers, 
c diggers for roots, catchers of lnakes, gleaners, 
4 and other foreders : 

261. 4 According to their declaration, when 
4 they are duly examined, let the king with pre- 
4 cifion order land-marks to be fixed on the boun- 
4 dary line between the two villages. 

262. 4 As to the bounds of arable fields, wells 
4 or pools, gardens and houfes, the tedimony of 
4 next neighbours on every fide mud be confidered 
4 as the bed means of decifion : 

26^. 4 Should the neighbours fay any thing 
4 untrue, when two men difpute about a land- 
4 mark, the king fliall make each of thofe wit- 
4 nedes pay the middlemod of the three ufual 
4 amercements. 

264. 4 He, who by means of intimidation, fhall 
4 polfefs himfelf of a houfe, a pool, a field, or 
4 a garden, fhall be fined five hundred panas \ but 
4 only two hundred, if he trefpalfed through ig- 
‘ norance of the rivht . 

c 6 ; 4 If 


224 on judicature; and on law, 

2 6r. f Tf the boundary cannot be otherwife af~ 

* certained, let the king, knowing what is >uft, 

1 that is , without partiality , confulting the 

4 iucure benefit of both parties, make a bound line 
4 between their lands: this is a fettled law. 

266. 4 Thus has the rule been propounded for 
4 decifions concerning land-maiks: 1 next will 
4 declare the law concerning defamatory words. 

26~. 4 A soldier, defaming a prieft, fhall be 
4 fined a hund<ed panas; a merchant, thus offend - 
c /ȣ an hundred and fifty, or two hundred3 but, 
4 f cr J u cb an offence^ a mechanick or fervile man 
4 fhall be Whipped. 

268. 4 A pr eft fhall be fined five hundred, if 
4 he (lander a foldier; twentv-five if a merchant; 
4 and twelve if he (lander a man of the fervile 

* clafs. 

269. f For abufing one of the fame clafs, a 
4 twice born man, (hall be fined only twelve ; but 
4 for ribaldry not to be uttered, even that and 
4 every fine fhall be doubled. 

270. 6 A once born man, who infults the twice 
4 born with grofs invedtives, ought to have his 

* tongue (lit; for he fprang from the loweft part 

* of BRAHMA ; 

271. 4 If he mention their names and clafifes 
4 with contumely, as if he fay , <c Oh Devadat- 
4 ta, thou refufe of Brahmens,” an iron ftyle, 
4 ten fingers long, fhall be thruft red hot into his 
4 mouth. 

272. c Should he, through pride, give in- 
4 ftrudlion to priefts concerning their duty, let 
4 the king order fome hot oil to be dropped into 
4 his mouth and his ear. 

273. 4 He, who falfely denies through infolence, 

4 the 


private and criminal. 225 

f the (acred knowledge, the country, the clafs, or 
c the corporeal invediture of a man , equal in rank , 
c (hall be compelled to pay a fine of two hundred 
4 panas. 

274. 4 If a man call another blind with one 
4 eye, or lame, or defective in any fimilar way, 
4 he (hall pay the fmall fine of one pana , even 
4 though he fpeak truth. 

275. 4 He iliall be fined a hundred, who de- 
4 fames his mother, his father, his wife, his 
* brother, his fon, or his preceptor ; ahd he who 
4 gives not his preceptor the way. 

276. 4 For mutual abufe by a pried and a 
4 foldier, this fine mud be impofed by a learned 
4 king; the lowed amercement on the pried, 

4 and the middlemod on the foldier. 

277. 4 Such exadtly, as before-mentioned , mud 
4 be the punifhmenc of a merchant and a me- 
4 chanick in refpedt of their feveral dalles, except 
4 the flitting of the tongue: this is a fixed rule of 
4 punilhment. 

78. 4 Thus fully has the law been declared 
4 for the punifhment of defamatory fpeech: I 
4 will next propound the edablifhed law concern- 
4 ing aflfault and battery. 

279. 4 With whatever member a low born 
4 man fhall afTault or hurt a fuperiour, even that 
4 member of his mud be flit, or cut more or lefs 
4 in proportion to the injury: this is an ordinance 
4 of Menu. 

2So. 4 He, who raifes his hand or a daff againd 
4 another, fhall have his hand cut; and he who 
4 kicks another in wrath, iliall have an incifion 
4 made in his foot. 

281. 4 A man of the lowed clafs, who fhall 
4 inlolently place himfclf on the fame feat with 

4 one 


2 16 


ON 


AXD ON* 




4 one cf the ifighefi, {hall either be banifbed ith 
4 a tr.irk on his hinder parrs, or the king ihali 
4 caufc i gafn to be made or h s burrock: 

:k. c Should he fpit on him through pride, 

4 the k rg (hi.: order both of his lips to be gaihed; 

* fhould he urine on him, his penis; should he 
c break wind agairdt him, his anus. 

eS c If he Seize the Brahmen by the locks, 

* or by the feet, or by the beard, or by the 
4 threat, or by the ferotum, let the king with- 
4 out hefitadon caufe incifions to be made in his 
4 hands. 

284. 4 If any man fcratch the ikin cf bis cc. 
4 in clafSy or fetch blood frem him, he lhail be 

* fined 2 hundred rrs 33; if he wound a mulcie, 
c fix nljbcas ; bur, if he break 2 bone, iet him be 
4 inftantly banHhed. 

cSf. * According to the ufe 2nd value or 2 ' 
c great trees, muff a fine be fei for injuring idem : 
4 this is an eftablifhed rule. 

2So. c If a blow, attended wkh muck pain, 
1 be given either to human creatures or cattle, 
c the king fhali indict on the fir ker 2 pundhmeiu 
4 as heavy as the prefumed (offering. 

2S7. * In all cafes of hurting a limb, wound- 
4 ing, or fetching blood, the afikilant [hall pay 
c the expence cf a perrect cure ; or, sn bisfmhr^ 
4 both full damages and a fine to the fame 


c amount. 

28^. * Hz, who injures the eoods of 


another, 


4 whether acquainted or unacquainted with the 
4 owner of them, (hall give iausfa&ion to the 
4 owner, and p2y a noe to the king equal to the 
4 damage. 

2$ 9. 4 If injury be done to leather or to 

4 leathern 



PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL.' 227 

leathern bags, or utenfils made of wood or clay, 
the fine fnall be five times their value. 

290. ( The wife reckon ten occafions, in re¬ 
gard to a carriage, its driver, and its owner, on 
which the fine is remitted; on other occa- 
Iions a fine is ordained by law : 

291. c The nofe-cord or bridle being cut, ly 
feme accident without negligence, or the yoke being 
fnapped, on a fudden overturn, or running again ft 
any thing without fault , the axle being broken, 
or the wheel cracked : 

292. 1 On the breaking of the thongs, of the 
halter, or of the reins, and when the driver has 
called aloud to make way, on thefe occfions has 
Menu declared that no fine (hall be fet: 

293. c But, where a carriage has been over¬ 
turned by the unfkilfuinefs of the driver, there, 
in the cafe of any hurt, the mafter (hall be fined 
two hundred panas. 

294. ‘ If the driver be (kilful, hut negligent, the 
driver alone (hall be fined ; and thofe in the car¬ 
riage fhall be fined each a hundred, if the driver 
be clearly unfkilful. 

295. ‘ Should a driver, being met in the way 
by another carriage or by cattle, kill any animal 
by his negligence , a fine fhall, without doubt, 
be im poled by the following rule : 

296. ( For killing a man, a fine, equal to that 
for theft, (hall be inftantly fet; half t hat amount, 
for large brute animals, as for a bull or cow, 
an elephant, a camel, or a horfe ; 

297. ‘ For killing very young cattle, the fine 
(hall be two hundred panas ; and fifty, for ele¬ 
gant quadrupeds or beautiful birds, as antelopes , 
parrots , and the like ; 

CL* 


2-98. * For 


228 ON JUDICATURE 5 AND ON LAW, 

298. c For an afs, a goat, or a flieep, the fine 
‘ mu ft be five filver mdfhas ; and one mcifha for 

* killing a dog or a boar. 

299. c A wife, a fon, a fervant, a pupil, and 
c a younger whole brother, may be co-rredted, 
< when they commit faults, with a rope, or the 
‘ fmall fhoot of a cane ; 

300. c But on the back part only of their 
c bodies, and not on a noble part by any means : 
c he who ftrikes them otherwife than by this rule, 
c incurs the guilt, or Jh all pay the fine of a thief. 

301. c This law of afiault and battery has been 
r completely declared : I proceed to declare the 
c rule for the fettled punifhment of theft. 

.302. ‘ In reftraining thieves and robbers, let 
c the king ufe extreme diligence ; finee, by 

* reftraining thieves and robbers, his fame and 
c his domain are increafed. 

303. * Conftantly, no doubt, is that king to be 

* honoured, who beftows exemption from fear ; 
c fince he performs, aa it were , a perpetual facri- 
c fice, giving exemption from fear, as a conftant 
c facrificial prefent. 

304. c A fixth part of the reward for virtuous 

* deeds, performed by the whole people, belongs 
c to the king, who protedts them ; but, if he 
c protect them not, a fixth part of their iniquity 
( lights on him : 

305. c Of the reward for what every fubjedl 
6 reads in the Veda, for what he facrifices, for 
‘ what he gives in charity, for what he performs 

* in worfhip, the king juftly takes a fixth part in 

* confequence of protection. 

306. f A king, who adts with juftice in defend- 

* ing all creatures, and flays only thofe who ought 

‘ to 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 229 

* to be (lain, performs, as it were, each day a 

* i'ucrifice with a hundred thoufand gilts ,* 

307 ‘ But a king, who gives no fuch protec- 
c tion, yet receives taxes in kind or in value, mar- 
‘ ket duties and tolls, the fmall daily prelents for 

* his houfehold, and fines for offences, falls diredtly, 

* on his death, to a region ofhorrour. 

308. ‘ That king, who gives no protedion, 
f yet takes a fixth part of the grain as his revenue, 

* wife men have confidered as a prince who draws 
1 to him the foulnefs of all his people. 

309. * Be it known, that a monarch who pays 
f no regard to the fciiptures, who denies a future 

* (late, who ads with rapacity, who proteds noc 
‘ his people, yet fwallows up their pofTeffions, 
‘ will fink low indeed after death. 

310. ‘ With great care and by three methods 
c let him rellrain the unjud; by imprifonment, by 
f confinement in letters, and by various kinds of 
c corporal punifhment; 

311. ‘ Since, by retraining the bad, and by 
c encouraging the good, kings are perpetually 
c made pure, as the twice born are purified by fa- 

* crificing. 

312. ‘ A king who feeks benefit to his own 
c foul, mud always forgive parties litigant, chil- 
c dren, old men, and lick perlons, who inveigh 

* againft him. 

313. * He, who forgives perfons in pain, when 
c they abufe him, fhall, on that account, be exalted 
c in heaven ; but he, who excufes them not, 
‘ through the pride of dominion, fhall for that 
‘ reafon fink into hell. 

314. * The dealer of gold from a pried mud run 
c hadily to the king, with loofened hair, pro- 

Q^3 ‘ claiming 


2^0 ON JUDICATURE; AND ON LAW, 

f claiming the theft ; and adding \ c< Thus have I 
f finned, punifh me/’ 

315. ‘ He mud bear on his fhoulder a pedle of 
c done, or a club of c’hadira-viood, or a javelin 
c pointed at both ends, or an iron mace : 

3 6. c Whether the king drike him with it, or 
c difmifs him unhurt, the thief is then ablbived 
c from the crime; but the king, if he punilh him 
c not, (hail incur the guilt of the thief. 

317. € The killer of a pried, or deftroyer of an 
6 embryo , cads his guilt on the willing eater of his 
‘ provifions; an adulterous wife, on her negligent 
c hufba.nd ; a bad fcholar and facrificer, on their 
e ignorant preceptor ; and a thief, on the forgiving 

* prince. 

318 ‘ But men who have committed offences, 

c and have received from kings the punifhment 
c due to them, go pure to heaven, and become as 

* clear as thofe who have done well. 

319. c He, who deals the rope or the water-pot 
c from a well, and he, who breaks down a cidern, 
c fhall be fined a mafia of gold; and that, which 
c he has taken or injured he mud redore to its 
( former condition. 

320. c Corporal punifhment fhall be inflicted 

* on him who deals more than ten cumbhas of 
c grain, (a cumbha is twenty dronas, and a dr'ona 
c two hundred palas :) for lefs he mud be fined 

* eleven times as much, and fhall pay to the 
c owner the amount of his property. 

321. ‘ So fliall corporal punifhment be inflicted 
c for dealing commodities ufually fold by weight, 
c or more than a hundred head of cattle, or gold, 
c or filver, or codly apparel ; 

322. ‘ For dealing more than fifty falas, it is 

* enacted 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 


2 3 I 

enabled that a hand fhall be amputated ; for lefs, 
the king (hall fee a fine eleven times as much as 
the value. 

323. c For dealing men of high birth, and wo¬ 
men above all, and the moll precious gems, 
as diamonds or rubies , the thief deferves capital 
punifhment. 

324. ‘ For dealing large beads, weapons, or 
medicines, let the king infhdl adequate puniih- 
menr, confidering the time and the ad. 

325. ‘ For taking kine belonging to prieds, and 
boring their nodriis, or for dealing their other 
cattle, the offender fliall indantly lofe half of 
one foot. 

326. 1 For dealing thread, raw-cotton, mate¬ 
rials to make fpirituous liquor, cow-dung, mo- 
lades, curds, milk, butter-milk, water, or grafs, 

327. c Large canes, bafkets of canes, fait of 
every kind, earthen pots, clay or afhes, 

328. c Fifh, birds, oil, or clarified butter, 
defli-meat, honey, or any thing, as leather , horn , 
or ivory , that came from a bead, 

329. * Or other things not precious, or fpiri¬ 
tuous liquors, rice drefled with clarified but¬ 
ter, or other mefles of boiled rice, the fine 
mud be twice the value of the commodity 
dolen. 

330. ‘ For dealing as much as a man can carry 
of flowers, green corn, dirubs, creepers, fmali 
trees, or other vegetables, enclofrd bv a hedge, 
the fine diall be five rafticas ol gold or filver; 

331. f Hut for corn, pot-herbs, roots, and fiuir, 
unenclofed by a fence, the fine is an hundred 
panas t if there be no fort of relation between the 
taker and the owner ; or half a hundred if there 
be fuch relation. 


CU 


* S3 2 - ' If 


2$1 on judicature; and on law, 

332. c If the taking be violent, and in the fight 
c of the owner, it is robbery; if privately in his 
€ abfence, it is only theft, and it is confidered as 
1 theft , when a man, having received any thing, 
€ reiufes to give it back. 

333. ‘ On him who deals the before-mentioned 

* things, when they are prepared for ufe, let the 

* king let the low ed amercement of the three; 
€ and the fame on him who deals only fire from 

the temple. 

334. f With whatever limb a thief commits 

* the offence by any means in this world, as if 
c he break a wall with his hand cr his foGt > even 

c that limb fhall the king amputate for the pre- 
c venrion of a fimilar crime. 

335. c Neither a father, nor a preceptor, nor 

* a friend, nor a mother, nor a wife, nor a fon, 

* nor a domedick pried, mud be left unpunifhed 
c by the king, if they adhere not with nrmnefs to 

* their duty. 

336. c Where another man of lower birth 
c w'ould be fined one pana, the king fhall be fined 
c a thoufand, and he fhall give the fine to the 
c pr lefts , or caft it into the river : this is a fac re cl 

* rule. 

337. c But the fine of a Sudra for theft fhall 
€ be eight-fold ; that of a Vaifya , fixteen-fold ; 

* that of a Cfhatriya , two and thirty-fold. 

338. c That of a Brahmen , four and fixty-fold ; 

* or a hundredrfold complete, or even twice four 
€ and fixty-fold ; each of them know ing the na- 
c ture of his offence. 

339. € The taking of roots and fruit from a 
‘ large tree, in a field or a for eft unencloled, or of 
c wood for a facrihciai fire, or of grafs to be eaten 

* by cows, Menu has pronounced no theft. 

340. f A 


J 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 233 

340. 4 A priest who willingly receives any 
1 thing, either for facrificing or for inllrufting, 
c from the hand of a man who had taken what 
f the owner had not given, fliall be 'punifoed, even 

* as the thief. 

341. f A twice born man who is travelling, 

* and whofe provifions are feantv, fliall not be 
4 fined for taking only two fugar canes, or two 
f efculent roots, from the field of another man. 

342. 4 He who ties the unbound, or loofes 

* the bound cattle of another , and he who takes a 
4 flave, a horfe, or a carriage without ^ermiffion i 
4 fliall be punifhed as for theft. 

343. 4 A king, who by enforcing thefe laws 
4 reftrains men from committing theft, acquires 
4 in this world fame, and in the next beatitude. 

344. c Let not the king who ardently de- 
4 fires a feat with In dr a, and wi flies for glory, 
4 which nothing can change or dimimfli, endure 
4 for a moment the man who has committed 
c atrocious violence, as by robbery, arfon, or 
4 homicide. 

345. 4 He who commits great violence, muft 
4 be confidered as a more gi ievous offender than 
4 a defamer, a thief, or a flriker with a fiaft: 

346. 1 That king who endures a man conv’nft- 
4 ed of fuch atrocity, quickly goes to perdition, 
4 and incurs publick hate. 

347. 4 Neither on account of friendfhip, nor 
4 for the fake of great lucre, fliall the king difmifs 
4 the perpetrators of violent a< 5 ts, who fpread 
4 terrour among all creatures. 

348. 4 The twice born may take arms when 
4 their duty is obflrudled by force; and when in 
4 feme evil time a difaftcr has befallen the twice- 
4 born dalles; 


349. ‘ And 


23 4 ON JUDICATURE ; AND ON LAW, 

349. 4 And in their own defence ; and in a 
4 war for juft caufe ; and in defence of a woman 
4 or a prieft ; he who kills juftly, commits no 
4 crime. 

350. 4 Let a man without hefitation flay ano- 
4 ther, if he cannot otherwife ejcafe> who aftails him 
4 with intent to murder, whether young or old, 
4 or his preceptor, or a Brahmen deeply verfed in 

* the fcripture. 

351. 4 By killing an afiaflln, who attempts to 
4 kill, whether in public or in private, no crime 
4 is committed by the flayer : fury recoils upon 

* fury. 

352. 4 Men who commit overt-a< 51 s of adul- 
4 terous inclinations for the wives of others, let 
4 the king banifh from his realm, having pu- 
4 nifhed them with fuch bodily marks as excite 
4 averfion ; 

353. 4 Since adultery caufes, to the general 
4 ruin, a mixture of clafles among men : thence 
4 aiiles violation of duties ; and thence is the root 
4 of felicity quite deftroyed. 

334. 4 A man before noted for fuch an offence, 
4 w ho ccnverfes in fecret with the wife of ano- 
4 ther, fhall pay the fir ft of the three ufual amerce- 
4 ments ; 

355. 4 But a man, not before noted, who thus 
4 converfes with her for fome reafonable caufe, 
4 Avail pay no fine ; fince in him there is no 
4 tranfgreflion. 

3^6. 4 He, who talks with the wife of another 
4 man at a place of pilgrimage, in a foieft or a 
4 grove, or at the confluence of rivers, incurs the 
4 guilt of an adulterous inclination : 

357. 4 To fend her flowers or perfumes, to 
4 fport and jeft with her, to touch her apparel and 

4 ornaments. 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 23j 

ornaments, to fit with her on the fame couch, 
are held adulterous atts on his part •, 

338. 4 To touch a married woman on her 
breafts or any other place, which ought not to be 
touched, or, being touched unbecomingly by 
her, to bear it complacently, are adulterous adls 
with mutual affent. 

339. c A man of the fervile clafs, who com¬ 
mits a&ual adultery with the wife of a prieft, 
ought to fuffer death : the wives, indeed, or all 
the four clafles mult ever be molt efpecially 
guarded. 

360. 4 Mendicants, encomiatts, mrn prepared 
for a facrifice, and cooks and other artilans, are 
not prohibited from fpeaking to married women. 

361. 4 Le: no man convcrfe, after he has been 
forbidden, with the wives of others : he, who 
thus converfes. after a hujhand or father has for¬ 
bidden hiWy fhall pay a line ofo ntfui'erna. 

362. 4 Thefc laws relate not to the wives of 
publick dancers or fingers, or of fuch bafe men 
as live by intrigues ot thtir wives; men, who 
either carry women to others, or, lying con¬ 
cealed at home, permit them to hold a culpable 
intercourfe : 

36 3 4 Yet he, v/ho has a private connexion with 
fuch women, or with fcrvant-girls kept by one 
matter, or with female anchorets of an heretical 
religion , fhall be compelled to pay a fmall fine. 
364 4 He, who vitiates a damfel without her 
confent, fhall fuffer corporal punifhmcnt in- 
ttantly ; but he, who enjoys a willing damfel, 
fhall not be corporally punilhed, if his clafs be 
the lame wiih hers. 

365. 4 From a girl, who makes advances to 

* a man 


236 ON JUDICATURE; AND ON L AW, 

c a man of a high clafs, let not the king take the 
c finallefi: fine ; but her, who firfi: addrefies a low 
c man, let him confirain to live in her houfe 
4 well guarded. 

366. c A low man, who makes love to a dam- 
4 lei of high birth, ought to be punifhed corpo- 
c rally ; but he who addrefies a maid of equal 

< rank, fhall give the nuptial prelent and marry 
* her , if her father pleafe. 

367. c Of the man, who through infolence 
‘ forcibly contaminates a damfel, let the king in- 
c ftandy order two fingers to be amputated, and 
c condemn him to pay a fine of fix hundred 
c fanas : 

368. c A man of equal rank, who defiles a con- 

< fenting damfel, (hall not have his fingers am- 

O O £ 

c putated, but lhall pay a fine of two hundred 
' fanaSy to reflrain him from a repetition of his 
c offence. 

369. c A damfel polluting another damfel, muff 

< be fined two hundred 'panas> pay the double 
f value of her nuptial prefect, and receive ten 
c lafhes with a whip ; 

370. f But a woman, polluting a damfel, fhall 
c have her head inftantly fhaved, and two of her 
c fingers chopped off; and lhall ride, mounted on 
‘ an afs, through the publick Jlreet . 

371. c Should a wife, proud of her family 

< and the great qualities of her kinfmen, actually 

< violate the duty which Ike owes to her lord, 
f let the king condemn her to be devoured by 
c dogs in a place much frequented ; 

372. c And let him place the adulterer on an 
‘ iron bed well heated, under which the execu- 
‘ tioners fhall throw logs continually, till the 
‘ finful wretch be there burned to death . 

373. ‘ Or 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 237 

273. 4 Of a man once convi< 5 led, and a year 
c afrer guilty of the fame crime> the fine muff be 

* doubled : fo it muft if he be connefted with 
f the daughter of an outcall or with a Cbandali 
4 woman. 

374.. 4 A mec’nanick or fervile man, having an 

* adulterous connexion with a woman of a twice 
4 born clafs, whether guarded at home or un- 
4 guarded, Jball thus he punifhed ; if flic was un- 

* guarded, he fiiall lofe the part offending , and his 
4 whole fubllance ; il guarded, and a priejlefs> 
4 every thing, even his life. 

375. 4 For adultery with a guarded priejlcfs> a 
4 merchant fiiall forfeit all his wealth after impri- 
4 fonment for a year ; a foldier fiiall be fined a 

* thoufmd fanaS) and be fiiaved with the urine of 
an afs : 

376. 4 But, if a merchant or a foldier commit 

* adultery with a woman of the facerdotal clafs, 

* whom her hufband guards not at home, the king 
4 fiiall only fine the merchant five hundred, and 
4 the foldier a thoufand : 

377. 4 Both of them, however, if. they commit 
c that offence with aprieftefs not only guarded, but 
4 eminent for good qualities , fiiall be punifiied like 
4 men of the fervile clafs, or be burned in a fire 
4 of dry grafs or reeds. 

378. 4 A Brahmen , who carnally knows a 
4 guarded woman without her free will, mull be. 
4 fined a thoufand panas, but only live hundred if 
4 he knew her with her free conlcnr. 

379. 4 Ignominious tonfure is ordained, in- 
4 (lead of capital punifiiment, for an adulterer of 
4 the prieftly clafs, where the punifiiment of other 
4 claftes may extend to lofs of life. 

38c. 4 Never 


38 ON JUDICATURE; AND ON LAW, 

3So. e Never fhail the king flay a Brahmen 
though convi&ed of all poffible crimes : let him 
banifh the offender from his realm, but with all 
his property fecure, and his body unhurt : 

381. c No greater crime is known on earth 
than flaying a Brahmen ; and the king, therefore, 
muff not even form in his mind an idea of kill¬ 
ing a pried. 

382. c If a merchant converfe criminally with 
a guarded v/oman of the military, or a foldier 
with one of the mercantile clafs, they both de- 
ferve the fame punifhment as in the cafe of a 
prieflefs unguarded : 

383. ( But a Brahmen, who fhail commit adul¬ 
tery w r ith a guarded woman of thofe two claffes, 
mud be fined a thoufand panas ; and, for the 
like offence with a guarded woman of the fervile 
clafs, the fine of a foldier or a merchant (hall 
alfo be one thoufand. 

384. f For adultery w r ith a woman of the mi¬ 
litary clafs, if unguarded, the fine of a merchant 
is five hundred ; but a foldier, for the converfe of 
that offence , mud be fiiaved with urine, or pay 
the fine juft mentioned. 

385. c A pried diall pay five hundred panas if 
he connect himfelf criminally with an unguarded 
woman of the military, commercial, or fervile 
clafs; and a thoufand for fuch a connexion with a 
woman of vile mixed breed. 

386. c That king, in whofe realm lives no 
thief,' no adulterer, no defamer, no man guilty 
of atrocious violence, and no committer of af- 
faults, attains the manfion of Sacra. 

387. c By fupprefling thofe five in his dominion, 
he gains royalty paramount over men of the 

c fame 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 239 

fame kingly rank, and fpreads his fame through 
the world. 

3B8. 4 The facrificer who forfakes the officiat¬ 
ing priell, and the officiating pricit who aban¬ 
dons the facrificer, each being able to do his 
work, and guiltv of no grievous offence, muft 
each be fined a hundred farias. 

3S9. 4 A mother, a father, a wife, and a fon, 
fha.ll not be forfaken : he, who forfakes either of 
them, unlefs guilty of a deadly fin, (hall pay 
fix hundred panas as a fine to the king. 

390. 4 Let not a prince, who feeks the good 
of his own foul, ba/lily and alone pronounce the 
law, on a dilpiite concerning any legal obser¬ 
vance, among twice born men in their feveral 
orders ; 

391. f But let him, after giving them due ho¬ 
nour according to their merit, and, at firtl, hav¬ 
ing lbothed them by mildnefs, apprife them of 
their duty with the aflifbance of Brahmens . 

392. 4 The pried who gives an entertain rent 
to twenty men of the three fii ft clafies, without 
inviting his next neighbour, and his neighbour 
next but one, if both be worthy of an invitation, 
ihall be fined one mdjha of filver. 

393. 4 A Brahmen ofdeep learning in the Veda 
who invites not another Brahmen , both learned 
and virtuous, to an entertainment given on fame 
occafion relating to his wealth, as the marriage of 
his child, and the like , Ihall be made to pay him 
twice the value of the repaft, and be fined a 
majba of gold. 

394. 4 Neither a blind man, nor an idiot, nor 
a cripple, nor a man full levcnty years old, nor 
one who confers great benefits on prielts of emi- 

3 4 nent 


240 ON JUDICATURE ; AND ON LAW, 

c nent learning, fhall be compelled by any king to 
‘ pay taxes. 

395. f Let the king always do honour to a 

* learned theologian, to a man either Tick or 

* grieved, to a little child, to an aged or indigent 
c man, to a man of exalted birth, and to a man of 
c diflinguifhed virtue. 

396. c Let a wafherman wadi the clothes of his 
c employers by little and little, or piece by piece, and 
c not haftily, on a fmooth board of Salmali- wood : 
c let him never mix the clothes of one p erf on with 
c the clothes of another, nor fuffer any but the owner 

* to wear them. 

397. c Let a weaver who has received ten 
c palas of cotton thread, give them back increafed 
1 to eleven by the rice water and the like ufed in 
< weaving: he who does other wife, fhall pay a 
c fine of twelve panas. 

398. c As men verfed in cafes of tolls, and ac- 
c quainted with all marketable commodities, fhall 

* eflablifh the price of laleable things, let the king 

* take a twentieth part of the profit on fales at that 
c price. 

399. c Of the trader, who, through avarice, 
f exports commodities, of which the king juftly 

* claims the pre-emption, or on which he has 
c laid an embargo, let the fovereign confifcate the 
c whole property. 

400. ‘ Any feller or buyer, who fraudulently 

* pafles by the toll office at night, or any other im- 
K proper time, or who makes a falle enumeration 
c of the articles bought, fhall be fined eight times 
c as much as their value. 

401. ‘ Let the king eflablifh rules for the fale 
1 and purchafe of all marketable things, having 
c duly confidered whence they come, if imported ; 

‘ and. 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 24I 

* and, if exported , whither they muft be fent ; 
‘ how long they have been kept; what may be 
c gained by them; and what has been expended 

* on them. 

402. ‘ Once in five flights, or at the clofe of 
c every half month, according to the nature of the 

* commodities , let the king make a regulation for 
4 market prices in the prefence of thofe experi- 
1 enced men: 

403. ‘ Let all weights and meafures be well 

* ascertained by him ; and once in fix months let 
■* him re-examine them. 

404. ‘ The toll at a ferry is one pana for an 
1 empty cart ; half a pana , for a man with a load ; 

* a quarter, for a bealt ufed in agriculture, or for 
‘ a woman ; and an eighth, for an unloaded man. 

405. ‘ Waggons filled with goods packed up, 
€ fhall pay toll in proportion to their value; but 

* for empty vefiels and bags, and for poor men ill- 

* apparelled, a very fmall toll (hall be demanded. 

406. 6 For a long pafiage, the freight muft be 
‘ proportioned to places and times ; but this 
4 muft be underftood of paflages up and down 

* rivers : at fea there can be no fettled freight. 

407. ‘ A woman, who has been two months 

* pregnant, a religious beggar, a forefter in the 

* third order, and Brahmens , who are ftudents iti 
‘ theology, (hall not be obliged to pay toll for 
€ their pafiage. 

408. ‘ Whatever (hall be broken in a boat, by 
f the fault of the boatmen, (hall be made good by 
‘ thofe men collectively, each paying his portion. 

409. ‘ This rule) ordained for fuch as pafs 
c rivers in boats, relates to the culpable negleCt of 

* boatmen on the water : in the cafe of inevitable 

* accident, there can be no damages recovered. 

R 410. * The 


l\l ON JUDICATURE ; AND ON LAW, 


410. c The kipg fliould order each man of the' 
4 mercantile clafs to pradife trade, or money- 
4 lending, or agriculture and attendance on cattle; 

4 and each man of the fervile clafs to ad: in the 
4 fervice of the twice born. 

411. 4 Both him of the military, and him of the 
4 commercial clafs, if dillrefled for a livelihood, 

4 let fome wealthy Brahmen fupport, obliging them 

* without harfhnefs to discharge their feveral duties. 

412. 4 A Brahmen, who, by his power and 
4 through avarice, (hall caufe twice born men, 

4 girt with the factificial thread, to perform fer- 
4 vile ads, fuch as wafhing his feet , without their 
4 confent, (hall be fined by the king fix hundred 
4 panas; 

413. 4 But a man of the fervile clafs whether 
6 bought or unbought, he may compel to perform 
4 fervile duty ; becaufe fuch a man was created 
4 by the Self-exiftent for the purpofe of ferving 
4 Brahmens : 

414. 4 A Stcdra, though emancipated by his 
4 matter, is not releafed from a (late of fervitude ; 

* for of a (late which is natural to him, by whom 
6 can he be diverted ? 

415. 4 There are fervants of feven forts; one 
4 made captive under a ftandard or in battle , one 
4 maintained in confideration of fervice, one born 
4 of a female (lave in the houfe, one fold, or 
4 given, or inherited from anceftors, and one en- 
4 (laved by way of punittiment on his inability to 
4 pay a large fine . 

416. 4 Three perfons, a wife, a fon, and a (lave, 
4 are declared by law to have in general no wealth 
4 excluftvely their own : the wealth, which they 
4 may earn, is regularly acquired for the man to 
4 whom they belong. 

417. 4 A 


PRIVATE AND CRIMINAL. 


243 

417. * A Brahmen may feize without hefitation* 
if be be difrefj'ed for a fubf (fence, the goods of his 
Sudra flave; for as that flave can have no pro¬ 
perty, his matter may take his goods. 

418. ‘ With vigilant care fhould the king ex¬ 
ert himfelf in compelling merchants and mecha- 
nicks to perform their refpeftive duties; for 
when fuch men fwerve from their duty, they 
throw this world into confufion. 

419- ‘ Day by day muft the king, though en¬ 
gaged in frenftck buji'iefs , confider the great ob¬ 
jects of pubuck meafurcs, and inquire into the 
ttate of his carriages, elephants , liorfes , and cars, his 
conftant revenues and necettary expences, his 
mines of precious metals or gemsi and his treafury : 
420. ‘ Thus, bringing to a conclufion all thefe 
weighty affairs, and removing from his realm and 
from himfelf every taint of fin, a king reaches the 
fupreme path of beatitude.’ 


I' 


■ 




■ V 




























































( 245 ) 


CHAPTER THE NINTH. 

On the fame ; and on the Commercial and 
Servile Clajj'es. 


1. ‘ I now will propound the immemorial 
‘ duties of man and woman, who muft both re- 
‘ main firm in the legal path, whether united or 

‘ feparated. , 

2. ‘ Day and night muft women be held by 

< rheir protedfors in a ftate of dependence; but 
« in lawful and innocent recreations, though rather 

< add idled to them, they may be left at thetr own 


difpofal. . , 

- < Their fathers proteSt them in child-hood ; 
their hu(bands proteSt them in youth ; their 
fons protedt them in age : a woman is never fit 
for independence. 

4. ‘ Reprehenfible is the father, who gives not 
his daughrer in marriage at the proper time , 
and the hufband, who approaches not his wife 
in due feafon ; reprehenfible all'o is the fon, 
who protests not his mother after the death ot 
her lord. 

5. ‘ Women muft, above all, be reftrained from 
the fmalleft illicit gratification ; for, not being 

R * 4 thus 




246 ON THE SAME; AND ON THB 

c thus reftrained, they bring forrovv on both fa- 
‘ milies : 

6. * Let hufbands confider this as the fupreme 
c law, ordained for all daffes ; and let them, 
‘ how weak foever, diligently keep their wives 
‘ under lawful reftriCtions; 

7. ‘ For he who preferves his w r ife from vice , 
c preferves his offspring from fufpicion of baftardy, 
‘his ancient ufages from negletl, his family from 
c difgrace, himfel ffrom anguifhy and his duty from 
‘ violation . 

8. ‘ The hufband, after conception by his wife, 
‘ becomes himfelf an embryo, and is born a 
‘ fecond time here below; for which reafon the 
€ wife is called jaya , fince by her (jayate) he is 
‘ born again : 

9. 6 Now the wife brings forth a fon endued 
c with fimilar qualities to thofe of the father; 
‘ fo that with a view to an excellent offspring, 
‘ he muff vigilantly guard his wife. 

10. ‘ No man, indeed, can wholly reffrain 
‘ women by violent meafures ; but, by thefe 
‘ expedients, they may be retrained : 

11. ‘ Let the hufband keep his wife employed in 
c the collection and expenditure of wealth, in puri- 
c fication and female duty, in the preparation of 
f daily food, and the fuper-intendence of houfe- 
f hold utenfils. 

12. ‘By confinement at heme, even under 
c affectionate and obfervant guardians, they are 

* not fecure; but thofe women are truly fecure, 

1 who are guarded by their own good inclina- 

* tiqns. 

13. ‘ Drinking fpifitnons liquor , affociating with 
€ evil perfons, ablence from her hufband, ram- 

‘ bling 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 247 

4 bling abroad, unfeafonable deep, and dwelling 
4 in the houfe of another, are fix faults which 
‘ bring infamy on a married woman : 

14. 4 Such won.en examine not beauty, nor pay 
4 attention to age; whether their lover be hand- 
4 fome or ugly, they think it is enough that lie is 
4 a man, and purfue their pleafures. 

1 4 Through their paffion for men, their 
4 mutable temper, their w'ant of fettled affedtion^ 

4 and their perverfe nature, (let them be guarded 
4 in this world ever fo well) they foon become 
‘ alienated from their hufbands. 

16. ‘ Yet fhould their hulbands be diligently 
4 careful in guarding them ; though they well 
4 know the difpodtion with which the lord of 
* creation formed them : 

17. 4 Menu allotted to fuch women a love 
4 of their bed, of their feat, and of ornament, 

4 impure appetites, wrath, weak flexibility, defire 
4 of mifehiet, and bad condud. 

18. 4 Women have no bufinefs with the texts 
4 of the Veda ; thus is the law fully fettled; 

4 having therefore no evidence of law , and no 
4 knowledge of expiatory texts, finlul women mull 
4 be as foul as falsehood itfelf; and this is a fixed 
4 rule. 

19. 4 To this efFcd, many texts, which may 
4 ihow their true difpofition, are chanted in the 
4 Vedas : hear now their expiation for fin. 

20. “ That pure blood, which my mother 
44 defileth by adulterous defire, frequenting the 
44 houfes of other men, and violating her duty 
44 to her lord, that blood may my father purify [ t% 
4 Such is the tenour of the holy text, which her 
‘ Jon , who knows her guilt, muji pronounce for her ; 

R 4 21. * And 


248 ON THE same; and on the 

21. c And this expiation has been declared for 
c every unbecoming thought, which enters her 

* mind, concerning infidelity to her hufband, 

4 fince that is the beginning of adultery. 

22. * Whatever be the qualities of the mail 

* with whom a woman is united by lawful mar- 
€ riage, fuch qualities even Ihe affumes; like a 
c river united with the fea. 

23. ‘ Acshama'la 7 , a woman of the lowed: 

* birth, being thus united to Vasisht’ha, and 
< Sa'rangi, being united to Mandapa'la, were 

* entitled to very high honour: 

24. 6 Thefe and other females of low birth, 
c have attained eminence in this world by the 

* refpective good qualities of their lords. 

25. ‘ Thus has the law, ever pure, been pro- 

* pounded for the civil condudt of men and wo- 
‘ men : hear next the laws concerning children, 
c by obedience to which may happinefs be at- 
c tained in this and the future life. 

26. ( When good women united with hufbands 
‘ in expedition of progeny, eminently fortunate 

* and worthy of reverence, irradiate the houfes 
‘ of their lords, between them, and goddelfes of 
c abundance, there is no diverfity whatever. 

27. 6 The produdtion of children, the nurture 

* of them when produced, and the daily fuper- 

* intendence of domeftick affairs are peculiar t-o 
€ the wife : 

28. 6 From the wife alone proceed offspring, 
‘ good houfehold management, felicitous atten- 

* tion, moft exquifite careffes, and that heavenly 

* beatitude which fhe obtains for the manes of 
1 anceftors, and for the hufband himfelf. 

29. 4 She who deferts not her lord^ but keeps 

4 in 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 249 

c in fubjedtion to him her heart, her fpeech, and 
4 her body, fhall attain his manfion in heaven; and, 

4 by the virtuous in this world, be called Sddhwi , 

€ or good and faithful; 

30. ‘ But a wife, by difloyalty to her huf- 
c band, (hall incur difgrace in this life, and be 
‘ born in the next from the womb of a fhakal, or 
€ be tormented with horrible difeafes, which pu- 
€ nifh vice 

31. 4 Learn now that excellent law, univer- 
4 fally falutary, which was declared concerning 
4 iffue, bv great and good fages, formerly born. 

32. ‘ They confider the male iffue of a woman 
4 as the fon of the lord ; but, on the fubjedt of 
f that lord, a difference of opinion is mentioned 
4 in the Veda ; fome giving that name to the real 
4 procreator of the child, and others applying it 
4 to the married poffeffor of the woman. 

33. 4 The woman is confidered in law as the 
4 field, and the man as the grain : now vegetable 
4 bodies are formed by the united operation of the 
4 feed and the field. 

34. 4 In fomc cafes the prolifick power of the 
4 male is chiefly diftinguifhed ; in others, the re- 
4 ceptacle of the female ; but, when both are 
4 equal in dignity, the offspring is moil highly 
4 efteemed : 

35* 6 general, as between the male and fe- 
4 male powers of procreation, the male is held 
4 fuperiour; fince the offspring of all procreant 
4 beings is diftinguifhed by marks of the male 
4 power. 

36. * Whatever be the quality of feed, feattered 
4 in a field prepared in due feafon, a plant of the 
4 fame quality fprings in that field, with peculiar 
4 yifible properties. 

37. f Certainly 


Ox 


O ON THE SAME; ANT) ON THE 

37. 4 Certainly this earth is called the primeval 
4 womb of many beings ; but the feed exhibits 
4 not in its vegetation any properties of the womb. 

38. 4 On earth here below, even in the fame 
4 ploughed field, feeds of many different forms, 

4 having been Town by hufband’men in the proper 

* feafon, vegetate according to their nature : 

39. 4 Rice plants, mature in fixty days, and 
4 thofe which require tranfplantaticn, mudga , tila , 

4 mafia, barley, leaks, and fugar-canes, all ipring 
4 up according to the feeds. 

40. 4 That one plant fhould be fown, and ano- 
4 ther produced cannot happen : whatever feed 
4 may be fown, even that produces its proper ffem. 

41. 4 Never muff it be fown in another man's 
4 field by him, who has natural good fenfe, who 
4 has been well inflrudtcd, who knows the Veda 
4 and its Angas, who defires long life : 

42. 4 They who are acquainted with paflimes, 

* have preferred, on this fubjedf, holy drains 
4 chanted by every breeze, declaring, that 44 feed 
44 muff not be fown in the field of another man. v * 

43. 4 As the arrow of that hunter is vain, who 
4 (Loots it into the wound which another had made 
4 juft before in the antelope, thus inifantly pe- 

* rifhes the feed which a man throws into the 
4 foil of another : 

44. 4 Sages, who know former times, confider 
4 thisearth (Pndhivi) as the wife of king pRirfftT; 
1 and thus they pronounce cultivated land to be 
4 the property of him w'ho cut away the wood, or 
4 who cleared and tilled it ; and the antelope, of the 
4 firft hunter, who mortally wounded it. 

45. 4 Then only is a man perfect, when he 
4 con fills of three perfons united, his wife, himfelf, 
4 and his fon; and thus have learned Brahmens 

4 announced 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 


* 5 * 


4 announced this maxim : 44 The hufband is even 
44 one pcrfon with his wife,” for all dome flick and 
€ religious , not fcr all civil picrpofes. 

46. ‘ Neither by fale nor defertion can a wife be 

* releafed from her hufband : thus we fully ac- 

* knowledge the law enadted of old by the Lord 
4 of creatures. 

47. 4 Once is the partition of an inheritance 
c made ; once is a damfel given in marriage; and 

* once does a man fay 44 I give thefe three 
4 are, by good men, done once for all and ir - 
4 revocable. 

48. 4 As with cows, mares, female camels, 
4 ilave-girls, milch buffalos, fhe goats, and 
4 ewes, it is not the owner of the bull, or other 
4 father, who owns the offspring, even thus is it 
4 with the wives of others. 

49. 4 They who have no property in the field, 
4 but having grain in their poffeflion, fow it in foil 
4 owned by another, can receive no advantage 
4 whatever from the corn, which may be pro- 
4 duced : 

50. 4 Should a bull beget a hundred calves on 
4 cows not owned by his mailer, thofe calves be- 
4 longfolely to the proprietors of the cows; and 
4 the ftrength of the bull was walled : 


4 Thus men, who have no marital 


pro- 


c perty in women, but fow in the fields owned 
4 by others, may raife up fruit to the hufbands ; 
c but the procreator can have no advantage 
4 from it. 

52. 4 Unlefs there be a fpecial agreement be- 
• tween the owners of the land and of the feed, 
4 the fruit belongs clearly to the land-owner, for 
4 the receptacle is more important than the feed : 


53 


But 


252 ON THE SAME ; AND ON THE 

53. c But the owners of the feed and of the foil 
? may be confidered in this world as joint owners 
c of the crop, which they agree, by fpecial com- 
€ padt in confideration of the feed, to divide 
‘ between them. 

54. e Whatever man owns afield, if feed, con- 
‘ veyed into it by water or wind, fhould germinate, 
c the plant belongs to the land-owner : the mere 

* fower rakes not the fruit. 

55. 6 Such is the law concerning the offspring 

* ot cows, and mares, of female camels, goats, 

* and fheep. of flave girls, .liens, and milch buf- 

* faios, un/efs there be a fpecial agreement, 

56. 6 Thus has the comparative importance of 

* the foil and the feed been declared to you : 1 will 
1 next propound the law concerning women, who 

* have no ilfue by their hujbands. 

57. ‘ The wife of an elder brother is confidered 

* as mother-in-law to the younger ; and the wife 

* of the younger as daughter-in-law to the elder : 

38. c The elder brother, amoroufly approach- 
c ing the wife of the younger, and the younger, 
i carefling the wife of the elder, are both degraded, 

* even though authorized by the hujband or fpiritual 

* guide, except when fuch wife has no ifTue. 

39. ‘ On failure of ifTue by the hufoand, if he 

* be of the fervile cLifs , the defired offspring may be 

* procreated, either by his brother or forne other 

* fapinda 9 on the wife, who has been duly au- 
c thorized : 

60. £ Sprinkled with clarified butter, filent in 
c the night, let the kinfman thus appointed beget 
c one fon, but a fecond by no means, on the 

* widow or childlefs zvife : 

61. ‘ Some fages, learned in the laws concern- 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 2J3 

* ing women, thinking it poffible, that the great 
« objedl of that appointment may not be obtained 

* by the birth of a Jingle fon , are of opinion, that the 
« wife and appointed kinfman may legally pro- 

* create a fecond. 

62. ‘ The firft object of the appointment being 
‘ attained according to law, both the brother and 

* the widow mult live together like a father and a 
‘ daughter by affinity. 

63. « Either brother, appointed for this pur- 

* pole, who deviates from the finct rule, and adls 
‘ from carnal defire, fhall be degraded, as having 
' defiled the bed of his daughter-in-law or of his 
‘ father. 

64. ‘ By men of twice born daffies no widow, 

< or childlejs wife , mull be authorized to conceive 
1 by any other than her lord, for they, who au- 

< thorize her to conceive by any other, violate the 

* primeval law. 

6;. * Such a commiffion to a brother or other 
« near kinjman is nowhere mentioned in the nuptial 

< texts of the Veda ; nor is the marriage of a 

< widow even named in the laws concerning 
1 marriage. 

66. 4 This practice, fit only for cattle, is repre- 

< hended by learned Brahmens ; yet it is declared 

* to have been the practice even of men, while 

* Ve'na had fovereign power: 

67. i He, poffieffing the whole earth, an d thence 

< only called the chief of fage monarchs, gave rile 
‘ to a confufion of clafles, when his intellect be- 
« came weak through lull. 

68. ‘ Since his time the virtuous difapprove of 
« that man, who, through delufion of mind, di- 
« retts a widow to receive the carejfes of another for 
« the fake of progeny. 


69. The 


254 on the same ; and on the 

69. 4 The damfel, indeed , whofe hufband fhall 
4 die after troth verbally plighted, but before con - 
4 fummation , his brother {hall take in marriage ac- 
4 cording to this rule : 

70. 4 Having efpoufed her in due form of law, 
4 {he being clad in a white robe, and pure in her 

* moral condudt, let him approach her once in 

* each proper feafon, and until iffue be had. 

71. ‘ Let no man of fenfe, who has once 
4 given his daughter to a fuitor, give her again to 

* another ; for he, who gives away his daughter, 

* whom he had before given, incurs the guilt and 
4 fine of ipeaking falfely in a caufe concerning 
4 mankind. 

72. * Even though a man have married a 
4 young woman in legal form, yet be may aban- 
‘ don her, if he find her blemifhed, afflidded with 
4 difeafe, or previoufiy deflowered, and given to 
4 him with fraud : 

73. 4 If any man give a faulty damfel in 
4 marriage, without diiclofing her blemilh, the 
4 hufband may annul that adt of her ill-minded 
4 giver. 

74. 4 Should a man have bufinefs abroad, let 
4 him aflure a fit maintenance to his wife, and 
4 then refide for a time in a foreign country ; fince 
4 a wife, even though virtuous, may be tempted 
4 to a£h amifs, if file be difirefied by want of 
4 fubfiftence : 

75. 4 While her hufband, having fettled her 
4 maintenance, refides abroad, let her continue 

* firm in religious auflerities ; but, if he leave her 
4 no fupport, let her fubfift by Jpinning and other 
‘ blamelefs arts. 

76. 4 If he live abroad on account of fome 

7 4 faered 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 255 

« facred doty, let her wait for him eight years; 

« if on account of knowledge or tame, fix ; if on 
« account of pleafure, three : after thofe terms have 
« expired fhe mufi follow him. 

77. « For a whole year let a hufband bear with 
« his wife, who treats him with averfion ; bur, 

« after a year, let him deprive her of her ieparate 
* property, and ceafe to cohabit with her. 

7S. ‘ She, who negle&s her lord, though 
« addicted to gaming, fond of fpirituous liquors, 

« or difeafed, mult be deferted for three months, 

‘ and deprived of her ornaments and houfehold 
‘ furniture : 

79. ‘ But fhe who is averfe from a mad huf- 
< band, or a deadly finner, or an eunucll, or one 
‘ without manly ilrength, or one afflicted with 
« fuch maladies as punifii crimes, mult neither 
‘ be deferted nor dripped of her property. 

80. 4 A wife, who drinks any fpirituous li- 
‘ quors, who a<ds immorally, who lhows hatred 
« io her lordy who is incurably difeafed, who is mif- 
4 chievous, who wades his property, may at all 
« times be fuperfeded by another wife. 

81. ‘ A barren wife may be fuperfeded by ano- 
4 ther in the eighth year : file, whofe children are 
* all dead, in the tenth ; fhe, who brings forth only 
4 daughters, in the eleventh; die, who fpeaks 
r unkindly, without delay ; 

82. 4 But (he, who, though afili&ed with ill- 
« nefs, is beloved and virtuous, mud never be 
4 difgraced, though file may be fuperfeded by 
4 another wife with her own confent. 

83. c If a wife, legally fuperfeded, {hall depart 
4 in wrath from the houfe, llie mud either in- 
4 dantly be confined, or abandoned in the pre- 
4 fence of the whole family : 


84. 4 But 


ON THE SAME ; AND ON THE 

84. 4 But (lie, who having been forbidden* 
4 addi&s herfelf to intoxicating liquor even at 
4 jubilees, or mixes in crowds ac theatres, mud: be 
1 fined fix rattic as of gold. 

85. 4 When twice born men take wives, both 
4 of their own clafs and others, the precedence, 
4 honour and habitation of thofe wives, mufl be 
4 fettled according to the order of their claffes : 

86. 6 To all fuch married men, the wives of 
4 the fame clafs only (not wives of a different 
4 clafs by any means) mufl: perform the duty of 
4 perfonal attendance, and the daily bufinefs re- 
4 lating to acts of religion ; 

87. 4 For he who foolilhly caufes thofe duties 
4 to be*performed by any other than his wife of 
4 the fame clafs, when file is near at hand, has 
4 been immemorially confidered as a mere Chart-* 
4 da la begotten on a Brahmem. 

88. 4 To an excellent and bandfome youth of 
4 the fame clafs, let every man give his daughter 
4 in marriage, according to law ; even though 
4 ihe have not attained her age of eight years : 

89. 4 But it is better that the damfel, though 
4 marriageable, fhould flay at home till her death, 
4 than that he fhould ever give her in marriage 
4 to a bridegroom void of excellent qualities. 

90. 4 Three years let a damfel wait, though 
4 Ihe be marriageable ; but, after that term, let 
4 her chufe for herfelf a bridegroom of equal 
4 rank : 

91. 4 If not being given in marriage, fhe chufe 
4 her bridegroom, neither fhe, nor the youth 
4 chofen, commits any offence; 

92. 4 But a damfel, thus electing her hufband, 

4 fhall not carry with her the ornaments which 

4 flie 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 2 

fhe received from her father, nor thofe given 
by her mother, or brethren: if fhe carry 
them away file commits theft. 

93- ‘ He who takes to wife a dimfel of full 
age, fhall not give a nuptial prefent to her fa¬ 
ther j fince the father loll his dominion over 
her, by detaining her at a time when fhe might 
have been a parent. 

94. c A man aged thirty years, may marry a 
girl of twelve, if be find one dear to his heart; 
or a man of twenty-four years a damfel of 
eight: but if he finijh bis Jludentjhip earlier and 
the duties of his next order would otherwife be 
impeded, let him marry immediately. 

95. 4 A wife g ; ven by the gods who are named 
in the bridal texts , let the hufband receive and 
fupport conflantly, if fhe be virtuous, though he 
married her not from inclination : fuch conduffc 
will pleafe the gods. 

96. c To be mothers were women created ; 
and to be fathers, men ; religious rites therefore 
are ordained in the Veda to be perfoimed by the 
hujband together with the wife. 

97. 4 If a nuptial gratuity has a&ually been 
given to a damfel, and he, who gave it fhould 
die before marriage , the damfel iliall be married 
to his brother if fhe confent; 

98. 4 But even a man of the fervile clafs ought 
not to receive a gratuity when he gives his 
daughter in marriage; fince a father who 
takes a fee on that occafion , tacitly fells his 
daughter. 

99. 4 Neither ancients nor moderns who were 
good men, have ever g : wn a damfel in mar¬ 
riage after fhe had been pioinilcd to another 
man ; 


S 


100. * Nor 


25$ GN THE SAME; AND ON THE 

100. c Nor, even in former creations, have we 
‘ heard the virtuous approve the tacit fale of a 
4 daughter for a price, under the name of a nuptial 

* gratuity. 

101. c( Let mutual fidelity continue till death:” 
€ this, in few words, may be confidered as the fu- 

* preme lav/ between hufband and wife. 

102. ‘ Let a man and woman, united by mar- 
' riage, conftantly beware, left at any time dif- 

* united, they violate their mutual fidelity. 

103. * Thus has been declared to you the law, 
s abounding in the pureft affe&ion, for the con- 

* dud of man and wife; together with the prac* 

* tice of raifing up offspring to a hufhand of the 

* Jervile clajs on iailure of ijfue by him begotten : 

* learn now the law of inheritance. 

104. f After the death of the father and tht 
4 mother, the brothers being affembled, may du 
s vide among themfelves the paternal and met- 
s t ernal eftate; but they have no power over it, 
‘ while their parents live, mlefs the father chufg 
1 to diftribute it . 

105. c The eldeft brother may take entire 

* poffeftion of the patrimony; and the others 
c may live under him as they lived under their 

* father, mlefs they chufe to be feparated. 

106. s By the eldeft, at the moment of his 

* birth, the father having begotten a fon, dif- 
c charges his debt to his own progenitors ; the 
4 eldeft fon, therefore, ought before partition to 

* manage the whole patrimony : 

107. 4 That fon alone, by whofe birth he dif- 

* charges his debt, and through whom he attains 

* immortality, was begotten from a fenfe of duty 1 

* all- the reft are confidered by the wife as begotten 
4 from love of pleafure. 

108. c Let 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 259 

108. 4 Let the father alone fupport his Tons; 

* and the fird- born, his younger brothers, and let 

* them behave to the elded according to law, as 
4 children Jhould behave to their father. 

109. c The fird-born, if virtuous , exalts the 

* family, or, if vitious , dedroys it: the fird-born 

* is in this world the mod refpe&able; and the 
4 good never treat him with difdain. 

iio« 4 If an elder brother a<d as an elder 
4 brother ought, he is to be revered as a mother* 

4 as a father; and, even if he have not the be- 
4 haviour of a good elder brother, he fhould be 
4 refpedled as a maternal uncle , or other kinfman. 

in. c Either let them thus live together, or* 
c if they dcfire feparately to perform religious rites* 

4 let them live apart; fince religious duties are 
4 multiplied in feparate houfes, their reparation is, 

4 therefore, legal and even laudable. 

112. 4 The portion deducted for the elded is 
c a twentieth part of the heritage , with the bed of 
4 all the chattels ; for the middlemod, half of that, 

4 or a fortieth ; for the younged, a quarter of it, or 
4 an eightieth. 

113. 4 The elded and younged refpe<dively 
4 take their jud mentioned portions; and if there 
4 be more than one between them, each of the 
4 intermediate Tons has the mean portion, or the 
4 fortieth. 

114. 4 Of all the goods collected let the fird- 
4 born, if he be tranfcendently learned and virtuous , 
4 take the bed article, whatever is mod excellent 
4 in its kind, and the bed of ten cows or the like: 

115. 4 But among brothers equally (killed in 
4 performing their feveral duties, there is no de- 
4 du&ion of the bed in ten, or the rioft excellent 

S 2 chattel; 


200 ON THE SAME J AND ON THE 

4 chattel; though fome trifle, as a mark of greater" 

* veneration, fhould be given to the Arft-born. 

116. c If a dedudtion be thus made, let equal 
€ fhares of the refldue be afcertained and received; 
f but, if there be no dedu£lion, the fhares muft 

* be diflributed in this manner: 

117. * Let the eldeft have a double fhare, and 

* the next born, a fhare and a half, if they clearly 

* Juryafs the reft in virtue and learning \ the younger 
c fons muft have each a fhare : if all he equal in 

* good qualities , they muft all take fhare and fhare 
< alike. 

118. f To the unmarried daughters hy the fame 
c mother , let their brothers give portions out of 

* their own allotments refpe&ively, according to 

* the clajfes of their feveral mothers : let each give 

* a fourth part of his own diftinft fhare ; and 
c they who refufe to give it fhall be degraded. 

119. c Let them never divide the value of a 
‘ Angle goat or fheep, or a Angle beaft with 
1 uncloven hoofs : a Angle goat or fheep remain - 

5 ing after an equal diftrihution , belongs to the flrft- 
4 born. 

120. c Should a younger brother, in the manner 

* before mentioned , have begotten a fon on the wife 

* of his deceafed elder brother, the divifton muft 

* then be made equally between that fon who re - 

* prefents the deceafed , and his natural father : thus 

* is the law fettled. 

121. c The reprefentative is not Jo far wholly 
1 fubftituted by law in the place of the deceafed 
e principal, as to have the portion of an elder fon % 

* and the principal became a father in confequence 

* of the procreation by his younger brother j the fon, 
4 therefore, is entitled by Jaw to an equal fhare, 

* but not to a double portion. 


111 . 4 A 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 261 

122. * A younger foil being born of a firft mar- 
€ ried wife, after an elder fon had been born of a 
1 wife laft married, but of a lower clafs , it may be 

* a doubt in that cafe, how the divifion fhali be 
1 made : 

123. c Let the fon born of the elder wife, take 

* one moft excellent bull deduced from the in* 
€ heritance; the next excellent bulls are for thofe 

< who were born firft , but are inferior on account of 

* their mothers who were married laft. 

124. c A fon, indeed, who was firft born, and 
4 brought forth by the wife firft married, may 
1 take, if learned and virtuous y one bull and fifteen 
4 cows ; and the other fons may then take, each 
c in right of his feverai mother: fuch is the fixed 

* rule. 

125. ‘ As between fons, bom of wives equal in 

* their clafs, and without any other diftin&ion, 
' there can be no feniority in right of the mother ; 
f but the feniority ordained by law is according to 
4 the birth. 

126. c The right of invoking Indra by the 
‘ texts, called fwabrabmanya y depends on adtual 
4 priority of birth ; and ot tw'ins alfo, if any fucb 
4 be conceived among different wives, the eldeft is 
4 he, who was firft actually born. 

127. 4 He, who has no fon, may appoint his 
f daughter in this manner to raife up a fon tor him, 
‘ faying , " the male child, who (hall be born 
41 from her in wedlock, fhali be mine for the pur- 
*' pofe of performing my obfequies.” 

128. * In this manner Dacsha himfelf, lord 

* of created beings, anciently appointed all his 

* fifty daughters to raife up fons to him, for the 

< fake of multiplying his race : 

S 3 


129. ' He 


262 ON THE same; and on the 

129. c He gave ten to Dherma, thirteen to 
c Casyapa, twenty-feven to Soma king of Brah~ 

1 mens and medical p^nts, after doing honour to 

* them -with an affedlionate heart. 

130. c The fon of a man is even as himfelf • 
f and as the fon, fuch is the daughter thus ap- 
c pointed: how then, if behave no fon, can any in- 
€ herit his property, but a daughter who is clofely 
€ united with his own foul ? 

131. c Property, given to the mother on her 
c marriage, is inherited by her unmaried daughter; 
c and the fon of a daughter, appointed in the manner 
€ juft mentioned , fhall inherit the whole eftate of 
€ her father, who leaves no fon by himfelf begotten : 

132. c The fon, however, of fuch a daughter, 

< who fucceeds to all the wealth of her. father 
c dying without a fon, muft offer two funeral 
c cakes, one to his own father, and one to the 

* father of his mother. 

133. e Between a ion’s fon and the fon of fuch 

* a daughter, there is no difference in law $ fince 
c their father and their mother both fprang from 
? the body of the fame man : 

134. ‘ But a daughter having been oppointed 

* to produce a fon forher father, and a fon, begotten 
1 by himfelf \ being afterwards born, the divifion of 
c the heritage muft in that cafe be equal; fince 
c there is no right of primogeniture fora woman. 

135. c Should a daughter, thus appointed to 
4 raife up a fon for her father, die by any accident 
€ without a Ion, the hufband of that daughter 

< may, without hefitation, poffefs himfelf of her 

* property. 

136. f By that male child, whom a daughter 
f thus appointed, either by an implied intention 

c or 

v 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. $63 

*. or a plain declaration, fhall produce from an 
4 hufoand of an equal clafs, the maternal grand- 
c father becomes in law the father of a fun : let 

* that fon give the luneral cake and pofiefs the 
‘ inheritance. 

137. ‘ By a fon, a man obtains vidtory over all 

* people ; by a fon’s fon, he enjoys immortality ; 
c and, afterward, by the fon of that granfdon, he 
c reaches the folar abode. 

138. ‘ Since the fon ( tray ate) delivers his father 
4 from the hell named put, he was, therefore 

* called puttra by Brahma/ himfelf: 

139. 1 Now between the fons of his fon and of 
c his daughter thus appointed, there fubfifts in this 
c world no difference, for even the fon of fucb a 

* daughter delivers him in the next, like the fon 
r of his fon. 

140. ‘ Let the fon of fuch a daughter offer the 
c fir ft funeral cake to his mother ; the fecond to her 
c father; the third to her paternal grandfather. 

141. 4 Of the man, to whom a fon has been 
' given, according to a Jubfequent law, adorned 
4 with every virtue, that fon fhall take a fifth or 
' fixth part of the heritage, though brought from 
‘ a different family. 

142. 1 A given fon muft never claim the family 
‘ and eftarc of his natural father : the funeral cake 
4 follows the family and ellate ; but of him who 
4 has given away his fon, the funeral oblation is 
4 extindl. 

143. 4 The fon of a wife, not authorized to 
4 have iffue by another, and the fon begotten, by 
4 the brother of the hufband, on a wile who has 
4 a fon then living, are both unworthy of the heri- 
9 tage; one being the child of an adulterer, and 
4 the other produced through mereluft. 

S 4 144. 4 Even 


K r 


164 


OK THE SAME; AKP OK T~ 


144. 4 Even the fon of a - ifedulv authorized, 
4 not brgotien according to the la »v already 
4 prcpsandtJ, is unworthy of the paternal eftate; 
4 for he was procreated by an outcaft 2 

1 ^ 4 Bur the fon lega h beg orten on a wife, au- 

c tnorizt d for The ptrp fe before mentitled, may 
4 inher.r :n all refipedfs, if he be virtuous and learned , 
f as a fon begorren by the hufbind; fince, in that 
4 ca r e, the feed and the produce belong of right to 
4 the owner ot the field. 

146 ‘He, who keeps the fixed and moveable 
4 efiaie of his aeceajed brother, maintains the 
4 w :dow, and raifes up a fon to that brother, muft 
4 gve that fon, at the age efififteen, the whole of 
4 his brother’s divided property. 

1 -7. * Should a wile, even though legally au- 
4 thorized, produce a fon by the brother, or any 
4 other fspimda^ of her hufband, that fon, if begot- 
4 ten w;:h amcrcus embraces , and tokens efi impure 
4 defire, the fages proclaim bafe-born and incapa- 
4 ble of inheriting. 

148. 4 This law, vchicb has preceded, muff be 
4 underflood of a distribution amoDg Tons begotten 
4 on women of the fame clafs: hear now the 
4 law concerning Jens by feveral women of differ- 
4 ent dalles. 

1^9. 4 If there be four wives of a Brahmen in 
4 the direct order of the clafies, and fons are pro- 
4 duced by them all, this is the rule of partition 
* among them : 

1^0. 4 The chief fervant in hufbandry, the bull 
4 kept for impregnating cows, the riding horfe or 
4 carriage, the ring and other ornaments, and the 
4 principal me llu age, fhall be deducted from the 
4 inheritance and given to the Brahmen-(on, 

4 together 


COMMERCIAL AXD SERVILE CLASjZS. 

# * 

* together with a larger fhare by way of pre- 

* eminence. 

151. * Let the Brahmen take three (hares of the 
‘ refidue; the fonof a CJhatrtyd wife, two (hares; 

* the fon of the Vaijya wife, a (hare and a half; 
‘ and the fon of the Sidra wife mi take one (hare. 

152. c Or, if no deduction be made, let feme per- 
€ fon learned in the law div.de the w ole collected 
9 eftate into ten parts, and make a i^gal diftribu- 

* tion by this following rule: 

153. * Let the fon of rhe Brahman. take four 

* parts ; the fon of the CJhatriyd tnree ; let the 

* fon of the Vaijya have two parts ; let the (on of 

* the Sidra take a (ingle par:, if he be virtuous . 

154. ‘ But whether the Brahmen have Ions, or 

* have no fons, by wives of the three Jsrfi cla(Jes> no 

* more than a tenth part muft be given to the fca 

* of a Sidra . 

155. * The fon of a Brahmen , a C/hatriya , or a 

* Vaijya by a woman of the ferviie clafs, (hall 

* inherit no part of the eftare, unlefs he be virtuous ; 

9 nor jointly with other fons , uniefs his mother was 
1 lawfully married : whatever his father may give 

* him, let that be his own* 

156. • All the fons of twice bom men, pro- 

* duced by wives of the fame clafs, mull divide 
€ the r eritage equally, after the younger brothers 

* have given the firft-born his deduded allot- 

* menr. 

157. c For a Sidra is ordained a wife of his 
9 own clals, and no other: all produced by her 
r (hall have equal lhares, though (he have a huc- 
c dred fons. 

158. * O? the twelve fons of men, whom 
x Menu, fprung from chcScii-cxiftenr, has named, 

• fix 


2.66 ' ON THE SAME; AND ON THE 

c fix are kinfman and heirs; fix not heirs, except ta u 
c their own fathers, butkinfmen. 

159. c The fon begotten by a man himfel fin 
c lawful wedlock , the fon of his wife begotten in 
c the manner before defcribed , a fon given to him, 
c a fon made or adopted , a fon of concealed birth, 

* or whcje real father cannot be known, and a fon 
€ rejected by his natural parents , are the fix kinf- 
c men and heirs: 

160. ‘ The fon of a young woman unmarried , 
c and the fon of a pregnant bride, a fon bought, 

‘ a fon by a twice married woman, a fon felf- 

* given, and a fon by a Sudra, are the fix kinfmen, 
c but not heirs to collaterals. 

761. c Such advantage, as a man would gain, 

* who fhould attempt to pafs deep water in a 

* boat made of woven reeds, the father obtains, 
c who pafies the gloom of death, -leaving only 

* contemptible fons, who are the eleven, or atleaft 

* the fix laft mentioned. 

162. * If the two heirs of one man be the fon 
c of his own body and a fon of his wife by a kinf- 

* man, the' former of whom was begotten after his 

* recovery from an illnefs thought incurable , each of 

* the fons, exclufively of the other, fhall fucceed 
6 to the whole eftate of his natural father. 

163. c The fon of his own body is the foie heir 

* to his eftate, but, that all evil may be removed* 

* let him allow a maintenance to the reft; 

164. c And, when the fon of the body has taken 
f an account of the paternal inheritance, let 
1 him give a fixth part of it to the fon of the 
c wife begotten by a kinfman, before his father’s 
€ recovery ; or a fifth part, if that fon be eminently 

* virtuous . 

165. 4 The fpn of the body, and the fon of the 

4 wife^ 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 267 

* wife, may fucced immediately to the paternal 
f eftate in the manner juft mentioned j but the ten 

* other funs can only fucceed in order to the fa- 
4 mily duties, and to their fhare of the inheritance, 

* thofe laft named being excluded by any one of the 
€ preceding. 

166. ‘ Him* whom a man has begotten on his 
4 own wedded wile, let him know to be the fir ft 
4 in rank, as the ion of his body. 

167. 4 He who was begotten, according to law, 
f on the wife of a man deceafed, or impotent, or 
‘ difordered, after due authority given to her, is 
‘ called the lawful fon of the wife. 

168. ‘ He, whom his father, or mother with 
4 her bu lands ajfent , gives to another as his fon, 

* provided thac the donee have no ifTue, if the boy 
4 be of the fame clafs and affe£tionately difpofed, 
c is confidered as a fon given, the gift being con - 
4 firmed bv pouring water. 

169. 4 He is confidered as a fori made or adcpted, 

4 whom a man takes as his own fon, the boy being 
4 equal in clafs, endued with filial virtues, ac- 
‘ quainted with the merit of performing obfequies 
4 to his adcp!er , and with the fin of omitting them . 

170. * In whofe manfion foever a male child 
4 (hall be brought forth by a married woman, whofe 
4 hujhar.d has long been abfent , if the real father 
4 cannot be difcovered, but if it be probable that 
4 he was of an equal clafs, that child belongs to the 
4 lord of the unfaithful wife, and is called a fon of 
4 concealed birth in his manfion. 

17 1. ‘ A boy, whom a man receives as his own 

* fon, after he has been deferted without juft caufc 
4 by his parents, or by either of them, if one be 

* dead, is called a fon reje&ed. 


172. 4 A 


i68 ON THE SAME ; AND ON THE 

172. € A fon, whom the daughter of any mar? 
€ privately brings forth in the houfe of her father, 

* if the afterwards marry her lover, is defcribed as 
c a fon begotten on an unmarried girl. 

173. * If a pregnant young woman marry, 

* whether her pregnancy be known or unknown, 
the male child in her womb belongs to the bride- 

* groom, and is called a fon received with his 
c bride. 

174. f He is called a fon bought, whom a man, 
c for the fake of having a fon to perform his obje - 
c quiesy purchafes from his father and mother, 
c whether the boy be equal or unequal to himfelf 
€ in good qualities , for in clafs all adopted Jons mujl 

* be equal . 

175. 5 He, whom a woman, either forfaken by 
c her lord or a widow, conceived by a fecondi 
c hufband, whom lhe took by her own defire, 

* though againft law 3 is called the fon of a woman 
f twice married: 

176. r I on her fecond marriage, lhe be (till a 
c virgin, or if lhe left her hufband under the age 

* of puberty and return to him at his full age, fhe 
c muft again perform the nuptial ceremony either 

* with her fecond, or her young and defer ted^ 

* hufbancL 

177. c He, who has loft his parents, or been 
c abandoned by them without juft caufe, and offers 
< himfelf to a man as his Jon is called a fon felf- 
c given. 

178. c A fon, begotten throughluft on a Sudra 

* by a man of the prieftly clafs, is even as a corple, 
c though alive, and is thence called in law a living 
e corpfe : 

179. f But a fon begotten by a man of the fer- 
c vile clafs on his female flave, or on the female 

5 * flave 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 269 

Have of his male Have, may take a (hare of the 
heritage, if permitted by the other Jons: thus is* 
the law eftablifhed. 

180. ‘ Thefe eleven Tons (the fon of the wife 
and the reft, as enumerated) are allowed by wife 
legiflatcrs to be lubftitutrs in order for fons of 
the body, for the fake of preventing a failure of 
oblequies; 

181. * Though fuch, as are called fons for that 
purpofe, but were produced from the manhood 
of others, belong in truth to the father, from 
whofe manhood they feverally fprang, and to no 
other, except by a jufl fiftion of law . 

182. * If among feveral brothers of the whole 
blood, one have a fon born, Menu pronounces 
them all fathers of a male child by means of 
that fon ; fo that if fuch nephew would be the 
heir , the uncles have no power to adopt Jons: 

183. c Thus, if, among all the wives of the fame 
hufband, one bring forth a male child. Menu 
has declared them all, by means of that fon, 
to be mothers of male iflue. 

184. ‘ On failure of the beft, and of the next 
beft, among thoje twelve Jons , let the inferiour 
in order take the heritage ; but if there be 
many of equal rank, let all be fharers of the 
eftate. 

185. 1 Not brothers, nor parents, but fons, if 
living , or their male ijfue , are heirs to the de¬ 
ceased, but of him, who leaves no fon, nor a 
wife , nor a daughter , the father (hall take the 
inheritance ; and if he leave neither father nor 
mother, the brothers. 

186. ' To three ancejlors mud water be given 
at their obfequies; for three (the father, his 
father , and the paternal grandfather) is the funeral 

* cake 


27 O ON THE SAME; AND ON THE y 

4 cake ordained : the fourth in defcent is the giver* 
4 of oblations to them and their heir , if they die with - 

* out nearer defendants; but the fifth has no con-* 

* cern with the gift of the funeral cake . 

187. c To the neareft Japinda , male or female , 

4 after him in the third degree, the inheritance 
4 next belongs, then on failure of fapindas and of 
4 their iffue, the faman'odaca, or diftant kinfman, 

* fhall be the heir > or the fpiritual preceptor, or 
4 the pupil, or the fellow ftudent of the deceafed: 

188. 4 On failure of a 31 thofe, the lawful heirs 
4 are fuch Brahmens as have read the three Vedas , 

4 as are pure in body and mind , as have fubdued^ 
c their pafiions ; and they muft confequently offer the 
4 cake : thus the rites of obfequies cannot fail. 

189. 4 The property of a Brahmen fhall neve? 
4 be taken as an efcheat by the king; this is a 
4 fixed law : but the wealth of the other c 3 afies y 
4 on failure of all heirs, the king may take. 

190. c If the widow of a man, who died with- 
4 out a fon, raife up a fon to him by one of his 
4 kinfmen, let her deliver to that fon, at his full 
4 age, the collected eftate of the deceafed, whatever 
4 it he. 

191. c If two fons, begotten by two fucceffivs 
4 hnfbands, who are both dead , contend for their 
4 property, then in the hands of their mother, 
4 let each take, exclufively of the other, his own 
4 father's eftate. 

192. 4 On the death of the mother, let all the 
4 uterine brothers and the uterine filters, if un~ 
4 married , equally divide the maternal eftate: each 
4 married fifter fhall have a fourth part of a brother's 
4 allotment 

193. c Even to the daughters of thofe daugh- 
4 ters, it is fit that fomething Ihould be given* 

4 from 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 27 1 

from the affets of their maternal grandmother, 
on the fcore of natural affedtion. 

191. c What was given before the nuptial 
fire, what was given on the bridal proceffion,. 
what was given in token of love, and what was 
received from a brother, a mother, or a father* 
are confidered as the fix-fold Jeparate property 
of a married woman : 

195. ‘ What (he received after marriage from 
the family of her hufband, and what her affec¬ 
tionate lord may have given her, lhall be in-\ 
herited, even if (he die in his life-time, by her 
children. 

196. ‘ It is ordained, that the property of a 
woman, married by the ceremonies called Brah¬ 
ma y Daiva , ArJJja , Giindharva , or Prdjdpatya, 
(hall go to her huff and, if fhe die without iffue *, 

197. 4 But her wealth given on the marriage, 
called Sljura y or on either of the two others, is 
ordained, on her death without iffue, to become 
the property of her father and mother. 

iq 8. 4 If a widow, whofe hufband had other 
wives of different claffes , lhall have received 
wealth at any time, as a gift from her father, 
and fall die without iffue , it lhall go to the daugh¬ 
ter of the Brahman) wife, or to the iffue of that 
daughter. 

199. 4 A woman fhould never make a hoard 
from the goods of her kindred, which are com¬ 
mon to her and many ; or even from the pro¬ 
perty of her lord, without his affent. 

200. 4 Such ornamental apparel, as women, 
wear during the lives of their huffands, the. 
heirs of thole huffands lhall not divide amoDg 
themfelves : they, who divide it among them- 
fclves, fall deep into fin . 

7 


2oi, c Eunuchs 


2J2 ON THE SAME 5 AND ON THE 

201. c Eunuchs, and outcafts, perfons born 
c blind or deaf, madmen, idiots, the dumb, and 
c fuch as have loft the ufe of a limb, are excluded 
1 from a lhare of the heritage ; 

202. c But it is juft, that the heir, who knows 
c his duty, Ihould give all of them food and rai- 

* men tfor life without ftint, according to the beft 

* of his power : he, who gives them nothing, links 
c afifu redly to a region of punifhment. 

203. c If the eunuch and the reft Ihould at any 
c time defire to marry, and if the wife of the eunuch 
‘ Jhould rciife up a fen to him by a man legally ap- 
1 pointed , that fon and the ifiue of fuch, as have 

* children, fhall be capable of inheriting. 

204. c After the death of the father, if the 
< eldeft brother acquire wealth by his own efforts 
€ before partition , a lhare of that acquifition fhall 

* go to the younger brothers, if they have made 
c a due progrefs in learning; 

205. c And if all of them, being unlearned, 
c acquire property before partition by their own 
c labour, there fhall be an equal divifion of that 
€ property without regard to the firft born ; for it 

* was not the wealth of their father: this rule is 
c clearly fettled. 

206. ‘ Wealth, however, acquired by learning, 
1 belongs exclufively to any one of them , who ac- 
6 quired it ; fo does any thing given by a friend, 

* received on account of marriage, or prefented 
f as a mark of refpedt to a gueft. 

207. ‘ If any one of the brethren has a com- 
c petence from his own occupation, and wants not 
c the property of his father , he may debar himfelf 
c from his own fhare, fome trifle being given him 
f as a confideration, to prevent future Jlrife. 

208. c What 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 273 

20S. ‘ What a brother has acquired by labour 
or (kill, without ufing the patrimony, he fhall 
not give up without his afient; for it was gained 
by his own exertion : 

209. ‘ And if a fon, bv his own efforts, recover 
a debt or property unjuftly detained , which could 
not be recovered before by bis father , he fhall 
not, unlefs by his free will, put it into parcenary 
with his brethren, fince in fad it was acquired 
by himfelf. 

210. ‘ If brethren, once divided and living 
again together as parceners, make a fecond par¬ 
tition, the (hares mufl in that cafe be equal $ 
and the firft born fhall have no right of deduc¬ 
tion. 

211. c Should the eldefl or youngeft of feveral 
brothers be deprived of his (hare by a civil death 
on bis entrance into ibe fourth order , or fhould any 
one of them die, his vejled inter eft in a (hare fhall 
not wholly be loft ; 

212. c But, if be leave neither fon , nor wife % 
nor daughter , nor father , nor mother, his uterine 
brothers and fifters, and fuch brothers as were 
re-united after a reparation, fhall afiemble and 
divide his fhare equally. 

213. 4 Any eldeft brother, who, from avarice, 
fhall defraud his younger brother, fhall forfeit 
the honours of his primogeniture, be deprived 
of his own fhare, and pay a fin- to he king. 

214. 4 All thofe brothers who are addided to 
any vice, lofe their title to he inheritance: the 
firft born fhall not appropriate it to himfelf, but 
fhall give (hares to the youngeft, if they be not 
vitious. 

215. 4 If among undivided brethren living with 
their father, there be a common exertion for 

T 4 common 


ON THE SAME; AND ON THE 


*74 

c common gain, the father (hall never make an 

* unequal divifion among them, when they divide 
€ their families, 

216. 4 A fon, born after a divifion in the life - 

* time of his father , {hall alone inherit the pa- 

* trimony, or (liall have a fhare of it with the 

* divided brethren, if they return and unite them- 

* felves wi h him. 

217. 4 Cf a fon, dying childlefs and leaving no 
c widow , the father and mother (hall take the 
€ eftate ; and the mother alfo being dead, the pa- 

* ternal grandfather and grandmother fhall take 
4 the heritage, on failure of brothers and nephews . 

218. 4 When all the debts and wealth have 
4 been juftly diftributed according to law, any 
4 property, that m .y afterwards be difeovered, 
4 fhall be fubjeft to a fimilar diflribution. 

219. 4 Apparel, carriages, or riding horfes, 
1 and orname nts of ordinary value , which any of 
4 the heirs had ufed by confent before partition , 
4 drefTcd rice, water in a well or ciftern , female 
4 (laves, family priefts, or fpiritual counfellors, 
4 and pafture ground for cattle, the wife have 

* declared indivifible, and Jhll to be ufed as be- 
4 fore, 

220. 4 Thus have the laws of inheritance, and 
1 the rule for the condudt of fons (whether 

* the fon of the wife or others) been expounded 

* to you in order: learn at preient the law con- 
4 cerning games of chance. 

221. 4 Gaming, either with inanimate or with 
4 animated things, let the king exclude wholly 
4 from his realm : both thofe modes of play caule 
4 deftrudlion to princes. 

222. 4 Such play with dice and the like y or by 

* matches between rams and cocks , amounts to open 

4 theft; 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. $ 

theft; and the king muff ever be vigilant iri 
fupprefTing both modes of flay : 

223. c Gaming with lifeiefs things is known 
among men by the name of dy'ta\ l ut fama- 
invaya fignifies a match between living creatures. 

224. ‘ Let the k ng punifh corporally at dif- 
cretion bo h the gamefter and the keeper of a 
gaming-houfe, whether th-y play with inanimate 
or animated things; and men of the fervile clafs, 
who wear the firing and other marks of the 
twice born. 

225. ‘ Gamefters, publick dancers, and fingers, 
revilers of lcripture, open hereticks, men who 
perform not the duties of their feveral claffes, 
and fellers of fpirituous liquors, let him inftandy 
banifh from the town : 

226. c Thofe wretches, lurking like unfeen 
thieves in the dominion of a prince, continually 
harafs his good fubjedts with their vitious condudh 

227. i Even in a former creation was this vice 
of gaming found a great provoker of enmity : 
let no fenfible man, therefore, addict himfelf to 
play even for his amufcment: 

228. * On the man addidted to it, either pri¬ 
vately or openlv, let punifhment be inflidted ac 
the difcretion of the king. 

229. c A man of the military, commercial, or 
fervile clafs, who cannot pay a fine, fhall dif- 
charge the debt by his labour : a pried fhall dif- 
charge it by little and little. 

230. * For women, children, pcrfons of crazy 
mtelledt, the old, the poor, and the infirm, the 
king fhall order punifhment with a fmall whip, 
a twig, or a rope. 

231. c Those miniffers who are employed in 
publick affairs, and, inflamed by the blaze of 

T 2 wealth. 


;]0 ON THE SAME ; AND O'N THE 

wealth, mar the bufinefs of any perfon con-* 
cerned, let the king (trip of all their property. 

232. 4 Such as forge royal edicts, caufe diflfen- 
fions among the great minifters, or kill women, 
priefts, or children, let the king put to death; 
and fuch as adhere to his enemies. 

233. c Whatever bufinefs has at any time been 
tranfaCled conformably to law, let him confider 
as finally fettled, and refufe to unravel; 

234. 4 But whatever bufinefs has been con¬ 
cluded illegally by his minifters or by a judge, 
let the king himftlf re-examine j and let him 
fine them each a thoufand panas. 

235. * The flayer of a prieft, a foldier, or 
merchant drinking arak, or a prieft drinking 
arak, mead, or rum, he who fteals the gold of 
a prieft, and he who violates the bed of his na¬ 
tural or fpiritual father, are all to be confidered 
refpeCtively as offenders in the higheft degree, 
except thofe whoje crimes are not Jit to be named: 
236. 4 On fuch of thofe four, as have not actual¬ 
ly performed an expiation, let the king legally 
infliCt corporal punifhment, together with a fine. 

237. 4 For violating the paternal bed, let the 
mark of a female part be imprefled on the fore¬ 
head with hot iron ; for drinking fpirits a vint¬ 
ner’s flag ; for ftealing facred gold, a dog’s foot; 
for murdering a prieft, the figure of a headlefs 
corpfe: 

238. 4 With none to eat with them, with none 
to facrifice with them, with none to read with 
them, with none to be allied by marriage to 
them, abjeCt and excluded from all focial duties, 
let them wander over this earth : 

239. 4 Branded with indelible marks, they (hall 
be deferted by their paternal and maternal re¬ 
lations 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 277 

lations, treated by none with affe&ion, received 
by none with refpedt: fuch is the ordinance of 
Menu. 

240. * Criminals of all the claffcs, having per¬ 
formed an expiation, as ordained by law, fhall 
not be marked on the forehead, but condemned 
to pay the higheft fine : 

241. * For crimes by a pried, who had a good 
character before his offence , the middle fine (hall 
be fet on him ; or, if his crime was premeditated , 
he fhall be banifhed from the realm, taking with 
him his effe&s and his family; 

242. c But men of the other clafies, who have 
committed thofe crimes, though without preme¬ 
ditation 3 fhall be dripped of all their pofleffions; 
and, if their offence was premeditated, fhall be 
corporally, or even capitally punifhed, according 
to circumftances. 

243. * Let no virtuous prince appropriate the 
wealth of a criminal in the highed degree, for 
he who appropriates it through covetoufnefs, 
is contaminated with the fame guilt: 

244. * Having thrown fuch a fine into the 
waters, let him offer it to Varuna; or let him 
bedow it on fome pried of eminent learning in 
the feriptures: 

245. ‘ Varuna is the lord of punifhment; he 
holds a rod even over kings; and a pried who 
has gone through the whole Veda, is equal to a 
fovereign of all the world. 

246. * Where the king abdains from receiving 
to his own ufe the wealth of fuch offenders, there 
children are born in due feafon and enjoy long 
lives; 

247. c There the grain of hufbandmen rifes 
abundantly, as it was refpe&ively fow ; n ; there 

T 3 ‘no 


syS ON THE same; and on the 

< no younglings die, nor is one deformed animal 
9 born. 

248. ‘ Should a man of the bafeft clafs, with 
1 preconceived malice, give pain to Brahmens , let 

* the prince corporally punifh him by various 
9 modes, that may raife terrour. 

240. ‘ A king is pronounced equally unjuft in 
1 releafing the man who deferves punifhment, and 
9 in punifhing the man who deferves it not: he 
‘ is juft who always infiids the punifhment or- 
1 darned by law. 

25 . c Thefe eftablifhed rules for adminiftering 

* j u ft ice between two litigant parties, have been 
c propounded at length under eighteen heads. 

251. 9 Thus fully performing all duties re- 
9 quired by law, let a king feek, with jujlice y to 

* pofTefs regions yet unpoflefled, and, when they are 
c in his pofTeffion, let him govern them well. 

252. 9 His realm being completely arranged 
9 and his fortrefies amply provided, let him ever 
c apply the moft diligent care to eradicate hadmen y 
9 rejembling thornv weeds, as the law direds. 

2^3. c By proteding fuch as live virtuoufly, 
9 and by rooting up fuch as live wickedly, thofe 

* kings, whofe hearts are intent on the fecurity of 
9 their people, fhall rife to heaven. 

254. f Of that prince, who takes a revenue with- 
9 out retraining rogues, the dominions are thrown 
9 into diforder, and himfelf fhall be precluded 
c from a celeftial abode ; 

255. f But of him, whofe realm, by the flrength 
9 of his arm, is defended and free from terrour, 

* the dominions continually flourifh, like trees 
9 duly watered. 

256. 9 Let the king, whofe emiflaries are his 
c eyes, difeern well the two forts of rogues, the 

j * open 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 279 

©pen and the concealed, who deprive other men 
of their wealth : 

2 7. c Open rogues are thev who fubfirt by 
cheating in various marketable commodities ; 
and concealed rogues arc they who (leal and 
rob in forefts and the like fecret places. 

258. ‘ Receivers of brbes, extorters of money 
by threats,.debaers of meals, gamcfters fortune¬ 
tellers, importers, and profcftors of palmiftry ; 
2,9. f Elephant brokers, and uacks, not per¬ 
forming what they engage to perform, pretended 
artifts, and fubril hailois j 

260. 4 Thefc and the like thorny weeds, over- 
fpreading the world, let the king difeover with a 
quick fight, and others who a£l ill in fecret ; 
worthlefs men, yet beating the outward figns of 
the w'orthy. 

26 . 1 Having detedled them by the means of 
trufty perfons difguifed, who pretend to have the 
fame occupation with them, and of fpies placed 
in feveral Rations, let him bring them by ar¬ 
tifice into his power: 

262. * Then, having fully proclaimed their re- 
fpedlive criminal adls, let the king inflidt punifh- 
ment legally, according to the crimes proved ; 
26}. 1 Since, without certain punilhment, it is 
importable to reftrain the delinquency of fcoun- 
drels with depraved fouls, who lecrctly prowl 
over this earth. 

264. ‘ Much frequented places, cifterns of 
water, bake-houfes, the lodgings of harlots, 
taverns and victualling (hops, lquares where four 
ways meet, large well known trees, afiemblies, 
and publick fpcCtacles ; 

265. ‘ Old couit yards, thickets, the houfes of 
artilts, empty manfions, gloves, and gardens ; 

T 4 266. ‘ Thcfe 


2 So ON THE SAME ; AND ON THE 

266. c Thefe and the Jike places let the king 
1 guard, for the prevention of robberies, with 

* Soldiers both ftationary and patrolling, as well as 
€ with fecret watchmen. 

267. ‘ By the means of able fpies, once thieves, 
c but reformed , who well knowing the various 
c machinations of rogues, affociate with them and 
c follow them, let the king deted and draw them 
€ forth : 

268. f On pretexts of dainty food and gratifica- 

* tions, or of feeing fome wife prieft, who could en- 

* Jure their Juccefs , or on pretence of mock battles 
c and the like feats of (Length, let the fpies procure 

* an affembly of thofe men. 

269. * Such as refufe to go forth on thofe occa- 
€ fions, deterred by former punifhments , which the 
c king had infixed, let him feize by force, and put 

* to death, on proof of their guilt, with their friends 

* and kinfmen, paternal and maternal, if proved to 

* be their confederates . 

270. f Let not a juft prince kill a man con- 

* vidled of fimple theft, unlefs taken with the 
f mainer or with implements of robbery; but any 
€ thief, taken with the mainer or with fuch im- 

* plements, let him deftroy without hefitation ; 

27 1. f And let him flay all thofe, who give rob- 

* bers food in towns, or fupply them with imple- 
4 ments, or afford them fhelter. 

272. 1 Should thofe men, who were appointed 

* to guard any diftri&s, or thofe of the vicinity, 

* who were employed for that purpofe, be neutral 
1 in attacks by robbers and inahive in feizing them t 

* let him inftanlly punifh them as thieves. 

273. ' Him, who lives apparently by the rules 

* of his clafs, but really departs from thofe rules. 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 281 

let the king feverely punifh by fine, as a wretch 
who violates his duty. 

^74. 4 They who give no affiftance on the 
plundering of a town, on the forcible breaking of 
a dike, or on feeing a robbery on the highway, 
fhall bebanifhed with their cattle and utenfils. 

275. 4 Men, who rob the king’s treafure, or ob- 
ftinately oppofe his commands, let him deftroy 
by various modes of juft punifhment; and thofe 
who encourage his enemies. 

276. 4 Of robbers who break a wall or partition, 
and commit theft in the night, let the prince or¬ 
der the hands to be lopped off, and themfelves 
to be fixed on a fharp ftake. 

277. f Two fingers of a cutpurfe, the thumb and 
the indexy let him caufe to be amputated on his 
firft convidlion ; on the fecond, one hand and 
one foot; on the third, he fhall fuffer death. 

278. 4 Such as give thieves fire, fuch as give 
them food, fuch as give them arms and apart¬ 
ments, and fuch as knowingly receis e a thing 
ftolen, let the king punifh as he would punijh a 
thief. 

279. 4 The breaker of a dam to Jecure a pool, 
let him punifh by long immerfion under water, 
or by keen corporal fuffering; or the offender 
fhall repair it, but muft pay the bigheft muldt. 

280. 4 Thofe, who break open the treafury, or 
the arfenal, or the temple of a deity, and thofe 
who carry off royal elephants, horfes, or cars, let 
him, without hefitation, deftroy. 

281. 4 He, who fhall take away the water of 
an ancient pool, or fhall obftrutt a watercourfe, 
muft be condemned to pay the loweft ulual 
amercement. 


282. ' He, 


tSz ON THE SAME; AND ON THE 

282. 1 He, who fhall drop his ordure on the 
c king’s highway, except in cafe of nectflirv, fhall 
€ pay two panas and immediately remove (he fi.h 5 
2^3. c But a perfon in urgent neccff-ty, a very 

* old man, a pregnant woman, and a child, only 
c deferves reproof, and fhall clean the place them- 
c felves : this is a fettled rule. 

284. < Ael phyficians and furgeons aiding 
c unfkilfully in their feveral profefiions, mud 
« pay for injury to brute animals the low^ft, but 

< for injury to human creatures the middle amerce- 
c ment. 

285. c The breaker of a foot bridge, of a pub- 
c lick flag, of a palilade, and of idols made of clay , 
c fhall repair what he has broken, and pay a muldt 
€ of five hundr cd panas. 

286. c For nnixing impure with pure commo- 
c dities, for piercing fine gems, as diamonds or 

* rubies , and for boring pearls or infer lour gevns 

< improperly, the fine is the lowed of the three ; 
€ but damages mufi always be paid. 

287. 1 The man, who fhall deal unjudly 
€ with purchafers at a lair price by delivering goods 
€ of lefs value , or fhall fell, at a high price, goods of 
€ ordinary value, (hail pay, according to circumjlanceSy 
f the loweft or the middle amercement. 

288. ‘ Let the king place all prifons near a 

* publick road, where offenders may be feen 
c wretched or disfigured. 

289. c Him who breaks down a publick wall, 
« him who fills up a publick ditch, him who 

* throws down a publick gate, the king (hall fpeedily 

* banifh. 

290.. f For all facrifices to dedroy innocent 
€ men, the punifhment is a fine of two hundred 
f parias > and for machinations with poijonous roots, 

£ and 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVIL r CL.ASSES. 2$3 

* and for the various charms and witcheries iVr- 

* tended to kill, by pcrfons not eftccling their 

* pur pofe. 

2y'. 4 The feller of bad grain for good, or of 
4 good feed placed at the top of the bag , to conceal 
4 the bad below y and the deftroyer of known land- 

* marks, mult fuff?r fuch corporal punifhment as 
4 will disfigure them ; 

292. 4 But the moft pernicious of all deceivers 
4 is a goldfmith, who commits frauds : the king 
4 dull order him to be cut piecemeal with razors. 
29J. * For dealing implements of hufbandrv, 

* weapons, and prepared medicines, let the king 
4 award punifhment according to the time and ac- 

* cording to their ufe. 

294. 4 Th king, and his council, his metro- 
‘ polls, his realm, his treafure, and his army, 

4 together with his ally, arc the feven members 
4 ot his kingdom ; whence it is called Sept anga : 

29 '. 4 Among thofe feven members of a king- 
4 dom, let him confider the ruin of the firft, and 

* fo forth in order, as the greateii calamity; 

296. 4 Yet, in a feven parted kingdom here 
4 below, there is no fupremaev among the feveral 
4 parts, from any pre eminence in ufeful qualities: 
4 bur all the parts mud reciprocally fuj port each 
c other, like the three daves of a holy mendicant: 

297. 4 In thefe and thide ads, indeed , this and 
4 that member may be ddlrnguiflKd ; and the 
4 member by which any aff'iir is' tranfaded, has 
4 the p e-eminence in ihat particular affair. 

291. ( Wh n the king employs emidiries, 
4 when he exeits power, when lie regulates pub- 
4 lie bufinefs, let him invariably know both his 

* own drength and that ol his enemy, 

299. 4 With 


284 ON THE same; and on the 

299. f With all their feveral diftreffes and vices: 
€ let him then begin his operations,having maturely 

* confidered the greater and lefs importance of 

‘ particular afts: 

3C0. 6 Let him, though frequently difappointed, 

* renew his operations, how fatigued foever, again 
c and again; fince fortune always attends the man, 

* who, having begun well , ftrenuoufly renews his 
€ efforts. 

301. ‘All the ages, called SatyafTreta, Dwapara , 

€ and Cali , depend on the conduct of the king; 
c who is declared in turn to reprefent each of 
€ thofe ages: 

302. c Sleeping, he is the Cali age; waking, 
e the Dwapara ; exerting himfelf in a&ion, the 
‘ Tretd ; living virtuoufly, the Satya. 

303. ‘ Of Indra, of Su'rya, of Pavana, of 
€ Yama, of Varuna, of Chandra, of Agni, 

* and of Prit’hivi, let the king emulate the 
‘ power and attributes. 

304. ‘ As Indra fheds plentifulfhowers during 
€ the four rainy months, thus let him, a&inglike 
r the regent of clouds, rain juft gratifications over 
c his kingdom : 

305. ‘ As Su'rya with ftrong rays draws up 
c the water during eight months, thus let him, 
c performing the function of the fun, gradually 

* draw from his realm the legal revenu : 

306. ‘ A Pavana, when he moves, pervades 
c all creatures, thus let him, imitating the regent 
c of wind, pervade all places by his concealed 

* emiffaries: 

307. ‘ As Yama, at the appointed time, pu- 
€ nifhes friends and foes, or thofe who revere , and 
€ thofe who contemn him } thus let the king, refem- 

c bling 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 285 

‘ bling the judge of departed fpirits, punifti of- 
c fending fubjedts: 

308. c As Varuna mod affuredly binds the 
c guilty in fatal cords, thus let him, reprefenting 
€ the genius ol water, keep offenders in clofe 

* confinement: 

309. € When the people are no lefs delighted 
c on feeing the king, than on feeing the full moon, 

* he appears in the character of Chandra : 

310. ‘ Againft criminals let him ever be ardent 
c in wrath, let him be fplendid in glory, let him 
f confume wicked miniffers, thus emulating the 
c fundtions of Agni, regent of fire. 

311. * As Prit’hivi fupports all creatures 
c equally, thus a kii^g, fuftaining all fubjedts, re- 
c fcmbles in his office the goddels of earth. 

312. ‘ Engaged in thele duties and in others, 
( with continual adtivity, let the king, above all 
f things , reftrain robbers, both in his own territories 
€ and in thofe of other princes, from which they 
c come , or in which they Jeek refuge . 

313. f Let him not, although in the greateft 
€ diftrefs for money, provoke Brahmens to anger 
c by taking their property ; for they, once enraged, 

1 could immediately by facrifices and imprecations 
€ deftroy him with his troops, elephants, horfes 
c and cars. 

314. c Who without perifiiing could provoke 
' thofe holy men, by whom, that is, by wbofe an - 
€ ceftors, under Brahma', the all-devouring fire 
c was created, the fea with waters not drinkable, 

( and the moon with its wane and increafe ? 

315. c What prince could gain wealth by op- 
‘ preffing thofe, who, if angry, could frame other 
‘ worlds and regents of worlds, could give being 

* to new gods and mortals ? 

316. c What 


l 86 ON THE SAME; AND ON THE 

316. f What man,defirous of life, would injure 

* thofe, by tht* aid of whom that is, by wkofe ob- 
c lations , worlds and gods perpetually futfilt; 
c thofe who are rich in the learning of the Veda ? 

317. ‘A Brahmen , whether learned or ignoiant, 

* is a powerful divinity; even as fire is a powerful 
‘ divinity, whether cond crated or popular. 

3 8. ( Even in places for burning the dead, 
c the bright fiie is undtfiled ; and, when prefented 
€ with clarified butter at JubJequent facrifices, blazes 

* again with ex'reme fplendoui : 

3 1 9. £ Thus though Brahmens employ themfelves 
€ in all forts of mean occupation, they mud in- 
c variably be honoured ; for they are fomething 
€ tranfcendcntly divine. 

320. c Of a military man, who raifes his arm 
c violently on all occafions againd the priedly 
c clafs, the pried himfelf fhall be the chadifer ; 

* fince the foldier originally proceeded from the 
c Brahmen . 

321. ‘ From the waters arofe fire; from the 

* pried, the foldier ; from done, iron : their all- 

* penetrating force is ineffectual in the places 
c whence they refpeCtivelv fprang. 

322. f The military clafs cannot profper with- 
1 out the facerdotal, nor can the facerdotal be 
c raifed without the military: both claffes by 
c cordial union, are exalted in this world and in 
€ the next. 

323. c Should the king^ near his end through 
1 jome incurable dtfeafe , he mud bedow on the 
c priedsallhis riches accumulated from legal fines; 
c and, having duly committed his kingdom to his 
c fon, let him feek death in battle, or, if there be 

* no war, by abftaining from food . 

324. * Thus conducting himfelf, and ever firm 

‘ in 


COMMERCIAL AND SERVILE CLASSES. 287 

* in difchargi~g his royal duties, let the kingem- 
4 ploy all his minifters in adts beneficial to his 

* people. 

325. 4 Thefe rules for the condudt of a military 
4 man having been propounded, let mankind next 
4 hear the rules for the commercial and fervilc 
4 clafTes in due order. 

326. * Let the Vaifya , having been girt with 
c his proper lacrificial thread, and having married 
4 an equal wife, be always attentive to his bufinefs 

of agriculture and trade , and to that of keeping 
4 cattle ; 

327. 4 Since the Lord of created beings, having 
4 formed nerds, and flocks, intruded them to the 

care of the Vaifya , while he intruded the whole 
4 human fpecies to the Brahmen and the CJhatriya : 

3:8. 4 Never mud a Vaifya be difpofed to fay, 
44 I keep no cattle nor, he being willing to keep 
4 them, mud they by any means be kept by men 
4 of another clafs. 

329. 4 Of gems, pearls, and coral, of iron, 
4 of woven cloth, of perfumes and of liquids, lec 
4 him well know the prices both high and low : 

330. 4 Let him be (killed like wife in the time 
4 and manner of fowing feeds, and in the bad 
4 or good qualities of land ; let him alfo perfe&ly 
4 know the corredt modes of meafuring and 
4 weighing, 

331. 4 The excellence or defedls of commodi- 
4 ties, the advantages and difadvantages of differ- 
4 ent regions, the probable gain or lofs on vendi- 
4 ble goods, and the means of breeding cattle 
4 with large augmentation : 

332. 4 Let hirn know the juft wages of fervants, 
4 the various dialedts of men, the bed way of 

* keeping 


*88 ON THE SAME ; AND ON THE, &C. 

c keeping goods, and whatever elfe belongs to pur* 
c chafe and fale. 

333. * Let him apply the mod vigilant care to 
c augment his wealth by performing his duty ; and, 

* with great folicitude, let him give nourifhmenc 

* to all fentient creatures. 

334. * Servile attendance on Brahmens learned 
c in the Veda> chiefly on fuch as keep houfe and 
c are famed for virtue, is of itfelf the higheft duty 
‘ of a Sudra , and leads him to future beatitude : 

335. ‘ Pure in body and mind> humbly lerving 

* the three higher claffes, mild in fpeech, never 
c arrogant, ever feeking refuge in Brahmens prin- 
€ cipally, he may attain the mod eminent clafs in 
c another tranfmigration. 

336. * This clear fydem of duties has been 
c promulgated for the four claffes; when they are 

* not in didrefs for fubfidence ; now learn in 

* order their feveral duties in times ofneceffity/ 


C 289 ) 


CHAPTER THE TENTH. 

On the mixed Clafes; ahd o?i Times of Diftrefs. 


1. c Let the three twice born clafles, remaift- 
4 ing firm in their feveral duties, carefully read 

* the Veda ; but a Brahmen nriuft explain it to 
4 them, not a man of the other two clajfes : this 
4 is an eftablifhed rule. 

2. 4 The Brahmen mud know the means of 

* fubfiftence ordained by law for all the clafles* 
4 and muft declare them to the reft: let him 

* likewife aft in conformity to law . 

3. 4 From priority of birth, from fuperiority of 

* origin, from a more exaft knowledge of lcrip- 
4 ture, and from a diftinftion in the facrificial 

* thread, the Brahmen is the lord of all clafles. 

4. 4 The three twice born clafles are the facer- 
4 dotal, the military, and the commercial ; but 
4 the fourth, or fervile, is once born, that is , has 
4 no Jecond birth from the gayatri, and wears no 
4 thread : nor is there a fifth pure clafs. 

5. 4 In all clafles they, and they only, who are 

* born, in a direft order, of wives equal in clafs, 

U 4 and 




29O ON THE MIXED CLASSES; AND 

0 and virgins at the time of marriage, are 
€ to be confidered as the fame in clafs with their 
1 fathers: 

6 . € Sons, begotten by twice born men, on wo- 
€ men of the clafs next immediately below them r 

* wife legiflators call fimilar, not the Jame y in clafs 
€ with their parents , becaufe they are degraded 
0 to a middle rank between both , by the lownefs of 

* their mothers: they are named in order Murdhab- 
c hilhida, Mahilhya, and Carana, or Cayaft’ha; 
c and their feveral employments are teaching military 
€ exercifes ; muficky aftronomy> and keeping herds ; and 
€ attendance on princes . 

7. * Such is the primeval rule for the fons of 

* women one degree lower than their hufbands: 
c for the fons of women two or three degrees 
‘ lower, let this rule of law be known. 

8. c From a Brahmen , on a wife of the Vaifya 
0 clafs, is born a fon called Ambajhfha, or 
c Vaidya , on a 'Sudra wife a Nijhada , named alfo 
9 Parafava: 

9. c From a Cjhatriya , on a wife of the Sudra 
€ clafs, fprings a creature called Ugra , with a na- 

* ture partly warlike and partly fervile, ferocious 
0 in his manners, cruel in his ads. 

10. c The fons of a Brahmen by women of three 
c lower dalles, of a Cjhatriya by women of two, 

* and of a Vaifya by one lower clafs, are called 

* Apafadahy or degraded below their fathers . 

11. ‘ From a Cfhatriya y by a Brdhmem wife, 

* fprings a Sat a by birth; from a Vaifya , by a 

* military or facerdota’l wife, fpring a Magadha and 
1 a Vaideha . 

12. c From a Sudra y on women of the com- 
4 mercial, military, and prieftly clafies, are born 

6 fons 


ts TIMES OF DISTRESS. * *gt 

Tons of a mixed breed, called A'yogava , CJhattr 
and Chandala, the lotfcft of mortals. 

13. 4 As the Ambajht'ha and Ugra , born in a 
direct order, with one clafs between theje of their 
parents, are confidered in law, fo are the CJhattr) , 
and the Vaideha, born in an inverfe order •with one 
intermediate clafs ; and all four may be touched 
•without impurity. 

14. ‘ Thofe Ions of the twice born, who are 
begotten on women without an interval ( An- 
tara) between the clafles mentioned in order, 
the wife call Ananlaras , giving them a dif- 
tinft name from the lower degree of their 
mothers. 

15. c From a Brahmen , by a girl of the Ugra 
tribe, is born an A'vrita ; by one of the Ambaft'ba 
tribe, an A'bhira ; by one of the A'yogava tribe, 
a Dhigvana. 

16. c The A'yogava, the CJhattr), and the Chan - 
dcila, the lowed of men, fpring from a Sudra in 
an inverfe order of the claffes, and are therefore 
all three excluded from the performance of cbfequies 
to their anceflors: 

17. * From a Vaifya the Magadha and Vatdtha, 
from a CJhatriya the SUta only, are born in an 
inverfe order; and they are three other fons ex¬ 
cluded from funeral rites to their fathers. 

18. c The fon of a Nijloada by a woman of the 
Sudra clafs, is by tribe a Puccafa ; but rhe fon 
of a Sudra by a Nifhadi woman, is named Cue - 
cutaca. 

19. 4 One born of a CJhattr 7 by an Ugra, is 
called Swapaca; and one begotten by a Vaideba 
on an Ambafhtb } wife is called Vena. 

20. c Thofe, whom the twice born beget on 
women of equal clafles, but who perform not 

U 2 ‘ the 


1 $Z ON THE MIXED CLASSES ; AND 

< the proper ceremonies of ajfuming the thread, and 

* the like , people denominate Vratyas, or excluded 

* from the gayatr). 

21. 4 From fuch an outcaft Brahmen fprings a 
c fon of a finful nature, who in different countries 

* is named a Bhurjacantaca, an A’vantya, a Vatad - 

* hana , a Puftopadha and a Saicha : 

22. 4 From fuch an outcaft CJhatriya comes a 
c fon called a J'halla , a Malta, a Nich'hivi , a Nata y 
4 a Car ana, a C y hafa y and a Dravira : 

23. 4 From fuch an outcaft Vaifya is born a fon 
4 called Sudhanwan y Chary a, Carufha y Vijanman y 
c Maitra, and Satwata. 

24. c By intermixtures of the claftes, by their 
4 marriages with women who ought not to be 

* married, and by their omifUon of prefcribed 
‘ duties, impure claftes have been formed. 

25. c Those men of mingled births, who were 
4 born in the inverfe order of claftes, and who 
1 intermarry among themfelves, I will now com- 

* pendioully defcribe. 

26. c The Suta, the Vaideha y and the Chandala , 
4 that loweft of mortals, the Mdgadha , the Cfioattri 
c by tribe* and the A'yogava. 

27. 4 Thefe fix beget fimilar fons on women of 
4 their own claftes, or on women of the fame clafs 
f with their mothers ; and they produce the like 

* from women of the two higheft claftes, and of 
4 the loweft : 

28. 4 Asa twice born fon may fpring from a 
4 Brahmen , by women of two claftes out of 
4 three, a fimilar Jon y when there is no interval, 
4 and an equal Jon trom a woman of his own 
4 clafs, it is thus in the cafe of the low tribes in 
4 order. 


29. c Thofe 


OK TIMES OF DISTRESS. 


2 93 

29. c Thofe fix beget, on women of their own 
tribes, reciprocally, very many defpicable and 
abjeft races even more foul than their begetters. 

30. ' Even as a Sv.dra begets, on a Brhhmem 
woman, a lbn more vile than himfclf, thus any 
other low man begets, on women of the four 
clafies, a fon yet lower. 

31. ‘ The fix low clafies, marrying inverfely, 
beget fifteen yet lower tribes, the bafe producing 
ftill baler'; and in a dir eft order they produce fifteen 
more. 

32. c A Dafyu , or ourcaft of any pure clafs, 
begets, on an A'yogav) woman, a Sairindhra , who 
fhould know how to attend and to drefs his 
mailer; though not a Have, he muft live by 
flavifh work, and may alfo gain fubfiftence by 
catching wild beafls in toils: 

33. c A Vaidcha begets on her a fweet-voiced 
Mai trey a ca, who, ringing a bell at the appear¬ 
ance of dawn, continually praifes great men: 

34. c A Nifhada begets on her a Mdrgava or 
Dafa, who fubfifts by his labour in boats, and 
is named Calvert a by thofe who dwell in A'ryd - 
verta , or the land of the venerable. 

35. c Thofe three of a bafe tribe are feverally 
begotten on A'yogav) women, who wear the 
clothes of the deceafed and eat reprehenlible food. 

36. * From a Nifhada fprings, by a woman of the 
Vaidcha tribe , a Cardvara > who cuts leather, and 
from a Vaidcha fpring, by women the Caravara 
and Nifhada cafts , an Andhra and a Me da , who 
mud live without the town 

37. ‘ From a Chan dal a, by a V’aideh) woman, 
comes a Pdndufopdca , who works with cane and 
reeds; and from a Nifhada } an Ahindica , who 
a<fls as a jailor. 

U 3 


38. 1 From 


294 


ON THE MIXED CLASSES^ AND 

3S. € From a Chandala, by a Puccasi woq^an, 
c is born a Sopaca , who lives by punifhing cri- 
4 rrfnals condemned by the king, a finful wretch 
4 ever defpifed by the virtuous. 

39. c A Nijhad} woman, by a Chan data, pro*. 
€ duces a Ton called Antyavajayin , employed in 

4 places for burning the dead, contemned even 

5 by the contemptible. 

40. c Thefe, among various mixed clafles, 
4 have been defcribed by their feveral fathers and 
4 mothers ; and, whether concealed or open, they 

* may be known by their occupations. 

41. c Six Tons, three begotten on women of the 

* fame clafs, and three on women of lower clafles, 

* muft perform the duties of twice born mens 
4 but thofe who are lorn in an inverje order , and 

4 called low born, are equal, in refped of duty, to 

5 mere Sudras . 

42. 4 By the force of extreme devotion and of 
4 exalted fathers, all of them may rife in time to 

* high birth, as, ly the rever/e , they may fink to a 
4 lower flate, in every age among mortals in this 

* inferiour world. 

43. c The following races of CJhatriyas , by 
4 their omillion of holy rites, and by feeing no 
c Brahmens , have gradually funk among men, to 

* the lowefl of the four clafles : 

44. c Paund'racas , Odras , and Draviras ; Cam- 

* bojas , TavanaSy and Sacas •, Paradas , Pahlavas , 

* Chinas , Ciratas , Deradas , and Chafas . 

45. c All thofe tribes of men, who fprang from 
4 the mouth, the arm, the thigh, and the foot of 
c Brahma', but who became outcafts by having 
4 neglefied their duties , are called Da/yus , or />/#?/- 
« dererSy whether they fpeak the language of 
l Mlechch'has , or that of A'ryas , 

46, J Those 


ON TIMES OF DISTRESS 


*95 

46. * Those Tons of the twice born who are 

* laid to be degraded, and who are confidered as 
4 low born, fhallfubfift only by filch employments, 

4 as the twice born defpife. 

47. 4 Sutas mud live by managing horfes and 
4 by driving cars ; AmbajhChas y by curing dif- 
4 orders; Vaidchas , by waiting on women; Ma - 

* gadbas , by travelling with merchandize; 

48. 4 Nijhadas , by catching fifh; an A yogav a , 

€ by the work of a carpenter ; a Meda> an Andhra, 

4 and (the Tons of a Brahmen by wives of the Vat- 
4 de'ba and Ugra clafles, refpedively called) a Chun - 
4 chu and a Madgu , by flaying beads of the foreft; 

49. 4 A CJhattri , an Ugra , and a Puccafa, by 

* killing or confining l'uch animals as live in holes: 

* Dbigvanas , by felling leather ; Venas, by flriking 

* mufical indruments : 

50. * Near large publick trees, in places for 
4 burning the dead, on mountains, and in groves, 

* let thole tribes dwell, generally known, and en- 
4 gaged in their feverai works. 

51. 4 The abode of a Chandala and a Swapaca 
4 mud be out of the town; they mud not have 
4 the ufe of entire vefiels ; their foie wealth mud 
4 be dogs and afles : 

£2. c Their clothes mud be the mantles of the 
4 deceafed; their difhes for food, broken pots ; 
4 their ornaments, rudy iron; continually mud 
4 they roam from place to place : 

53. 4 Let no man, who regards his duty reli— 
4 gious and civil, hold any intercourfe with them ; 

* let their tranfa&ions be confined to themfelves, 
4 and their marriages only between equals : 

54. * Let food be given to them in potfherds, 
4 but not by the hands of the giver ; and let them 
4 not walk by night in cities or towns: 

u 4 


55- ‘ By 


96 ON THE MIXED CLASSES; AND 

55. c By day they may walk about for the 
purpofe of work, diftinguifhed by the king's 
badges ; and they fhall carry out the corpfe of 
every one who dies without kindred : fuch is 
the fixed rule. 

56. ‘ They (hall always kill thofe who are to 
be (lain by the fentence of the law, and by the 
royal warrant; and let them take the clothes of 
the (lain, their beds, and their ornaments. 

57. c Him, who was born of a finful mother, 
and confequently in a low clafs, but is not openly 
known, who, though worthlefs in truth, bears 
the femblance of a worthy man, let people dif- 
cover by his ads: 

58. ‘ Want of virtuous dignity, harfhnefs of 
fpeech, cruelty, and habitual negled of pre- 
fcribed duties, betray, in this world, the fon of a 
criminal mother. 

59. * Whether a man of debafed birth afiiime 
the character of his father or of his mother, he 
can at no time conceal his origin: 

60. c He, whofe family had been exalted, but 
whofe parents were criminal in marrying, has a 
bafe nature, according as the offence of his mother 
was great or fmall. 

61. c In whatever country fuch men are born, 
as deflroy the purity of the four clafles, that 
country foon perifhes, together with the natives 
of it. 

62. f Delertion of life, without reward, for the 
fake of preferving a pried or a cow, a woman 
or a child, may caufe the beatitude of thofe bafe- 
born tribes. 

63. £ Avoiding all injury to animated beings , 
veracity, abdinence from theft, and from unjuft 
feizure of property, cleanlinefs, and command 

< over 


ON TIMES OF DISTRESS. 297 

over the bodily organs, form the compendious 
fyflern of duty which Menu has ordained for 
the four dalles. 

64. Should the tribe fprung from a Brahmen 
by a Sudra woman, produce a Jucceffion of children 
by the marriages of its women with other Bra- 
menSy the low tribe fhall be raifed to the higheft 
in the leventh generation. 

65. 4 As the fon of a Sudra may thus attain the 
rank of a Brahmen, and as the fon of a Brahmen 
may fink to a level with Shdras, even fo muft it 
be with him who fprings from a Cfhatriya'y even 
fo with him who was born of a Vaifya. 

66 . * If there be a doubt, as to the preference 
between him who was begotten by a Brahmen 
for his pleafure, hut not in wedlock , on a Shdra 
woman, and him who was begotten by a Sudra 
on a Brahmen ), 

67. r Thus is it removed : he, who was be- 
gotten by an exalted man on a bafe woman, 
may, by his good acls, become refpedable ; but 
he, who was begotten on an exalted woman by 
a bafe man, mud himfelf continue bafe : 

68 . 4 Neither of the two (as the law is fixed) 
fhall be girt with a facred firing; not the former, 
becaufe his mother was low; nor the fecond, 
becaufe the order of the dalles was inverted. 

69. 4 As good grain, fpringing from good foil, 
is in all refpeds excellent, thus a man, lpringing 
from a refpedable facher by a refpedable mo¬ 
ther, has a claim to the whole inflitution of the 
twice born. 

70. 4 Some fages give a preference to the 
grain ; others to the field ; and others confider 
both field and grain ; on this point the decifion 

follows: 

71. 1 Grain, 


zg8 ON THE MIXED CLASSES; AND 

71. c Grain, caft into bad ground, wholly 

* periffies, and a good field, with no grain Town in 

* ir, is a mere heap of clods ; 

72. f But fince, by the virtue of eminent fa- 
4 thers, even the fons of wild animals, as RHh- 
€ yafringa, and others , have been transformed into 

* holy men revered and extolled, the paternal fide, 
f therefore, prevails, 

73. ‘ Brahma himfelf, having compared a 

* Sudra , who performs the duties of the twice- 
4 born, with a twice born man, who does the ads 
c of a Sudra , faid : “ Thofe two are neither equal 
“ nor unequal,” that is, they are neither equal in 

rank , nor unequal in had conduct. 

74. 4 Let fuch Brahmens as are intent on the 
c means of attaining the fupreme godhead, and 
c firm in their own duties, completely perform, in 
‘ order, the fix following ads: 

75. * Reading the Vedas , and teaching others 
€ to read them, facrificing, and affifting others to 
4 facrilice, giving to the poor , if themjelves have 
1 enough , and accepting gifts from the virtuous , if 
4 themjelves are poor, are the fix prefcribed ads of 
f the fir ft born.clafs; 

. 76. 4 But, among thofe fix ads of a Brahmen , 

4 three are his means of fubfiftence; affifting to 
4 facrifice, teaching the Vedas , and receiving gifts 
4 from a pure-handed giver. 

77. 4 Three ads of duty ceafe with the Brcth* 

* men , and belong not to the CJhatriya ; teaching 
€ the Vedas , officiating at a facrifice, and, thirdly, 
4 receiving prefents: 

78. * Thole three are alfo, by the fixed rule of 
4 law, forbidden to the Vaifya ; fince Menu, the 
4 lord of all men, prefcribed not thofe ads to the 

* two cUtffes 3 military and commercial , 


79. ‘ The 


©N TIMES OF DISTRESS* C99 

79. ‘ The means of fubfiftence, peculiar to the 

* CJhatriya , are bearing arms, either held for ftrik- 
4 ing or mi (file, to the Vaifya, merchandize, at- 

* tending on cattle, and agriculture : but, with a 
f view to the next life , the duties of both are alms- 
9 giving, reading, facrificing. 

80. c Among the feveral occupations/or gaining 
« a livelihood ; the mod commendable refpe&ively 
< for the facerdotal, military, and mercantile 
4 clafies, are teaching the Veda, defending the 
9 people, and commerce, or keeping herds and 
f flocks. 

81. 4 Yet a Brahmen, unable to fubfift by his 
c duties juft mentioned, may live by the duty of 

* a foldier ; for that is the next in rank. 

82. * If it be afked, how he muft live, fhould 
9 he be unable to get a fubfiftence by either of 
c thofe employments ; the anfwer is , he may fub- 
1 fift as a mercantile man, applying himfelf in per- 
9 Jon to tillage and attendance on cattle : 

83. c But a Brahmen and a CJhatriya , obliged 
4 to fubfift by the afts of a Vaifya , muft avoid with 
c care, if they can live by keeping herds , the bufinefs 

* of tillage, which gives great pain to fentient crea - 
c Cures , and is dependant on the labour of others, 

* as bulls and Jo forth . 

84. 9 Some are of opinion, that agriculture is 

* excellent; but it is a mode of fubfiftence which 
4 the benevolent greatly blame ; for the iron- 
€ mouthed pieces of wood not only wound the 
c earth, but the creatures dwelling in it. 

85 4 If, through want of a virtuous livelihood, 
9 they cannot follow laudable occupations, they 
9 may then gain a competence of wealth by felling 
9 commodities ufually fold by merchants, avoiding 

c what ought to be avoided. 

5 5 86, ( They 


^OO ON THE MIXED CLASSES ; AND 

86. c They muft avoid felling liquids of all 
€ forts, d re (Ted grain, feeds of tila y ftones, fait, 
€ cattle, and human creatures ; 

87. c All woven cloth dyed red, cloth made of 
‘ Jana , of cjhumci bark, and of wool, even though 

* not red ; fruit, roots, and medicinal plants ; 

83 . c Water, iron, poifon, flefh-meat, the 

* moon-plant, and perfumes of any fort; milk, 

* honey, butter-milk, clarified butter, oil of tila, 
4 wax, fugar, and blades of cuja-gvafe; 

$9. ‘ All beads of the foreft, as deer and the 

* like; ravenous beads, birds, and fijh ; fpirituous 
< liquors, mli 3 or indigo, and lacjha y or lac $ and 
c all beads with uncloven hoofs. 

90. ‘ But the Brahmen hufbandman may at 
c pleafure fell pure // 7 ^-feeds for the purpole of 
c holy rites, if he keep them not long with a hope 
€ gJ more gain, and fhall have produced them by 
c his own culture : 

91. ‘ If he apply feeds of tila to any purpofe 
€ but food, anointing, and facred oblations, he 

* fhall be plunged, in the fhape of a worm, to- 
0 gether with his parents, into the ordure of 

* dogs. 

92. f By felling flefh-meat, lacjhd , or fait, 
c a Brahmen immediately finks low, by felling 
f milk three days, he falls to a level with a Sfidra ; 

93. c And by felling the other forbidden com- 

* modifies with his own free will, he affumes in 

* this world, after feven nights, the nature of a 

* mere Vaifya. 

94. ‘ Fluid things may, however, be bartered 
' for other fluids, but not fait for any thing liquid ; 

1 fo may drefled grain for grain undrefled, and tila- 
( feeds for grain in the hulk, equal weights or 
‘ meafures being given and taken. 


95- * A 


ON TIMES OF DISTRESS. 


jor 

95. 4 A military man, in diflrefs, may fub« 
fill by all thefe means, but at no time mufl 
he have recourfe to the highefl, or Jacerdotal 
fundlion. 

96. 4 A man of the lowed clafs, who, through 
covetoufnefs, lives by the adls of the highefl, let 
the king flrip of all his wealth and inflantly 
banifh : 

97. 4 His own office, though defe&ively per¬ 
formed, is preferable to that of another, though 
performed completely ; for he, who without ne- 
ceffity difeharyes the duties of another clafs, 
immediately forfeits his own. 

98. 4 A mercantile man, unable to fubfift 
by his own duties, may defeend even to the 
fervile a< 5 ls of a Siidra , taking care never to do 
what ought never to be done : but, when he has 
gained a competence, let him depart from 
fervice. 

99. 4 A man of the fourth clafs, not finding 
employment by waiting on the twice born, while 
his wife and fon are tormented with hunger, 
may fubfifl by handicrafts : 

100. 4 Let him principally follow thofe mecha¬ 
nical occupations, as joinery and mafonry , or thofe 
various practical arts, as 'painting and writing, by 
following of which he may ferve the twice born. 

101. 4 Should a Brahmen, afflidled and pining 
through want of food,choofe rather to remain fix¬ 
ed in the path of his own duty, than to adopt the 
pradlice of Vaijyas , let him adl in this manner : 

102. 4 The Brahmen , having fallen into diflrefj, 
may receive gifts from any perfon whatever, 
for by no facred rule can it be fhown, that ab- 
folute purity can be fullied. 

103. 4 From 


302 ON THE MIXED CLASSES; AND 

103. c From interpreting the Veda, from offici- 
€ ating at facrifices,or from taking prefents, though 

* in modes generally difapproved, no fin is com- 
c mitted by priefts in diftrejs ; for they are as pure 
f as fire or water. 

104. c He who receives food, when his life 
€ could not otherwife be fuftained, from any man 

* whatever, is no more tainted by fin than the 
1 fubtil ether by mud : 

105. c Aji garta, dying with hunger, was 
c going to deftroy his own fon (nameet Sv( nah- 

* s'e'p’ha) by Jelling him for fome cattle , yet he was 
c guilty of no crime, fince he only fought a re- 
c medy againft familhing: 

106. ‘ Va'made'va who well knew right and 

* w r rong, was by no means rendered impure, 
c though defirous, when opprefied with hunger , 
1 of eating the flefh of dogs for the prefervation 
4 of his life : 

107. c Bharadwa'ja, eminent in devotion, 
c when he and his fon were almofl ftarved in a 
4 dreary foreft, accepted feveral cows from the 
€ carpenter Vridhtj : 

108. c Viswa'mitra too, than whom none 
c better knew the diftiruftions between virtue and 
c vice, refolved, w hen he was periftiing with hun- 
c ger, to eat the haunch of a dog, which he had 

* received from a Chanda'la. 

109. * Among the a£ts generally difapproved, 

* namely , accepting prefents from low men, aftifting 
€ them to facrifice, and explaining the fcripture to 

* them, the receipt of prefents is the meaneft in 
c this world, and the moft blamed in a Brahmen 
f after his prefent life ; 

no. * Becaufe afiifting to facrifice and explain- 


ON TIMES OF DISTRESS. 303 

4 ing the fcripture, are two a&s always performed 

* for thofe, whole minds have been improved by 
4 the /acred initiation ; but gifts are alfo received 

* from a fervile man of the lowed clafs. 

hi. 4 The guilt incurred by aftifting low men 
4 to facrifice, and by teaching them the fcripture, 

€ is removed by repetitions of the gay air t and ob- 

* lations to fire ; but that, incurred by accepting 
4 gifts from them , is expiated only by abandoning 
‘ the gifts and by rigorous devotion. 

112. 4 It were better for a Brahmen , who could 
4 not maintain himfelf, to glean ears and grains, 

4 alter harved, from the field of any perfon what- 
4 ever: gleaning whole ears would be better than 
4 accepting a prcfent, and picking up fingle grains 
4 would be dill more laudable. 

113. 4 Brahmens, who keep houfe, and are in 
4 want of any metals, except gold and filver , or of 
4 articles for good ufes , may alk the king for them, 
c if he be of the military clafs ; but a king, known 
4 to be avaricious and unwilling to give, mud not 

* be folicited. 

114. 4 The foremod, in order , of thcfe things 
c may be received more innocently than that which 
< follows it : a field untilled, a tilled field, cows, 
4 goats, (beep, precious metals or gems, new grain, 

* drefled grain. 

115. * There are feven virtuous means of ac- 
4 quiring property ; fucceflion, occupancy ordona- 

* tion, and purchafe or exchange, which are al- 
4 lowed to all claffes ; conqueds, which is peculiar 

* to the military clafs; lending at intered, hufban- 
4 dry or commerce, which belong to the mercantile 
4 clafs ; and acceptance of prefents, by the facer - 
4 dotal clafs , from refpe< 5 lable men. 

116. 4 Learning, 


304 ON THE MIXED CLASSES ; AND 

ii 6. c Learning, except that contained in thtf 
c Jcriptures, art, as mixing perfumes and the like, 
4 work for wages, menial fervice, attendance on 
4 cattle, traffick, agriculture, content with little, 
4 alms, and receiving high intereft on money, are 
4 ten modes of fubfiftence in times of diftrefs, 

117. 4 Neither a prieft nor a military man, 
4 though diftreffed, muft receive intereft on loans, 
4 but each ot them, if he pleafe, may pay /i^fmall 
c intereft permitted by law, on borrowing for fome 

* pious ufe, to the finful man who demands it, 

118. c A military king, who takes even a 
4 fourth part of the crops of his realm at a time of 

* urgent necefTiiy, as of war or invafion , and pro- 

* teds his people to the utmoft of his power, 
4 commits no fin: 

1 iq. * His peculiar duty is conqueft, and he 

* muft not recede from battle ; fo that while he' 
4 defends by his arms the merchant and hufband- 
4 man, he may levy the legal tax as the price of 
4 protection, 

120. c The tax on the mercantile clafs, which 
4 in tunes of profperity muft be only a twelfth part of 
4 their crops , and a fiftieth of their perfonal profits,- 
4 may be an eighth of their crops in a time of diftrefs, 

4 or a fixth, which is the medium , or even a fourth 
4 in great publick adverfity ; but a twentieth of 
4 their gains on. money, and other moveables, is 
4 the higheft tax: ferving men, artifans, and me- 
4 chanicks muft aftift by their labour, but at no 
4 time pay taxes . 

121. 4 If a Siidra want a fubfiftence, and cannot 
4 attend a prieft, he may ferve a Cfhatriya ; or, if 
4 he cannot wait on a foldier by birth , he may gain 
4 his livelihood by ferving an opulent Vaifya. 

122. 4 To 


ON TIMES OF DISTRESS* 303 

122. * To him, who ferves Brahmens with a 
view to a heavenly reward, or even with a view 
to both this life and the next, the union of the 
word Brahmen with his name of jervant will af- 
luredly bring fuccefs. 

123. ‘ Attendance on Brahmens is pronounced 
the beft work of a SbJra: whatever elfe 
he may perform will comparatively avail him 
nothing. 

124. * They muft allot him a fit maintenance 
according to their own circumftances, after con- 
fidering his ability, his exertions, and the 
number of thofe whom he muft provide with 
nourifhmenr: 

125. ‘ What remains of their drefled rice muft 
be given to him ; and apparel which they have 
worn, and the refufe of their grain, and their 
old houfehold furniture. 

126. ‘ There is no guilt in a man of the fer* 
vile cl a fs ivbo eats leeks and other forbidden vege¬ 
tables : he muft not have the facred inveftiture : 
he lias no bufinefs with the duty of making obla - 
tions to fire and the like ; but there is no prohibi¬ 
tion again ft his offering dreffed grain as a facrifice y 
by way of dfcharging his own duty. 

127. i Even Sudras , who are anxious to per¬ 
form their entire duty, and, knowing what they 
fhould perform, imitate the practice of good 
men in the houfeholdfacraments, but without any 
holy text, except tboje containing traije and faint a* 
tion , are fo far from finning, tnat they acquire 
juft applaufe : 

128. ‘ As a Sudra , without injuring another 
man, performs the lawful ads of the twicQ 
born, even thus, without being cenfured, he 
gains exaltation in this world and in the next. 

X 129. 4 No 


o6 ON THE MIXED CLASSES* &C. 

129. c No fuperflucus collection of wealth muft 
be made by a Sudra, even though he has power 
to make it, fince a fervile man, who has amaffed 
riches, becomes proud, and, by his infolence or ne- 
gleft, gives pain even to Brahmens . 

130. ‘ Such, as have been fully declared, are 
the feveral duties of the four daffes in diftrefs 
for fubfiftence ; and, if they perform them ex¬ 
actly, they fhall attain the higheft beatitude. 

131. c Thus has been propounded the fyftem 
of duties, religions and civil, ordained for all 
daffes: I next will declare the pure law of ex¬ 
piation for fin/ 


C 3°7 ) 


CHAPTER THE ELEVENTH. 


On Penance and Expiation> 


t. c Him, who intends to marry for the fake of 

* having illue ; him, who wifhes to make a fa- 
c crifice ; him, who travels; him, who has given 

* all his wealth at a facred rite ; him, who defires 
4 to maintain his preceptor, his father, or his mo* 
4 ther ; him, who needs a maintenance for him- 

* felf, when he firfb reads the Veda; and him, 
4 who is afflicted with illnefs; 

2. ‘ Thefe nine Brahmens let mankind confider 
c as virtuous mendicants, called fniitacas ; and, 
4 to relieve their wants, let gifts of cattle cr gold 
4 be prefented to them, in proportion to their 

* learning : 

3. 4 To thefe mofl excellent Brahmens mud 
4 ricealfobe given, with holy prefents at \oblations 
4 to fire, and within the confecratcd circle; but the 
4 drelfed rice, which others are to receive, mud be 
4 delivered on the outfide of the facred hearth : 

* gold and the like may be given any where . 

44 4 On fuch Brahmen j as well know the Vida % 
4 let the king beftow, as it becomes him, jewels 
4 of all forts, and the folemn reward for officiating 
‘ at the facrifice. 

X 2 


5. ‘ He, 




ON PENANCE 


30S 

5. c He, who has a wife, and, having begged 
c money to defray bis nuptial expertces , marries an- 
4 other woman, lhall have no advantage but fen- 

* fual enjoyment: the offspring belongs to the 

* beftower of the gift. 

6. 4 Let every man, according to his ability, 

* give wealth to Brahmens detached from the 
1 world and learned in fcripture ; fuch a giver 
1 lhall attain heaven after this life. 

7. ‘ He alone is worthy to drink the juice of 
1 the moon-plant, who keeps a provifion of grain 

* fufficient to fupply thofe, whom the law com- 
‘ mands him to nourifh, for the term of three 
4 years or more ; 

8 . ‘ But a twice born man, who keeps a lefs 

* provifion of grain, yet prefumes to tafte the 

* juice of the moon-plant, lhall gather no fruit 
€ from that facrament, even though he tafie it 

* at the fir ft, or folemn , much lefs at any occaftonal 

* ceremony. 

9. ‘ He, who bellows gifts on ftrangers, with a 
4 ‘View to worldly fame , while he fuffers his family 
4 to live in diftrefs, though he has power to flip - 
1 port them 9 touches his lips with honey, but 
4 fwallows poifon ; fuch virtue is counterfeit: 

10. 6 Even what he does for the fake of hi* 
4 future fpiritual body, to the injury of thofe 
4 whom he is bound to maintain, lhall bring him 
4 ultimate mifery both in this life and in the next. 

11. 6 Should a facrifice, performed by any 
4 twice born facrificer, .and by a Brahmen efpe- 
4 cially, be imperfedl from the want of fome 
4 ingredient, during the reign of a prince who 
x knows the law, 

12. 6 Let him take that article, foe the com- 

r 4 pletioa 


AND EXPIATION. 


309 

plction of the facrifice, from the houfe of any 
Vcdfya, who poflefies confiderable herds, but 
neither facrifices, nor drinks the juice of the 
moon-plant: 

13. ‘ If fuch a Vdifya be not near, he may take 
two or three fuch neceflary articles, at pleafure, 
from the houfe of a Sidra ; fince a Sidra has 
no bufinefs with folemn rites. 

14. ‘ Even from the houfe of a Brahmen or a 
Cjhatriya , who pofi'efles a hundred cows, but has 
no confecrated fire, or a thoufand cows, but 
performs no facrifice with the moon-plant, let a 
pried, without fcruple, take the articles wanted . 

15. ‘ From another Brahmen , who continually 
receives prefents but never gives, let him take 
fuch ingredients of the facrifice, if not bellowed 
on requefi : fo lhall his fame be fpread abroad, 
and his habits of virtue increafe. 

16. ‘ Thus, likewife, may a Brahmen , who has 
not eaten at the time of fix meals, or has fafted 
three whole days , take at the time of the feventfl 
meal, or on the fourth morning, from the man 
who behaves bafely by not offering him food 
enough to fupply him till the morrow : 

17. 4 He may take it from the floor, where 
the grath is trodden out of the hulk, or from 
the field, or from the houfe, or from any place 
whatever ; but, if the owner alk why he takes it % 
the caufe of the taking mud be declared. 

18. * The wealth of a* virtuous Brahmen mud 
at no time be lcized by a Cjhatriya; but, having 
no other means to complete a facrifice, he may 
take the goods of any man who adts wickedly, 
and of afty who performs not his religious duties: 

19. 4 He who takes property from the bad, for 
the purpoja bfere»meniionrd,^nd be flows it on the 

X 3 ‘ good. 


3 io 


ON PENANCE 


* good, transforms himfelf into a boat, and car- 
1 ries both the good and the bad over a fea of ca~ 
9 families, 

£0. ‘ Wealth, pofieffed by men for the per- 
c formance of facrifices, the wife call the property 

* of the gods; but the wealth of men, who 

* perform no facrifice, they conlider as the pro- 
c perty of demons. 

2i. * 'Let no pious king fine the man who 
9 takes by ftealth> or by force 9 what he wants to make 

* a facrifice perfect; fince it is the king’s folly, 
c that caufes the hunger or wants of a Brahmen : 

12, 9 Having reckoned up the perfons, whom 

* the Brahmen is obliged to fupport, having af- 
€ certained his divine knowledge and moral con- 

* dud:, let the king allow him a fuitahle main- 
< tenance from his own houfehold ; 

23. ( And, having appointed him a mainte- 
9 nance, let the king proted: him on all fides ; for 
9 he gains from the Brahmen whom he proteds, 
9 a fixth part of the reward for his virtue. 

24. 9 Let no Brahmen ever beg a gift from a 
9 Sudra ; for, if he perform a facrifice after fuch 
9 begging, he fhall, in the next life, be born a 
9 Chanda fa. 

25. 9 The Brahmen who begs any articles for 
9 a facrifice, and difpofes not of them all for that 
9 purpofe, fhall become a kite or a crow for a 
9 hundred years. 

26. 6 Any evil-hearted wretch, who, through 
9 covetoufnefs, fhall feize the property of the gods 

* or of Brahmens , fhall feed in another world on 
9 the orts of vultures. 

27. 9 The facrifice Vaifwanari mufl be con- 
flantly performed on the firft day of the new 
year, or on the new moon of Chaitra 9 as an' 

9 expiation 


AND EXPIATION. 


3 1 1 


expiation for having omitted, through nitre for - 
getfulnejs, the appointed Sacrifices ot cattle and 
the rites of the moon-plant: 

28. 4 But a twice born man, who, without 
neceflity, does an act allowed only in a cafe of 
necefiity, reaps no fruit from it hereafter : thus 
has it been decided. 

29. * By the Vifwedevas, by the Sadhyas , and 
by eminent Ri/bis of the facerdotal clafs, the 
fubftitute was adopted for the principal adt, 
when they were apprehenfive of dying in times 
of imminent peril; 

30. 4 But no reward is prepared in a future 
itate for that ill-minded man, who, when able 
to perform the principal facrifice, has recourfe 
to the fubftitute. 

31. 4 A Priest, who well knows the law, 
needs not complain to the king of any grievous 
injury; fince, even by his own power, he may 
chaftife thofe who injure him : 

32. 4 His own power, which depends on him [elf 
alone , is mightier than the royal power, which 
depends on other men: by his own might, there¬ 
fore, may a Brahmen coerce his foes. 

33. 4 He may ufe, without hefitation, the 
powerful charms revealed to At’harvan, and 
by him to Angiras ; for fpeech is the weapon 
of a Brahmen : with that he may deftroy his 
oppreflors. 

34. 4 A foldier may avert danger from himfelf 
by the ftrength of his arm ; a merchant and a 
mechanick, by their property ; but the chief of 
the twice born, by holy texts and oblations 
to fire. 

35. 4 A prieft, who performs his duties, who 
juftly corredfs his children and pupils, who advifes 

X 4 4 expiations 


ON PEtfANCE 


3 tz 

4 expiations for fin, and who loves all animated 

* creatures, is truly called a Brahmen; to him let 

* no man fay any thing unpropitious, nor ufe any 

* offenfive language. 

36. 6 Let not a girl, nor a young woman, mar - 
4 vied cr unmarried , nor a man with little learning, 

6 nor a dunce, perform an oblation to fire ; nor a 
‘ man difeafed, nor one uninvefted yntb the facri- 
4 jicial firing; 

37. 6 Since any of thofe perfons, who make 

* fuch an oblation, fhali fall into a region of tor- 
4 ture, together with him who fuffers his hearth 
€ to be ufed : he alone, who perfectly knows the 
c facred ordinances, and has read all the Vedas , 
4 mu ft officiate at an oblation to holy fire. 

38. 4 A Brahmen with abundant wealth, who 
‘ prefents not the prieft that hallows his fire, with 
s a horfe confecrated to Praja'pati, becomes 
c equal to one who has no fire hallowed, 

39. ‘ Let him, who believes the fcripture, and 
1 keeps his organs in fubjedtion, perform all other 

* pious adts; but never in this world let him offer 
4 a facrifice with trifling gifts to the officiating 
4 prieft : 

40. 4 The organs of fenfe and a&ion, reputa- 
4 tion in this life , a heavenly manfion in the next , 
4 life it fie If y a great name after death , children and 
4 cattle, are all deftroyed by a facrifice offered 
4 with trifling prefents: let no man, therefore-, 

* facrifice without liberal gifts. 

41. 4 The prieft who keeps a facred hearth, 

* but voluntarily negledts the morning and evening 
4 oblations to his fires, muft perform, in the manner 
4 to be dejcrib r d , the penance chdndrayana for one 
‘ month; fmce that negkftis equally finful w'ith 

* the flaughter qf a fon. 

42. « They 


AND EXPIATION. 


3*3 


4 z, f They who receive property from a Sudra, 
c for the performance of rites to confecrated fire, 

* are contemned, as minitters of the bafe, by all 
c fuch as pronounce texts of the Vida : 

43. ‘ Of thofe ignorant priefts, who ferve the 
1 holy fire for the wealth of a Sit dr a, the giver 
1 (hall always tread on the foreheads, and thus 
1 pafs over miferie 9 in the gloom of death* 

44. c Every man, who doe9 not an a ft pre- 
‘ feribed, or does an adt forbidden, or is guilty 
‘ of excefs, even in legal gratifications of the fenfes, 

‘ muft perform an expiatory penance. 

43. ‘ Some of the learned conlider an expiation 
1 as confined to involuntary fin; but others, from 

* the evidence of the Veda, hold it effectual even 
1 in the cafe of a voluntary offence : 

46. 1 A fin, involuntarily committed, is re- 
c moved by repeating certain texts of the ferip- 

* ture; but a fin committed intentionally, through 

* ftrange infatuation, by harfli penances of dif- 
‘ ferent forts. 

47. ‘ If a twice born man, by the will of God 
< in this world, or from his natural birth, have 

* any corporeal mark of an expiable fin committed 

* in this or a former (late, he muff hold no in- 
€ tercourfe with the virtuous, while his penance 

* remains unperformed. 

48. ‘ Some evil minded perfons, for (ins com- 

* mitted in this life, and fomc for bad adtions in 
‘ a preceding (late, fuffer a morbid change in 
( their bodies : 

49. ‘ A dealer of gold from a Brhhmcn has 
f whitlows on his nails; a drinker of fpirits, black 
c terh; the (layer of a Brahmen, a marafmus; the 

* violator of his gurus bed, a deformity in the 

* generative organs; 

50. * A 


ON PENANCE 


3 T 4 

50. 4 A malignant informer, fetid ulcers in his 
c noftrils; a falfe detractor, {linking breath ; a 
4 ilealer of grain, the defedl of fome limb ; a 
4 mixer of bad zvares with goody fome redundant 
4 member ; 

51. 4 A flealer of drefled grain, dyfpepfia ; a- 
4 healer of holy words, or an unauthorized reader •> 
4 of the fcriptures , dumbnefs ; a healer of clothes, 

4 leprofy ; a horfe-dealer, lamenefs ; 

52. 4 The dealer of a lamp, total blindnefs ; 

4 the mifchievous extinguifher cf it, blindnefs in 
4 one eye ; a delighter in hurting fentient crea- 
4 tures, perpetual illnefs; an adulterer, windy 
4 fwellings in his limbs : 

53. 4 Thus, according to the diverfity of ac- 
4 tions, are born men defpifed by the good, 

4 dupid, dumb, blind, deaf, and deformed. 

54. 4 Penance, therefore, mud invariably be 
4 performed for the fake of expiation; fince they, 

4 who have not expiated their fins, will again 
4 fpring to birth with difgraceful marks. 

55. 4 Killing a Brahmen , drinking forbidden 
4 liquor, 1 dealing gold from a pried, adultery 
4 with the wife of a father, natural or fpiritua], 

4 and adociating with fuch as commit thofe of- 
4 fences, wife legihators mud declare to be crimes 
4 in the highed degree, in refpebi of thofe after men* 

4 tioned , but lefs than incefi in a direct line, and fome 
4 others. 

56. 4 False boafling of a high tribe, malignant 
4 information, before the king, of a criminal who 
4 mud fufier death , and falfely accufing a fpiritual 
4 preceptor, are crimes in the fecond degree , 

4 nearly equal to killing a Brahmen . 

57. 4 Forgetting the texts of fcripture, fhowing 

4 contempt of the Veda , giving falfe evidence 

4 


AND EXPIATION. 


3 l S 

without a bad motive, kilfngafiiend without malice , 
eating things prohibited, or, from their manifefl 
impurity , unfit to be tailed, are fix crimes nearly 
equal to drinking fpirits; but perjuty and homi¬ 
cide require , in atrocious cafes , the harjhe/l expiation . 

58. ‘ l'o appropriate a thing dcpolited or lent 
for a time , a human creature, a horfe, precious 
metals, a field, a diamond, or any other gem, 
is nearlv equal to Healing the gold of a Brahmen. 

59. 4 Carnal commerce with fillers by the fame 
mother, with little girls, with women of the 
lowed mixed clafs, or with the wives of a friend, 
or of a fon, the wife muft confider as nearly 
equal to a violation of the paternal bed. 

60. * Slaying a bull or cow, facrificing what 
ought not to be facrificed, adultery, felling 
onefelf, deferting a preceptor, a mother, a fa¬ 
ther, or a fon, omitting to read the fcripture, 
and negledl of the fires prefcribed by the Dher- 
mafaftra only, 

61. ‘ The marriage of a younger brother be¬ 
fore the elder, and that elder’s omiffion to marry 
before the younger, giving a daughter to either 
of them, and officiating at their nuptial facrifice, 
62 4 Defiling a damfel, ufury, want of perfedt 
challity in a lludent, felling a holy pool or 
garden, a wife, or a child, 

63. * Omitting the facred inveftiture, abandon¬ 
ing a kinfman, teaching the Veda for hire, learn¬ 
ing it from a hired teacher, felling commodities 
that ought not to be fold, 

64. * Working in mines of any fort, engaging 
in dykes , bridges , or other great mechanical works, 
fpoiling medicinal plants repeatedly, fubfitling by 
the harlotry of a wife, offering facrifices and 
preparing charms to deflroy the innocent , 

65. * Cutting 


ON PENANCE 


? l6 

65. c Cutting down green trees for firewood, 
c ' performing holy rites with a felfifii view merely, 
6 and eating prohibited food once without a previous 

* defign, 

66 6 Neglecting to keep up the confecrated 
c fire, ftealing any valuable thing bejides gold , non- 
6 payment of the three debts, application to the 
c books of a falfe religion, and exceffive attention 

* to mufick or dancing, 

67. ‘ Stealing grain, bafe metals, or cattle, 
c familiarity, by the twice born , with women who 
€ have drunk inebriating liquor, killing without 
c malice a woman, a Sudra, a Vaifya, or a CJhatriya, 

* and denying a future ftate of rewards and pu- 

* nifhments, are all crimes in the third degree, 
6 but higher or lower according to circumftances. 

68. ‘ Giving pain to a Brahmen , fmelling at 
c any fpirituous liquor or any thing extremely fetid 
« and unfit to be fmelt, cheating, and unnatural 

* practices with a male, are considered as caufing 
( a lofs of clafs. 

69. ‘ To kill an afs, a horfe, a camel, a deer, 

< an elephant, a goat, a fneep, a fifh, a fnake, or 
1 a buffalo, is declared an offence which degrades 

* the killer to a mixed tribe. 

70. * Accepting prefents from defpicable 
1 men, illegal traffick, attendance on a Sudra 
Ci mailer, and fpeaking falfehood, muff be con- 

< iidered as caufes of exclufion from focial repafts. 

71. Killing an infedt, fmall or large, a worm, 

« or a bird, eating what has been brought in the 
c jame bajket with fpirituous liquor, ftealing fruit, 
c wood, or flowers, and great perturbation of 

< mind on trifling occafions, are offences which 
6 caufe defilement. 

72. c You 


AND EXPIATION, 


3*7 

72. ‘ You (ball now be completely inftru&ed 
« in thofe penances, by which all the fins juft 
i mentioned are expiable. 

73. ‘ If a Brahmen have killed a man of the 
« facerdotal clafs, without malice prepenfe , the flayer 
‘ being far fuperiour to the Jlain in good qualities , he 

* mult himlelf make a hut in a foreft and dwell in 
< it twelve whole years, fubfifting on alms for the 

* purification of his foul, placing near him, as a 
c token of his crime , the full of the Jlain , if he can 
1 procure it, or, if not, any human full . The time 
1 of penance for thethree lower clajfes mifl be twenty - 
‘ Jour , thirty fix, and forty-eight years. 

74. 6 Ox, if the flayer be of the military clafs, he 
f may voluntarily expofe himfelf as a mark to 

* archers, who know his intention ; or, according to 
€ cir cum fiances, may call himlelf head-long thrice, 
‘ or even till he die, into blazing fire. 

73. ‘ Or, if he be a king , and flew a priefi with - 

* out malice or knowledge of his clafs, he may per- 

* form, with prefents of great wealth, one of the 
c following facrifices; an Afwamedba , or a Sweriit y 
‘ or a Gofava, or an Abhijit , or a Tifwajit , or a 

* Irivftt, or an Agnifhiut. 

76. ‘ Or, to expiate the guilt of killing a prieft 
s without knowing him and without dejign, the killer 

* may walk on a pilgrimage a hundred ybjanas , re- 
c pealing any one ot the Vedas, eating barely 
i enough to fuftain life, and keeping his organs in 
f perfect fubjedtion; 

77. ‘ Or, if in that cafe the flayer be unlearned, 
( but rich, he may give alt his property to fome 
1 Brahmen learned in the Vida, or a fufficiency of 

* wealth for his life, or a houfe and furniture to 

* bold while he lives: 


78. ‘ Or, 


to 


ON PENANCE 


i3 

78. ‘ Or, eating only fuch wild grains 2$ are 

* offered to the gods, he may walk to the head of 
6 the river Sarafwat ) againd the courfe of the 
f dream ; or, fubfiding on very little food, he 

* may thrice repeat the whole collection of Vedas^ 
6 or the Rich , 7 ajufh , and Saman. 

79. ‘ Or, his hair being (horn, he may dwell 

* near a town, or cn padure ground for cows, 

* or in fome holy place, or at the root of a facred 
6 tree, taking pleafure in doing good to cows and 
6 to Brahmens : 

80. ‘ There, for the prefervation of a cow or 

* a Brahmen , let him inftantly abandon life ; fince 
the preferver of a cow or a Brahmen atones for 

‘ the crime of killing a pried : 

81. 4 Or, by attempting at lead three times 

* forcibly to recover from robbers the property of a 
6 Brahmen , or by recovering it in one of its attacks, 

* or even by lofing his life in the attempt, he 
‘ atones for his crime. 

S2. 6 Thus continually firm in religious aude* 
Q rity, chade as a dudent in the fird order, with 
‘ his mind intent on virtue, he may expiate the 
6 guilt of undefgnedly killing a Brahmen , after the 

* twelfth year has expired. 

83. * Or, if a virtuous Brahmen unintentionally kill 
€ another , who had no good quality , he may atone for 
4 his guilt by proclaiming it in an affembly of 
‘ prielfs and military men, at the facrifice of a 
c horfe, and by bathing with other Brahmens at the 
€ clofe of the facrifice: 

84. 6 Brahmens are declared to be thebafis, and 

* CJhatiiyas the fummit of the legal fydem : he, 

* therefore, expiates his offence by fully proclaim- 
‘ ing it in fuch an affembly. 

83. ‘ From 


AND EXPIATION. 


3 l 9 

85. ‘ From his high birch alone, a Brahmen is 
an objedt of veneration even to deities ; his de¬ 
clarations to mankind are decifive evidence; 
and the Veda itfelf confers on him that character. 

86 . ‘ Three at lead, who are learned in the 
Veda, fhould be aflembled to declare the proper 
expiation for the (in of a priefi, but, for the three 
other clafles, the number midi be doubled , trifled , and 
quadrupled: what they declare (hall be an atone¬ 
ment for Tinners, Tince the words of the learned 
give purity. 

87. ‘ Thus a Brahmen , who has performed one 
of the preceding expiations, according to the cir - 
cumftances of the homicide and the characters cf the 
per Jons killed and killing , with his whole mind fixed 
on God, purifies his foul, and removes the guilt 
of (laying a man of his own clafs : 

88. ‘ He mud perform the fame penance for 
killing an embryo, the Jex of which was unknown, 
but whofe parents were [acerdoial, or a military 
or a commercial man employed in a facrifice, or 
a Brahmen ) woman, who has bathed after tem¬ 
porary uncleannefs; 

89. ‘ And the fame for giving falfe evidence in 
a caufe concerning land or gold , or precious commodi¬ 
ties , and for accufing his preceptor unjudly, and 
for appropriating a depofit, and for killing the 
wife of a pried, who keeps a confecratedfire , or 
for Haying a friend. 

90. ‘ Such is the atonement ordained for killing 
a pried without malice ; but for killing a Brah¬ 
men with malice prepenfe, this is no expia¬ 
tion : the term of twehe years mu ft be doubled , or, 
if the cafe was atrocious , the murderer mufi actually 
die in flames or in battle, 

3 91. • Any 


ON PENANCE 


320 

91. * Any twice born man, who has intention • 
c ally drunk fpirit of rice, through perverfe delu- 

* lion of mind, may drink more fpirit in flame, 

4 and atone for his offence by feverely burning 
4 his body; 

92. 4 Or he may drink boiling hot, until he 
c die, the urine of a cow, or pure water, or milk, 

* or clarified butter, or juice expreffed frorrj 
‘ cow dung: 

93. 4 Or, if he tafied it unknowingly , he may 
€ expiate the fin of drinking fpirituous liquor, by 
€ eating only fome broken rice or grains of tila 9 
4 from which oil has been extracted, once every 

* night for a whole year, wrapped in coarfe vef- 
4 ture of hairs from a cow’s tail, or fitting un - 

* clothed in his houfe 9 wearing his locks and beard 
4 uncut, and putting out the flag of a tavern- 

* keeper. 

94. 4 Since the fpirit of rice is diftilled from the. 
4 Mala, or filthy refufe of the grain, and fince 
4 Mala is alfo a name for fin, let no Brahmen , 
4 Cfisairiya or Vaifya drink that fpirit. 

93. 6 Inebriating liquor may be confidered as 
4 of three principal forts: that extracted from 
4 dregs of fugar, that extratfled from bruifed rice, 
( and that extracted from the flowers of the Mad - 
4 huca : as one, fo are all; they (hall not be tailed 

* by the chief of the twice born. 

96. 4 Thofe liquors, and eight other forts, 

* with the flefh of animals, and slfava, the mod 
4 pernicious beverage, prepared with narcotick drugs , 
4 are fwallowed at the juncates of Jacfiias, Rac- 
4 Jhajhas 9 and Fif chas: they thall not, therefore, 
4 be tailed by a Brahmen who feeds on clarified 
6 butter offered to gods. 

97. * A Brdb - 


AND EXPIATION* 


3 21 

98. ' When the divine fpirit, or the light of holy 
( knowledge, which has been infufed into his body, 
€ has once been fprinkled with any intoxicating 
f liquor, even his prieftly character leaves him, 
‘ and he finks to the low degree of a Sudra . 

99. ‘ Thus have been promulgated the various 
c modes of expiation for drinking fpirits : 1 will 

* next propound the atonement for dealing the 
c gold of a pried to the amount of a fuverna. 

100. * He, who has purloined the gold of a 

* Brahmen , mud haden to the king, and proclaim 

* his offence ; adding, <c Inflidt on me the punifh- 
“ ment due to my crime.” 

101. c Then fhall the king himfelf, taking 
c from him an iron mace, which the criminal muft 

* hear on his fhoulder y drike him with it once ; 

* and by that droke, whether he die or be only left 
c as deady the thief is releafed from fin : a Brah - 
' men y by rigid penance alone, can expiate that of - 
c fence ; another twice born man may alfo perform 
€ fucb a penance at his election. 

102. c The twice born man, who defires to 
c remove, by audere devotion, the taint caufed 

* by dealing gold, mud perform in a fored, co- 
c vered with a mantle of rough bark, the penance 
4 before ordained for him, who, without malice per- 
f penfe , has killed a Brahmen . 

J03. f By thefe expiations may the twice 

* born atone for the guilt of dealing gold from 
‘ a pried; but the fin of adultery with the wife 

* of a father, natural or Jpiritual y they mud expiate 
1 by the following penances. 

104. c He, who knowingly and aftu ally has 

* defiled the wife of his father, floe being of the 
€ fame clafs> mud extend himfelf on a heated 

Y 4 iron 


ON PENANCE 


£ iron bed, loudly proclaiming his guilt; and, 

* there embracing the red hot iron image of a 

* woman, he fhall atone lor his crime by death: 

105. c Or, having himfelf amputated his penis 
1 and fcrotum, and holding them in his fingers, 

€ he may walk in a direft path toward the fouth- 
c weft, or the region of Nirriti, until he fall 
( dead on the ground : 

106. ‘ Or, if he had mifiaken her for another 
f woman , he may perform, lor a whole year, with 

* intenfe application of mind, the penance prd- 
4 jtyatya, with part of a bed, or a human hone , 
4 in his hand, wrapped in vefture of ccarfe bark, 
4 letting his hair and beard grow, and living in a 
4 deferred foreft: 

J07. £ Or, if foe was of a lower clafs and a 
4 corrupt woman , he may expiate the fin of violat- 
4 ing the bed of his father, by continuing the 
£ penance chdndrayana for three months, always 
4 mortifying his body by eating only foreft; herbs, 
4 or wild grains boiled in water. 

ic8. f By the preceding penances, may finners 
c of the two higher degrees atone for their guilt; 

* and the lefs offenders may expiate theirs by the 
4 following aufterities. 

109. c He, who has committed the fmaller 
4 offence of killing a cow, without malice , muft 
4 drink, for the firft: month, barley corns boiled 
4 foft in water; his head muft be fhaved en- 
1 tirely ; and, covered with the hide of the flam 
f cow, he muft: fix his abode on her late pafture 
f ground : 

10. £ He may eat a moderate quantity of 
€ wild grains , but without any factitious fait, for 

* the next two months at the time of each fourth 

4 repaft. 


2 


AND EXPIATION. 


4 re pad, on the evening of every fee end day ; regu- 
4 larly bathing in the urine of cows, and keeping 
‘ his members under controul: 

111. 4 All day he mult wait on the herd, and 
4 (land quailing the dud railed by their hoofs ; 
4 at night, having fervilely attended and droked 
4 and i'aluted them, he mud furround them with 
* a fence, and fit near to guard them : 

112. 4 Pure and free from paflion, he mud 
4 dand, while they dand; follow them, when 
4 they move together; and lie down by them, 
4 when they lie down : 

113. 4 Should a cow be Tick or terrified by 
4 tigers or thieves, or fall, or dick in mud, he 
4 mud relieve her by all pofiible means : 

114. 4 In heat, in rain, or in cold, or while 
4 the blad furioudy rages, let him not leek his 
4 own dielter, without fird flickering the cows to 
4 the utmod of his power: 

115. 1 Neither in his own houfe, or field, or 
4 floor for treading out grain, nor in thofe of any 
4 other perfon, let him fay a word of a cow, who 
4 eats corn or grafs y or of a calf who drinks milk: 

116. 4 By waiting on a herd, according to thefe 
1 rules, for three months, the flayer ot a cow 
4 atones for his guilt j 

117. ‘ But , his penance being performed, he 
4 mud give ten cows and a bull, or, his dock 
4 not being fo large, mud deliver all he poflefles, 
4 to fuch as bed know the Veda. 

1 18. 4 The preceding penances, or that called 
4 chdndrdyana , mud be performed fo f the abfo- 
4 lution of all twice born men, who have com- 
4 mitted fins of the lower or third degree ; except 
4 thofe, who have incurred the guile of an ava- 
4 ctnta i 

Y 2 


119. 4 But 


3 2 4 


ON PENANCE 


119. 4 But he, who has become Avacirni , mult 
c facrifice a black or a one-eyed afs, by way of a 
4 meat-offering to Nirriti, patronefs of the Jouth- 
4 weft> by night, in a place where four ways meet: 

120. 4 Let him daily offer to her, in fire, the 
4 fat of that afs, and, at the clofe of the ceremony , 

* let him offer clarified butter, with the holy text 
f Sem and fo forth, to Pavana, to Indr a, to 
4 Vrihaspati, and to Agni, regents of wind, 

4 clouds , a planet , and fire . 

121. 4 A voluntary effufion, naturally or other - 
4 wife, of that which may produce a man, by a 
4 twice born youth, during the time of his ftudent- 
4 fhip, or before marriage , has been pronounced 
4 avac'rna , or a violation of the rule prefcribed 
4 ybr the firft order , by fages who knew the whole 
4 fyftem of duty, and uttered the words of the 
4 Veda. 

122. 4 To the four deities of purification , Ma'- 
4 ruta, Indra, Vrihaspati, Agni, goes all the 
4 divine light, which the Veda had imparted, from 
4 the fludent, who commits the foul fin avac.rna j 

123. 4 But, this crime having a&ually been 
4 committed, he muft go begging to (even houfes, 
4 clothed only with the hide of the facrificed afs, 
4 and openly proclaiming his a6t : 

124. 4 Eating a fingle meal begged from them, 
4 at the regular time of the day, that is , in the 
4 morning or evening , and bathing each day at the 
4 three Javanas , he fhall be abfolved from his guilt 
4 at the end of one year. 

125. 4 He, who has voluntarily committed 
4 any fin, which caufes a lofs of clais, muft per- 
4 form the tormenting penance, thence called Janta- 
4 pana\ or the prey dp aty a, if he offended involun- 
4 carily. 

1 


126. 4 For 


AND EXPIATION. 


3 2 5 

126. * For fins, which degrade to a mixed 
clals, or exclude from lbcicty, the Tinner mud 
have recourfe to the lunar expiation cbandrdyana 
for one month: to atone for ads which occa- 
fion defilement, he mud fwallow nothing for 
three days but hot barley cruel. 

1 27. * For killing intentionally a virtuous man 
of the military clafs, the penance mud be a 
fourth part of that ordained for killing a pried ; 
for killing a Vaifya, only an eighth; for killing 
a Sudra , who had been condant in difcharging his 
duties, a fixteenth part: 

128. c But, if a Brahmen kill a CJhatriya with- 
out malice, he mud, after a full performance of 
his religious rites, give the prieds one bull to¬ 
gether with a thoufand cows; 

129. f Or he may perform for three years the 
penance for (laying a Brahmen, mortifying his 
organs of fenfation and adion, letting his hair 
grow long, and living remote fi om the town, 
with the root of a tree for his manfion. 

130. ‘ If he kill without malice a Vaifya , who 
had a good moral charader, he mav perforin 
the fame penance for one year, or give the 
prieds a hundred cows and a bull: 

131. c For fix months mud he perform this 
whole penance, if, without intention, he kill * 
Sudra, or he may give ten white cows and a 
bull to the prieds. 

132. ‘ If he kill, by defign , a car, or an ichneu¬ 
mon, the bird chdfha , or a frog , a dog, a lizard, 
an owl, or a crow, he mud perform the ordinary 
penance required for the death of a Sudra , that 
is, the chandrayana: 

133. * Or, if be kill one of them undeftgnedly , he 
may drink nothing but milk for three days and 

Y 3 ‘ nights. 


CO 


ON PENANCE 


26 

c nights, or each night walk a ybgan, or thrice 
6 bathe in a river, or filently repeat the text on 
c the divinity of water j that is, if he be difabled by 

* real infirmity from performing the firft mentioned 
‘ penances , he may have recourfe to the next in order, 

134. ‘ A Brahmen, if he kill a fhake, mud give 

* to fome prieft a hoe, or iron-headed flick-, if an 
1 eunuch, a load of rice draw, and a mafha of 
c lead ; 

13:. c If a boar, a pot of clarified, butter ; if 

* the bird tittiri , a dr on a of //A?-feeds if a parrot, 

* a deer two years old if the water-bird craun - 
f a deer aged three years: 

136. c If he kill a goofe, or a phenicopteros, a 
€ heron , cormorant, a bittern, a peacock, an 
4 ape, a hawk, or a kite, he mud give a cow to 
c fome Brahmen: 

137. c If he kill a horfe, he mud give a man- 
< tie; if an elephant, five black bulls; if a goat 
‘ or a fheep, one bull; if an afs, a calf one year 
« old : 

138. c If he kill a carnivorous wild bead, he 
1 mud give a cow with abundance of milk 5 if a 
c wild bead not carnivorous, a fine heifer ; and 
€ a raftica of gold, if he flay a camel : 

139. c If he kill a woman of any clafs caught 
c in adultery, he mud give, as an expiation, in the 

* diredt order of the four clafles, a leathern pouch, 

* a bow, a goat, and a fheep. 

140. f Should a Brahmen be unable to expiate 

* by gifts the fin of killing a fnake and the red, 
c he mud atoqe for his guilt by performing, oq 
e each occafion, the penance prdjapatya. 

141. c For the daughter of a thouf^nd fmali 
c animals which have bones, or for that of bone- 
? lefs animals enow to fill a cart^ he mud per- 

c form 


AND EXPIATION. 


3 2 7 

form the cb’mdruyana , or common penance for 
killing a S ''dr a ; 

142. ‘ Bur, for killing boned animals, he mud 
alfo give fome trifle, as a pana of copper , to a 
Brahmen: for killing thofc without bones, he 
may be abfolved by holding his breath, at the 
clofe of his penance , w hile he thrice repeats the^/- 
yatfi with its heady the pnanava, and the vyabritis . 

143. ‘ For cutting once without malice frees 
yielding fruit, fhrubs with many crowded dems, 
creeping or climbing plants, or fuch as grow 
again when cut, if they were in bloflbm when he 
hurt them , he mud repeat a hundred texts of the 
Veda. 

144. c For killing infers of any fort bred in 
rice or other grains, or thole bred in honey cr 
other fluids, or thole bred in fruit or flowers, 
eating clarified butter is a full expiation. 

145. If a man cur, wantonly and for no good 
purpole, fuch graffes as are cultivated, or fuch 
as rife in the foreft fpontaneoufly, he mud wait 
on a cow for one day, nourifhed by milk alone. 

146. 4 By thefe penances may mankind atone 
for the fin of injuring fentient creatures, whether 
committed by defign or through inadvertence: 
hear now what penances are ordained for eating 
or drinking what ought not to be faded. 

147. ‘ F 1 e, who drinks undefignedly any fpirit 
but that of rice , may be abfolved by a new in- 
veftiture with the facrificial dring: even for 
drinking intentionally the weaker forts of fpirit^ 
a penance extending to death mud not (as the 
law is now fixed; be prefcribed. 

148. c For drinking water which has dood in 
a velTel, where fpirit of rice or any other fpi- 
rituous liquor had been kept, he mud fwallow 

Y 4 ‘ nothing 


ON PENANCE 


328 

4 nothing for five days and nights, but the plant 
1 Jane'ha'pujh'p’i boiled in milk: 

149. 4 If he touch any fpirituous liquor, or 
4 give any away, or accept any in due form, or 
4 with thanks , or drink water left by a Suara y he 
4 mull fwallow nothing for three days and nights, 
4 but cuja- grafs boiled in water, 

150. f Should a Brahmen , who has once tailed 
4 the holy juice of the moon-plant, even fmell 
4 the breath of a man who has been drinking 
4 fpirits, he mull remove the taint by thrice 
4 repeating the gdyatri , while he fupprelTes his 

* breath in water, and by eating clarified butter 
4 after that ceremony . 

151. 4 If any of the three twice born dalles 
4 have tailed unknowingly human ordure or urine, 
4 or any thing that has touched fpirituous liquor, 
4 they mull, after a fenance , be girt anew with 
‘ the facrificial thread; 

152. 4 But, in fuch new invelliture of the twice 
4 born, the partial tonfure, the zone, the Half, the 
4 petition of alms, and the Ilridl rules of abfti- 
4 nence, need not be renewed. 

153. 4 Should one of them eat the food of 
4 thofe perfons, with whom he ought never to 
4 eat, or food left by a woman or a Sudra y or any 
4 prohibited flefh, he mull drink barley gruel only 
4 for fever, days and nights. 

i4. f If a Brahmen drink fweet liquors turned 
4 acid, or aflringent juices from impure fruits, he 
4 becomes unclean as long as thofe fluids remain 

* undigefted. 

155. 4 Any twice born man, who by accident 

* has tailed the dung or urine of a tame boar, an 
c afs, a camel, a Ihakal, an ape, or a crow, mull 
f perform the penance ( hdndrdyana . 

156. 4 If 


and expiation. 


3 2 9 


ic6. c If he tafte dried flefh meat, or mulh- 
« rooms rifing from the ground, or any tiling 
f brought from a (laughter houfe, though he knew 
« not whence it came, he mull perform the fame 
f penance. 

157. c For knowingly eating the flefh oi carni- 
< vorous hearts, of town boars, of carrels, of 
« gallinaceous birds, of human creatures, of crows, 

« or of afles, the penance taftacrich’bra, or burning 
‘ andJerere, is the only atonement. 

1 <;8. ‘ A Brahmen, who, before he has com- 
« plcted his theological ftudies, eats food at 

* monthly obfequies to one ancejlor, muft fall three 
4 days mid nights, and fit in water a day : 

159. ‘ But a rtudent in theology, who at any 
‘ time unknowingly taftes honey or flt(h, muft per- 
‘ form the lowed penance, or the proydpatya, and 

* proceed to finifh his rtudent Ih ip. 

160. 4 Having eaten what has been left by a 
« cat, a crow, a moufe, a dog, or an ichneumon, 

‘ or what has even been touched by a loufe, he 
‘ muft.drink, boiled in water, the plant brabmafu- 

* vcrcbal:. 

161. ' By the man, who feeks purity of foul, 
« no forbidden food muft be tailed: what he 

* has undefignedly fwallowcd, he muft inrtantly 
« vomit up, or muft purify himfclt with fpeed by 

* legal expiations. 

ib2. • Such, as have been declared, are the 

* various penances for eating prohibited food : 
« hear now the law of penance for an expiation 
1 of theft. 

163. ‘ The chief of the twice born, having 
r voluntarily ftolen fuch property> as grain, law 

* or didied, from the houle of another Br >kmen t 

• (hall 


ON FENANC'E 



* fhall he abfolved on performing the penance 
4 prajcipatya for a whole year ; 

164. 4 But the penance chandrayana mud be 

* performed for healing a man, woman, or child, 
4 for feizing a field, or a houfe, or for taking the 
4 waters o' an enclofed pool or well. 

165. 4 Having taken goods of little value from 

* the Houle of another man, he mud procure 

4 abfoluiion by performing the penance Jantapaha ; 
( having hi d redo red, as the 'penitent thief always 
4 th? goods that he dole. 

16 k £ For taking what may be eaten, or what 
4 may be Tipped, a carriage, a bed, or a feat, 
4 roots, flowers, or fruit, an atonement may be 
4 made by fwallowing the five pure things pro- 
4 duced by a cow, or milky curds , butter , urine 9 
4 dung: 

167^ 4 For dealing grafs, wood, or trees, rice 
1 in the hufk, molaflfes, doth or leather, flfli, or 

* other animal food, a dried fad mud be kept 
c three days and three nights. 

168. 4 For dealing gems, pearls, coral, copper, 
c diver, iron, brafs, or done, nothing but broken 
1 rice mud be fwallowed for twelve days ; 

169. f And nothing but milk for three days, 
4 if cotton or filk, or wool had been dolen, or a 
4 bead either with cloven or uncloven hoofs, or 
4 a bird, or perfumes, or medicinal herbs, or 
4 cordage. 

17 . 4 By thefe penances may a twice born 
1 man atone for the guilt of theft j but the fol- 
c lowing auderities only can remove the fin of 
4 rally approaching thofe, who mud not be 
4 cai naiiy approached. 

171. 4 He, who has waded his manly drength 
4 wiiu by tire fame womb, with the wives 

‘ of 


AND EXPIATION. 


33 1 


‘ of his friend or of his fon, with girls under the 

* age of puberty, or with women of the lowcft 
r clades, mult perform the penance ordained for 
‘ defiling the bed of a preceptor : 

172. c He, who has carnally known the daugh- 

* ter of his paternal aunt, who is clmoft equal to a 

* filter, or the daughter of his maternal aunt, or 
< the daughter of his maternal uncle, who is a near 
‘ kinfman, mult perform the chan dr by ana^ or lunar 

* penance ; 

173. ‘ No man of fenfe would take one of 
« thole three as his wile: they Ihall not be taken 
1 in marriage bv reafon of their confanguinity ; 
c and he, who marries any one of them, falls 
c deep into Jin . 

174. c He, who has wafted what might have 
1 produced a mao, with female brute animals, 

‘ with a woman during her courfes, or in any 

* but the natural parr, or in water, mud perform 
f the penance f.mtapana: for a beajlial a£t with a 

* cow penance muft be far more fey ere. 

175. 6 A twice born man, dallying lafcivioufiy 
5 with a male in any place, or at any time , or with 
« a female in a carriage drawn by bullocks, or in 
( water, or by day, Jloall be degiaded > and muft 
€ bathe himfclf publickly with his apparel. 

176. ‘ Should a Brahmen carnally know a wo- 
< man of the Chandda or Mlicb'ha tribes, or tafte 
4 their food, or accept a gift from them, he lofcs 
f his own clafs ; if he afted unknowingly , or, if 
‘ knowingly* finks to a level with them. 

177. ‘ c A wife, exceftively corrupt, let her 
‘ hufband confine to one apartment, and compel 
* her to perform the penance ordained for a man 
f who has committed adultery : 

178. c If, 


ON PENANCE 


33 Z 

178. 4 If, having been folicited by a man of 
c her own clafs, fhe again be defiled, her expiation 
4 muft be the penance prajapatya added to the 

c chandraydna . 

179. c The guilt of a Brahmen, who has dallied 
4 a whole night with a Chandali woman, he may 
4 remove in three years by fubfifting on alms, 

4 and inceffantly repeating the gayatri with other 
4 myfterious texts. 

180. f Thefe penances have been declared for 
4 Tinners of four forts, thofe who hurt Jentient crea- 
4 tures , thoje who eat prohibited food, thofe who 
4 commit theft , and thofe who are guilty of lafcivi- 
4 cufnefs: hear now the prefcribed expiation for 
4 fuch as hold any intercourfe with degraded 
c offenders. 

18 i. * He, who aflociates himfelf for one year 
c with a fallen finner, falls like him ; not by fa- 
€ crificing, reading the Veda, or contrafling af- 
c finity with him, fince by thofe afts he lofes his 
c clafs immediately , but even by ufing the lame 

* carriage or feat, or by taking his food at the 

* fame board : 

182. c That man who holds an intercourfe 
c with any one of thofe degraded offenders, muft 
c perform, as an atonement for fuch intercourfe, 
c the penance ordained for that finner himfelf. 

183. c The fapindas and famanodacas of a man 
4 degraded, for a crime in the firft degree , muft 
c offer a libation of water to his manes, hs if 
€ he were naturally dead , out of the town, in 
c the evening of fome inaufpicious day, as the 
c ninth of the moon , his paternal kinfman, his 

* officiating prieft, and his fpiritual guide being 
4 prefent. 

184. * A female Have muft kick down with 

4 her 


AND EXPIATION. 


n *y 

33 j 

« her foot an old pot filled with wate r, which had 
« for that purpofe been placed toward the Jouth , as 

* if it were an oblation for the dead ; and all the 
4 kinfmen, in the nearer and remoter degrees, 

4 muft remain impure for a day and a night: 

18$. 4 They muft thenceforth defift from fpeak- 

* ing to him, from fitting in his company, from 

* delivering to him any inherited or other pro- 

* perty, and from every civil or ufual attention, 

4 as inviting him on the firft day of the year y and the 
4 like. 

186. 1 His right of primogeniture, if be was 

* an elder brother , muft be with-holden from him, 
c and whatever perquifites arife from priority of 
4 birth : a younger brother, excelling him in vir- 
4 tue, muft appropriate the ftiare of the firft-born. 

187. 4 But, when he has performed his due 
4 penance, his kinfmen and he muft throw down 
4 a new vefiel full of water, after having bathed 
4 together in a pure pool: 

188. 4 Then muft he caft that vefiel into the 
4 water ; and, having entered his houfe, he may 
4 perform, as before, all the afts incident to his 
4 relation by blood. 

189. 4 The fame ceremony muft be performed 
4 by the kindred even of women degraded, for 
4 whom clothes, drefied rice, and water muft be 
4 provided ; and they muft dwell in huts near the 
4 tamily houfe. 

190. * With Tinners, whofe expiations are un- 
4 performed, let not a man tranfadl bufinefs of 
4 any kind; but thofe, who have performed their 
4 expiations, let him at no time reproach : 

191. 4 Let him not, however, live with thofe 
4 who have (lain children, or injured their bene- 
4 factors, or killed fuppliants lor protection, or 

4 put 


ON PENANCE 


h a 
O Jt 

c put women to death, even though fuch offenders 
c have been legally purified. 

192. c Those men of the twice born claffes, 
‘ to whom the gdyatri has not been repeated and 

* explained, according to law, the affembly muff 
c caufe to perform three prajapatya penances, and 
( afterwards to be girt with the facrificial firing 

193. c And the fame penance they muff pre- 
c feribe to fuch twice born men, as are anxious to 
‘ atone for fome illegal a£t, or a negledl of the Veda . 

19P c If priefts have accepted any property 
4 from bafe hands, they may be abfolved by re- 
c linquiihing the prefents, by repeating myfferious 
c texts, and by a&s of devotion : 

195. c By three thoufand repetitions of the 

* gdyatri with intenfe application of mind, and by 
r l'ubf fling on milk only for a whole month in 
f the paffure of cows, a Brahmen , who has re T 
c ceived any gift from a*bad man, or a had gift 
t from any man , may be cleared from fin. 

196. r When he has been mortified by ab- 

* flinence, and has returned from the paffurage, 
c let him bend low to the other Brahmens , who 

muff thus interrogate him : f< Art thou really 
<c defirous, good man, of re-admiffion to an equa- 
<c lity with us 

197. ‘ If he anfwer in the affirmative, let him 
( give fome grafs to the cows, and in the place, 
f made pure by their having eaten on it, let the 
c men of his clafs give their affent to his re- 

* admiffion. 

19 . 6 He, who has officiated at a facrfice for 

* ourcafts, or burned the corpfe of aftranger, or 
( pei ormed rites to deftroy the innocent, or 
c ma . the impur, facrifice, called dklna, may 
c expiate his guilt by three prajapatya penances. 

199. c A TWICE 


AND EXPIATION# 


* y f 

j.o 

199. 4 A twice born man, who has rejected 
c a l'uppliant for his protection, or taught the Veda 
4 on a forbidden day, may atone for his offence by 
4 fubfiffing a whole year on barley alone. 

200. 4 He, who has been bitten by a dog, a 
4 fhakal, or an afs, by any carnivorous animal fre- 
* quenting a town, by a man, a horfc, a camel, or 
4 a boar, may be purified by (topping his breath 
4 during one repetition of the gdyatri . 

201. 4 To eat only at the time of the fixth, 
4 meal, or on the evening of every third day , for a 
4 month, to repeat a Sanhitd of the Vedas , and to 
4 make eight oblations to fire, accompanied with 
4 eight holy texts, are always an expiation for 
4 thofe, w'ho are excluded from focietv at repaffs. 

2C2. 4 Should a Brahmen voluntarily afcend a 
4 carriage borne by camels or drawn by afles, or 
4 defignedly bathe quite naked, he may be ab- 
4 folved by one fupprefiion of breath, while he re- 
4 peats, in his mind, the mod holy text. 

203. 4 He, who has made any excretion, be- 
4 ing greatly prefled, either without water near 
4 him , or in water, may be purified by bathing 
4 in his clothes out of town, and by touching a 
4 cow. 

204. 4 For an omiffion of the aCls, which the 
4 Veda commands to be conftantly performed, 
4 and for a violation of the duties preferibed to a 
4 houfekeeper, the atonement is faffing one day. 

205. 4 He, who fays hufh or pi(h to a Brahr 
4 men , or thou to a fuperiour , muff immediately 
4 bathe, eat nothing tor the relt of the day, and 
4 appeafe him by clafping his feet with refpeClful 
4 falutation. 

206. 4 For ftriking a Brahmen even with a 
4 blade of grafs, or tying him by the neck with a 

4 cloth. 


S3 6 


ON PENANCE 


c cloth, or overpowering him in argument, and 
c adding contemptuous words, the offender mud 
c foothe him by falling prodrate. 

207. * An aflauiter of a Brahmen , with intent 
« to kill, fnall remain in hell a hundred years; 
« for a6lually ftriking him with the like intent i a 

* thou fa nd : 

20-i. c As many fmall pellets of duff as the 
c blood of a Brahmen colle&s on the ground, for 

* fo many thoufand years mud the (header of that 
c blood be tormented in hell. 

20 ). c For a fimple affaulr, the fir ft cr common 
1 penance mud be performed ; for a battery, the 
« third cr very fevere penance ; but for fhedding 

* blood, without killing , both of thofe penances. 

2 0. c To remove the fins, for which no par- 
c ticular penance has been Ordained, the aflembly 
c mud award a fit expiation, confidering the ability 
< of the finner to perform it> and the nature of 

* the fin. 

211. f Those penances, by which a man may 
f atone for his crimes, I now will deferibe to you; 

* penances, which have been performed by deities, 

* by holy fages, and by forefathers of the human 
f race . 

212. ‘ When a twice born man performs the 
‘ common penance, or that of Praja pati, he mud, 
‘ for three days, eat only in the morning ; for 
c three days, only in the evening; for three days, 
4 food unafked but prefented to him ; and for three 
c more days, nothing. 

213. r Eating for a whole day the dung and 
c urine of cows mixed with curds, milk, clarified 
c butter, and water boiled with cufa- grafs, and 

* then fading entirely for a day and a night, is the 

* penance 


AND EXPIATION. 


337 

9 penance called Sfaitapana % either from the de* 
9 vouc man Santapana, or from tormenting. 

214. 9 A twice born man performing the pe* 
9 nance, called very fevere, in refpcft of the common , 
4 muff eat, as before, a Angle mouthful, or a bail 
9 of rice as large as a hen's egg for three times 
9 three days; and for the lad three days, mud 

* wholly abftain from food. 

215. * A Brahmen , performing the ardent pe- 
9 nance, mud fwallow nothing but hot water, hot 
9 milk, hot clarified butter, and hot deam, each 
9 of them for three days fucceflively, performing 
9 an ablution and mortifying all his members. 

216. * A total fad for twelve days and nights , 

* by a penitent with his oigans controlled and his 
9 mind attentive, is the penance named paraca t 
9 which expiates all degrees of guilt. 

217. 9 If he diminidi his food by one mouthful 
9 each day , during the daik fortnight, eating fifteen 
9 mouthfuls on the day of the oppofition , and increafe 

* it, in the fame proportion, during the bright fort- 
9 night yfnjling entirely on the day of the conjunction^ 
9 and perform an ablution regularly at funrife, 
9 noon, and funfet, this is the cbundruyana , or the 

* lunar penance: 

218. * Such is the peti'ince called ant-fiiaped or 
9 narrow in the middle ; bur, if he perform the 

* barley-fhaped or broad in the middle, he mud 
9 obferve the fame rule, beginning with the bright 
9 half month, and keeping under command his 
9 organs of action and fenfe. 

219. * To perform the lunar penance of an 
9 anchoret, he mud eat only eight mouthfuls of 
‘ fored grains at noon, for a whole month , taking 
9 care to fubdue his mind. 

220. 9 If a Brahmen eat only four mouthfuls at 

Z 9 funnfe 


ON PENANCE 


33 s 

4 funrife, and four at funfet, for a months keeping 

* his organs controlled, he performs the lunar 
c penance of children. 

221. 4 He, who, for a whole month, eats no 
e more than thrice eighty mouthfuls of wild 
c grains, as he happens by any means to meet with 
€ them , keeping his organs in fubje&ion, fhall at- 
c tain the fame abode with the regent of the moon : 

222. c The eleven Rudras , the twelve A'dityas, 
4 the eight Vafus, the Maruts , or genii of the 
c winds, and the feven great RIJhis, have per- 
4 formed this lunar penance as a fecurity from 

* all evil. 

223. c The oblation of clarified hitter to fire 
c muft every day be made by the penitent himfelf, 
4 accompanied with the mighty words, earth, fky , 
4 heaven; he muft perfectly abftain from injury 

* to fentient creatures, from falfehcod,from wrath, 

* and from all crooked ways. 

224. 4 Or, thrice each day and thrice each 
4 night for a month, the penitent may plunge into 
4 water, clothed in his mantle, and at no time con- 
4 verfing with a woman, a Sudra , or an outcaft. 

225. 4 Let him be always in motion, fitting 
4 and rifing alternately ; or, if unable to he thus 
4 reftlejs , let him deep low on the hare ground ; 
4 chafte as a ftudent of the Veda , bearing the fa- 
4 cred zone and ftaff, fhowing reverence to his 
4 preceptor, to the gods, and to priefts ; 

226. ‘ Perpetually muft he repeat the gayatr), 
1 and other pure texts to the belt of his know- 
4 ledge: thus in all penances for abfolution from 
4 fin, muft he vigilantly employ himfelf. 

227. 4 By thefe expiations are twice born men 

* abfolved, whofe offences are publickly known, 
4 and are mifchievous hy their example ; but for 

a 4 fins 


AND EXPIATION. 


339 


k 

t 

t 

t 

k 

c 

c 

c 

t 

c 

i 

C 

C 

» 

c 

€ 

C 

< 


fins not publics, the aflembly of priefts muft 
award them penances, with holy texts ana ob¬ 
lations to fire. 

228. ‘ By open conftffion, by repentance, by 
devotion, and by reading the lcripture, a Tinner 
may be releafed from his guilt; or by alms¬ 
giving, in cafe of his inability to perform the other 
afls of religion . 

229. 4 In proportion as a man, who has com¬ 
mitted a fin, (hall truly and voluntarily confefs 
it. To far he is dilengaged from that offence, like 
a fnake from his Hough * 

2«o. c And, in proportion as his heart fi nee rely 
loathes his evil deed, To far Hull his vital fpirit 
be freed from the taint of it. 

23 k ‘ If he commit fin, and adtually repent, 
that fin (hall be removed from him; but if he 
merely fay, “ I will fin thus no more,” he can 
only be releafed by an adtual abftinenee from 

guilt. . . 

232. * Thus revolving in his mind the cer¬ 
tainty of retribution in a future ftate, let him 
be conftantly good in thoughts, words, and 


* adtion. 

233. c If he defire complete remiffion of any 
C foul a dt which he has committed, either ig- 
« norantly or knowingly, let him beware of com- 
« mitting it again : for the fecond fault his penance 

* muft be doubled . . . 

234. c If, having performed any expiation, he 

* feel not a perfedt fatisfadlion of confcience, let 
‘ him repeat the fame devout adt, until his con- 

* lcience be perfedtly (Satisfied. 

235. * All the blifs of deities and of men is 

* declared by fages, who diiccrn the fenle of the 

Z l ! Vtda. 


34^ 


ON PENANCE 


c Veda, to have in devotion its caufe, in devotion 
4 its continuance, in devotion its fullnefs. 

236. 4 Devotion is equal to the performance of 
4 all duties ; it is divine knowledge in a Brahmen ; 

4 it is defence of the people in a Cfhatriya ; de- 
4 votion is the bufinefs of trade and agriculture in 
4 a Vaifya ; devotion is dutiful fervice in a Sadr a. 

237. 4 Holy fages, with fubdued paffions, feed- 
4 ing only on food, roots, and air, by devotion 
* alone are enabled to furvey the three worlds, 
4 terreftrial , ethereal , and celefial , peopled with 
4 animal creatures, locomotive and fixed. 

2^8. 4 Perfeft health, or unfailing medicines, 
4 divine learning, and the various manfions of 
4 deities, are acquired by devotion alone : their 
4 efficient caufe is devotion. 

239. 4 Whatever is hard to be traverfed, what- 
4 ever is hard to be acquired, whatever is hard to 
4 be vifited, whatever is hard to be performed, all 
4 this may be acccmplifhed by true devotion; 

4 for the difficulty of devotion is the greateft 
4 of all. 

240. 4 Even finners in the higheft degree, and 
4 of courfe the other offenders, are abfolved from 
4 guilt by auftere devotion well praclifed. 

241. 4 Souls, that animate worms, and infers, 

4 ferpents, moths, beads, birds, and vegetables, 

4 attain heaven by the power of devotion. 

242. 4 Whatever fin has been conceived in the 
4 hearts of men, uttered in their fpeech, or com- 
4 mitted in their bodily a£ts, they fpeedily burn 
4 it all away by devotion, if they preferve devo- 
4 tion as their bed wealth. 

243. 4 Of a pried, whom devotion has purified, 

4 the divine fpirits accept the facrifices, and grant 
4 the defires with ample increafe. 


244. 4 Even 


AND EXPIATION. 


34 1 

244. 1 Even Brahma', lord of creatures, by 
€ devotion enafted this code of laws; and the 

< faees by devotion acquiied a knowledge of the 

« Vedas. . 

24;. ‘ Thus the gods themfelves, obfcrving 

€ in this univerle the incomparable power of de- 
€ votion, have proclaimed aloud the tranfcendent 
* excellence of pious auderity. 

246. 4 By reading each day as much as poffible 

< of the Veda, by performing the five great fa- 
c craments, and by forgiving all injuries, even fins 
« of the highed degree (ball be foon effaced : 

247. 4 As fire confumes in an inftant, with his 
c bright flame, the wood that has been placed on 
« ir, & thus, with the flame of knowledge, a Brab - 
« men , who underdands the Veda , confumes all fin. 

248. 4 Thus has been declared, according to 
« law, the mode of atoning for open fins: now 
4 learn the mode ol obtaining abfolution for fecret 
4 offences. 

249. 4 Sixteen fuppreflions of the breath, 
f while the holieft of texts is repeated with the three 
< mighty words, and the triliteral fyliable, con- 
c tinued each day for a month, abfolve even the 
« flayer of a Brahmen from his hidden faults. 

2^0, 4 Even a drinker of fpirituous liquor is 
c abfolved by repeating each day the text apa ufed 
‘ by the fage Cautsa, or that beginning with 
• preti ufed by Vasisht’h a, or that called ma- 
f hilra , or that, of which the firfl word is J'uddba- 
4 vatyab. 

2 1, 4 By repeating each day , for a month , the 
c text afyavamiya , or the hymn Sivafancalpa , the 
4 dealer of gold from a pried becomes indantly 

4 P ure - . - 

2^2. 4 He, who has violated the bed of his 
Z 3 4 pre- 


ON PENANCE 


A -i 

Jt- 

c preceptor, is cleared from fecret faults by repeal 

< ing fixteen times a day the text havijhyantiya , or 
c that beginning with na tamanhah y or by revolv- 
1 ing in his mind the fixteen holy verfes, called 

1 Paurujha. 

253. c The man, who defires to expiate his 

* hidden fins, great and fmall, muft repeat once a 

< day y for a year, the text ava y or the text yat - 
c cinchida. 

254. c He, who has accepted an illegal prefent, 
€ or eaten prohibited food, may be cleanfed in 
5 three days by repeating the text taratfamand'ya . 

255. 1 Though he have committed many fecret 
€ fins, he fhall be purified by repeating, for a 
4 month, the text Jbmdraudra , or the three text^ 

* aryamna> while he bathe* in a facred ftream. 

256. c A grievous offender muft repeat the 

* feven verfes, beginning with Indra, for half a 
4 year; and he, who has defiled water with any 
4 impurity, muft fit a whole year fubfifting by 
*■ alms, 

257. c A twice born man, who fhall offet 
4 clarified butter for a year, with eight texts ap- 
4 propriated to eight feveral oblations, or with the 
c text na me y fhall efface a fin even of a.n extreme- 

* ly high degree. 

258. c He, who had committed a crime of the 
c firft degree, fhall be abfolved, if he attend a 

* herd of kine for a year, mortify his organs, and 
c continually repeat the texts beginning with pa- 

* vamariiy living folely on food given in charity: 

259. f Or, if he thrice repeat a Sanhita of the 
€ Vedas , or a large portion of them with all the 

* mantras and brahmanas, dwelling in a foreft with 
1 fubdued organs, and purified by three paracas y 


AND EXPIATION. 


343 

he fhall be fet free from all fins how heinous 
foever. 

260 c Or he (hall be releafed from all deadly 
fins, if he fad three davs, with his members 
mortified, and twice a day plunge into water, 
thrice repeating the text aghamarjhana : 

261. c As the facrifice of a horfe, the king of 
facrifices, removes all fin, thus the text agha- 
tnarjhana dedroys ail offences. 

262. ‘ A pried, who fhould retain in his me¬ 
mory the whole Rigvida , would be abfolved 
from guilt, even if he had flain the inhabitants 
of the three worlds, and had eaten food from the 
fouled hands. 

263 c By thrice repeating the mantras and 
hrabmanas of the Rich , or thofe of the Yajufh y 
or thole of the Saman, with the ufanifhads, he 
fhall perfectly be cleanfcd from every poffible 
taint: 

26a. ' As a clod of earth, cad into a great lake, 
finks in it, thus is every finful adl fubmerged in 
the triple Veda . 

265. * The divifions of the Rich , the feveral 
branches of the Yaju/h, and the manifold drains 
of the Saman, mud be confidered as forming the 
triple Vida: he knows the Vida, who knows 
them collectively. 

266. 1 The primary triliteral fyllable, in which 
the three Vidas themfelves are comprifed, mud 
be kept fecret, as another triple Veda: he knows 
the Veda , who dijiinftly knows the myjlick JenJe of 
that word/ 












. 

' 





















































( 345 ) 


CHAPTER THE TWELFTH. 


On Tran),migration and Final Beatitude. 


1. c O thou, who art free from fin ? fatd the 
devout fages , ' thou haft declared the whole fyftcm 
1 of dudes ordained tor the tour clafles of men: 
f explain to us now, from the firft principles, the 

* ultimate retribution for their deeds.* 

2. Bmvicu, whole heart was the pure eflence 
of virtue, who proceeded from Menu himfelf, 
thus addreffed the great lages : ‘ Hear the in- 
‘ fallible rules for the fruit of deeds in this uni- 
« verfe. 

3. * Action, either mental, verbal, or cor- 

* poreal, bears good or evil fruit, as itfelf is good 
1 or evil ; and from the a&ions of men proceed 
‘ their various tranfmigrations in the highcft, the 

* mean, and the lowed degree : 

4. 1 Of that three-fold a&ion, connected with 
c bodily funflions, difpofed in three claifcs, and 

* confiding of ten orders, be it known in this 

* world, that the heart is the inftigator. 

5. * Dcvifing means to appropriate the wealth 

* of other men, rcfolving on any forbidden deed, 

4 and 




346 on transmigration 

* and conceiving notions of atheifm or mate<* 
€ rialifm, arc* the three bad ads of the mind: 

6. 1 Scurrilous language, falfehood, indifcri* 
c minate backbiiing, and ufelefs tattle, are the 
4 four bad ads of the tongue : 

7. c Tak ng effeds not given, hurting fentient 
c creatures without the fandion of law, and crU 

* minal intercourfe with the wife of another* are 

* the three bad ads of the body - } ana all the ten 
4 have their cppofites, which are good in an equal 

* degree . 

8. c A rational creature has a reward or a 
4 punifhment for mental ads, in his mind ; for 
< verbal ads, in his organs of fpeech $ for corpo- 

* real ads, in his bodily frame. 

9. c For linful ads moftly corporeal, a man 
€ iliall alTume after death a vegetable or mineral 
4 form ; for fuch ads moftly verbal, the form of 
4 a bird or a bead; for ads moftly mental, the 
4 loweft of human conditions: 

10. 4 He, whofe firm underftanding obtains a 

* command over his words, a command over his 
4 thoughts, and a command over his whole body, 

* may juftly be called a tridand }, or triple com - 
4 mander ; not a mere anchoret , who bears three 
c vifible Jiaves m 

11. 4 The man, who exerts this triple felf- 

* command with refped to all animated creatures, 
4 wholly fubduing both lull and wrath, fhall by 

* thole means attain beatitude. 

12. 4 That fubftance, which gives a power of 

* motion to the body, the wife call cjhetrajnya> or 
4 jivdtman, the vital fpirit; and that body, which 
4 thence derives adive fundions, they name bhu- 
4 tatnian , or compofed of elements : 

13. 4 Another internal fpirit, called mahat y or 

4 the 


AND FINAL BEATITUDE. 


347 


the great foul, attends the birth of all creatures 
imbodied, and thence, in all mortal forms, is 
conveyed a perception e : ther pleafing or painful, 

14. 4 Thofe two, the vital fpirit and reafonablc 
foul, are clofcly united with Jive elements, but 
connected with the fupreme fpirit, or divine 
ellence, which pervades all beings high and low: 

15. * From the ftibftance of that fupreme fpirit , 
are diffufed, like fparks from fire , innumerable 
vital fpirits, which perpetually give motion to 
creatures exalted and bafe. 

16. ‘ By the vital fouls of thofe men, who 
have committed fins in the body reduced to afhes 9 
another body, coippofed of nerves with five 
fenfations, in order to be fufceptible of torment, 
fhall certainly be affumed after death j 

17. 4 And, being intimately united with thofe 
minute nervous particles, according to their dif- 
tribution, they fhall feel, in that new body, 
the pangs infli&ed in each cafe by the fentence 
of Yama. 

18. 4 When the vital foul has gathered the 
fruit of fins, which arife from a love of fenfual 
pleafure, but muff produce mifery, and, when 
its taint has thus been removed, it approaches 
again thofe two mod effulgent effences, the in - 
telle Huai foul and the divine fpirit: 

19. * They two, clofely conjoined, examine 
without remiffion the virtues and vices of that 
fenfitive foul, according to its union with which 
it acquires pleafure or pain in the prefent and 
future worlds. 

20. ' If the vital fpirit had pra&ifed virtue 
for the mod part, and vice in a fmali degree, 
it enjoys delight in celcftial abodes, cloched 

* with 


34S ON TRANSMIGRATION 

‘ with a body formed of pure elementary par- 

* tides ; 

21. ‘ But, if it had generally been addidted to 

* vice, and feldom attended to virtue, then (hall 

* it be defertea by thofe .pure elements, and, hav~ 

€ ing a ccarjer body of Jenfible nerves, it feels the 
c pains to which Yam a (hall doom it: 

22. c Having endured thofe torments according 
c to the fentence of Yama, and its taint being 
c almoft removed, it again reaches thofe five pure 
€ elements in the order of their natural diftribu- 

* tion. 

23. c Let each man, confidering with his in- 
c telledtual powers thefe migrations of the foul, 
c according to its virtue or vice, into a region of 
% blifs or pain , continually fix his heart on virtue. 

24 c Be it known, that the three qualities of 

* the rational foul are a tendency to goodnefs, to 
€ paffion, and to darknefs; and, endued with one 
1 or more of them, it remains incefifantly attached 

* to all thefe created fubftances : 

25. c When any one of the three qualities pre- 
€ dominates in a mortal frame, it renders the 
c imbodied fpirit eminently diftinguiftied for that 
c quality. 

26. * Goodnefs is declared to be true know- 
c ledge; darknefs, grofs ignorance ; pafiion, an 
€ emotion of defire or averfion : fuch is the com- 

* pendious defcription of thofe qualities, which 

* attend all fouls. 

27. c When a man perceives, in the reafonable 
€ foul, a difpofition tending to virtuous love, un- 
s clouded with any malignant pafiion, clear as the 

* purefl light, let him recognife it as the quality 

* of goodnefs : 

28. ‘ A temper of mind, which gives uneafinefs 

< and 


AND FINAL BEATITUDE. 


349 

and produces difaffedion, let him confider as 
the adverfe quality of pallion, ever agitating 
imbodied Ipirits : 

29. * That indiftind, inconceivable, unaccount¬ 
able difpofition ot a mind naturally fenfual, and 
clouded wich infatuation, let him know to be 
the quality of darknefs. 

30. c Now will I declare at large the various 
ads, in the highcft, middle, and lowed: degrees, 
which proceed from thofe three difpofitions of 
mind. 

31. € Study of feripture, auftere devotion, fa- 
cred knowledge, corporeal purity, command 
over the organs, performance of duties, and 
meditation on the divine fpirit, accompany the 
good quality of the foul: 

32. c Interefted motives for ads cf religion cr 
morality , perturbation of mind on flight occa- 
fions, commiflion of ads forbidden by law, and 
habitual indulgence in felfifh gratifications, are 
attendant on the quality of pafTion : 

33. c Covetoufnefs, indolence, avarice, detrac¬ 
tion, atheifm, omiilion of preferibed ads, a 
habit of foliciting favours, and inattention to 
neceflary bufinefs, belong to the dark quality. 

34. f Of thofe three qualities, as they appear 
in the three times, pajl , prefent y andfuture , the 
following in order from the loweft may be conr 
fidered as a £hort but certain criterion. 

35. ‘ Let the wife confider, as belonging to 
the quality of darknefs every ad, which a man 
is afhamed of having done, of doing, or of 
going to do : 

36. ‘ Let them confider, as proceeding from 
the quality of pallion, every ad, by which a 
man leeks exaltation and celebrity in this world, 

* though 


350 bN transmigration 

4 though he may not be much affli&ed, if he fail 
4 of attaining his object: 

37. 4 To the quality of goodnefs belongs every 
c aft, by which he hopes to acquire divine know- 
4 ledge, which he is never afhamed of doing, and 
* which brings placid joy to his confidence. 

38. 4 Of the dark quality, as defcribed, the 
4 principal objedt is plealure ; of the pafftonate, 
4 wotldly profperity ; but of the good quality, 
4 the chief objedt is virtue: the lad mentioned 
4 objefts are fuperiour in dignity. 

39. c Such tranfmigrations, as the foul procures 
4 in this univerfe by each of thofe qualities, I noW 
4 will declare in order fuccindtly. 

40. 4 Souls, endued with goodnefs, attain al- 
4 ways the date of deities; thofe filled with am- 
4 bitious paffions, the' condition of meri; and 
4 thofe immerfed in darknefs, the nature of beads: 
4 this is the triple order of tranfmigration. 

41. 4 Each of thofe three tranfmigrations, caufed 
c by the feveral qualities, mud alfo be confidered 
4 as three-fold, the lowed, the mean, and the 
4 highed, according to as many didindtions of 
4 adls and of knowledge. 

42. c Vegetable and mineral fubdances, worms* 
4 infedls, and reptiles, fome very minute, fome 
4 rather larger, fifh, fnakes, tortoifes, cattle* 

4 fhakals, are the lowed forms, to which the dark 
4 quality leads i 

43. 4 Elephants, horfes, rtlen of the fervile clafs, 

4 and contemptible Mlech’has, or barbarians, lions* 

4 tigers, and boars, are the mean daces procured 
4 by the quality of darknefs : 

44. 4 Dancers and fingers, birds, and deceitful 

4 men, giants and blood-thirdy favages, are the 
4 highed conditions, to which the dark quality can 
4 afeend. 45* 4 J'hallas^ 


Attb fInal beatitude* 351 

45. c J’hallas, or cudgel players, Mallas , or 
boxers and wrefllers, Nat as > or adtors, thofe 
who teach the ufe of weapons, and thofe who are 
addidled to gaming or drinking, are the lowefl 
forms occafioned by the paffionate quality : 

46. * Kings, men of the fighting clafs, domeftick 
priefts of kings, and men fkilled in the war of 
controverfy, are the middle ftates caufed by the 
quality of paflion: 

47. c Gandharvas , or aerial muficians, Guhyacas 
and Tacjhas , or fervants and companions of 
Cuve'ra, genii attending fuperiour gods, as the 
Vidyadharas and others, together with various 
companies of Apfarofes or nymphs, are the 
higheft of thofe forms, which the quality of 
paflion attains. 

48. * Hermits, religious mendicants, other 
Brahmens , fuch orders of demigods as are wafted 
in airy cars, genii of the figns and lunar man- 
fions, and Daityas , or the offspring of Dm, 
are the lowefl of ftates procured by the quality 
of goodnefs : 

49. c Sacrifices, holy fages, deities of the 
lower heaven, genii of the Vedas , regents of ftars 
not in the paths of the fun and moon , divinities of 
years, Pitris or progenitors of mankind, and the 
demigods named Sddhyas y are the middle forms, 
to which the good quality conveys all fpirits 
moderately endued with it: 

50. * Brahma' with four faces, creators of 
worlds under him , as Mar'ichi and others , the 
genius of virtue, the divinities prcfiding over {two 
principles of nature in the philofophy of Capila) 
mahaty or the mighty , and avyafta , or unperceivedy 
are the higheft conditions, to which, by the 
good quality, fouls are exalted. 


51. f This 


5* 


ON TRANSMIGRATION 


51. c This triple fyftem of tranfmigrations, in 
which each clafs has three orders, according to 
adions of three kinds, and which cornprifes all 
animated beings, has been revealed in its full 
extent: 

5 . ‘ Thus, by indulging the fenfual appetites, 
and by negleding the performance of duties, 
the bafeft of men, ignorant of facrcd expiations, 
affume the bafeft forms. 

53. * What particular bodies the vital fpirit 
enters in this world, and in confequence of what 
fins here committed, now hear at large and in 
order. 

54. c Sinners, in the firft degree, having pafTed 
through terrible regions of torture for a great 
number of years, are condemned to the following 
births, at the clofe of that period, to efface ail re - 
mains of their fin . 

55. c The flayer of a Brahmen muft enter ac¬ 
cording to the circumftances of his crime the body 
of a dog, a boar, an afs, a camel, a bull, a goat, 
a fheep, a ftag, a bird, a Chandala > or a Puccofa. 
36. f A prieft, who has drunk fpirituous liquor, 
fhall migrate into the form ot a fmaller or larger 
worm or infed, of a moth, of a fly feeding on 
ordure, or of fome ravenous animal. 

57. f He, who fteals the gold of a prieft, fhall 
pafs a thoufand times into the bodies of fpiders, 
of fnakes and camdeons, of crocodiles and other 
aquatick monfters, or of mifchievous blood- 
fucking demons. 

58. c He, who violates the bed of his natural 
or fpirit ual father, migrates a hundred times into 
the form of grades, of fhrubs with crowded 
ftems, or of creeping and twining plants, of 
vultures and other carnivorous animals, of lions 

* and 


And final beatitude. 333 

c and olbsr beads wirh fharp teeth, or of tigers and 
c other cruel brutes. 

59. c They who hurt any fentient beings, are 
c born cats and other eaters of raw flefh ; they who 
r tade what ought not to be taded, maggots or 
c fmall flies } they who deal ordinary things , de- 
c vourers of each other: theywho embrace very 
x low women, become redlefs ghods. 

60. c He who has held intercourfe with de- 

* graded men, or been criminally connedted with 
c the wife of another, or flolen common things from 
c a pried, fhall be changed into a fpirit called 
c Brahmaracjhafa. 

61. f The wretch, who through covetoufnefs 
c has dolen rubies or other gems, pearls, or coral, 

€ or precious things, of which there are many forts, 

€ fhall be born in the tribe of goldfmiths , or among 

* birds called hemacaras, or gold makers. 

62. * Ifa man deal grain in the hulk, he fhall 
c be born a rat; if a yellow mixed metal, a gan- 

* der ; if water, a plava , or diver ; if honey, a 
c great dinging gnat 3 if milk, a crow 5 if ex- 

* prefled juice, a dog; if clarified butter, an ich- 
f neumon weafel $ 

63. * If he deal flefh mear, a vulture; if any 
c fort,of fat, the water-bird madgu ; if oil, a blarra, 
1 or oil-drinking beetle ; if fait, a cicada or cricket * 

* if curds, the bird valued', 

6 * If filken clothes, the bird tittiri 3 if wo- 

c ven flax, a frog 3 if cotton cloth, the water bird 
c crauncka ; if a cow, the lizard gidhd 5 if molafles, 
c the bird v igguda 3 

65. If exquifite perfumes, a mufk-rat; if pot- 

* herbs, a peacock ; if d re fled gram in any of its 
c various forms, a porcupine 3 if raw grain, a 
f hedge-hog ; 


A a 


66. ‘ If 


ON transmigration 


35 4 


66. c If he fleal fire, the bird vaca ; if a houfe- 
hold utenfil, an ichneumon fly ; if dyed cloth,the 
bird chacora ; 

67. c If a deer or an elephant, he fhall be born 
a wolf; if a horfe, a tiger; if roots or fruit, an ape; 
if a woman, a bear ; if water from ajar, the bird 
cbataca\ if carriages, a camel ; if fmall cattle, a 
goat. 

68. c That man, who defignediy takes away the 
property of another, or eats any holy cakes not 
fir ft prefented to the deity at a folemn rite, fhall 
inevitably fink to the condition of a brute. 

69. c Women, who have committed fimilar 
thefts, incur a fimilar taint, and fhall be paired 
with thofe male beads in the form of their 
females. 

70. c If any of the four clafies omit, without 
urgent neceftity, the performance of their feveral 
duties, they fhall migrate into finful bodies, and 
become flaves to their foes. 

71. c Should a Brahmen omit his peculiar duty, 
he fhall be changed into a demon called Ulca - 
mud ha or with a mouth like a firebrand , who de¬ 
vours what has been vomited ; a Cjhatriya into 
a demon called Cataputana , who feeds on ordure 
and carrion ; 

72. * A Vatfya , into an evil being called Mai~ 
tracjhajyotica> who eats purulent carcafles ; and 
a Sudra , who negledts his occupations, becomes 
a foul imbodied fpirit called Cbailafaca y who 
feeds on lice. 

73. c As far as vital fouls, addi&ed to fenfu- 
ality, indulge themfelves in forbidden pleafures, 
even to the lame degree fhall the acutenefs of 
their fenfes be railed in their future bodies , that 
they may endure analogous pains ; 

7 74. c And 


AND FINAL BEATITUDE. 335 

74. c And, in confequence of their folly, they 
{hall be doomed, as often as they repeat their cri¬ 
minal a6ts, to pains more and more intenle in 
defpicable forms on this earth. 

75. 4 They fhall firfl have a fenfation of agony 
in Tam:fra or utter darknefs> and in other feats 
of horrour ; in Afipatravana , or theJword-leaved 
for eft > and in different places of binding faff and 

of rending : 

76. e Multifarious tortures await them : they 
fhall be mangled by ravens and owls, fhall fwal- 
low cakes boiling hot; fhall walk over inflamed 
fands, and fhall feel the pangs of being baked 
like the veffels of a potter : 

77. ‘ They fhall affume the forms of beafts con¬ 
tinually miferable, and fuffer alternate affiidtions 
from extremities of cold and of heat, furrounded 
with terrours of various kinds : 

78. c More than once fhall they lie in different 
wombs ; and, after agonizing births, be con¬ 
demned to fevere captivity, and to fervile atten¬ 
dance on creatures like themfelves: 

79. f Then fhall follow feparations from kindred 
and friends, forced refidence with the wicked, 
painful gains and ruinous Ioffes of wealth; 
friendfhips hardly acquired, and at length 
changed into enmities, 

80. ‘ Old age without refource, difea r es at¬ 
tended with anguifh, pangs of innumerable forts, 
and, laftly, unconquerable death. 

81. * With whatever difpofition of mind a 
man fhall perform in this life any a<5t religious 
or moral , in a future body endued with the lame 
quality, fhail he receive his retribution. 

82. ‘ Thus has been revealed to you the fyftem 

A a 2 ‘of 


ON transmigration 


c of puniffiments for evil deeds: next learn thofe 
f ads of a Brahmen which lead to eternal blifs. 

83. ‘ Studying and comprehending the Veda, 
c pradifing pious aufterities, acquiring divine 
c knowledge of law and philofophy 3 command over 
c the organs of fenfe and adion, avoiding all injury 

* to fentient creatures, and fhowing reverence to 
f a natural and fpiritual father, are the chief 
‘ branches of duty which enfure final happinefs/ 

84. c Among all thofe good ads performed in 
€ this world, Jaid the /ages, is no fingle ad held 
f more powerful than the reft in leading men to 
‘ beatitude ? ? 

85. c Of all thofe duties, anjwered Bhrigu, the 
c principal is to acquire from the Upanifhads a 

* true knowledge of one fupreme GOD ; that is 
f the moft exalted of all fciences, becaufe it en- 
‘ lures immortality : 

86. c In this life, indeed, as well as the next, 
e the ftudy of the Veda, to acquire a knowledge of 

GOD, is held the moft efficacious of thofe fix 
4 duties in procuring felicity to man ; 

87. c For in the knowledge and adoration of 
c one GOD, which the Veda teaches, all the rules 
i of good condud, before-mentioned in order, are 

* fully comprifed. 

88 . f The ceremonial duty, preferibed by the 
Veda 3 is of two kinds ; Gne conneded with this 

c world, and caufing prolperity on earth; the 
c other abftraded from it, and procuring blifs in 
c heaven. 

89. ‘ A religious ad, proceeding from felfifli 
4 views in this world, as afacrifce for rain , or in 

* the next, as a pious oblation in hope of a future 
6 reward , is declared to be concrete and interefted 5 

1 buc 


AND FINAL BEATITUDE. 


357 


but an afl performed with a knowledge of God, 
and without felf-love, is called abftraft and cli 1- 
interefted. 

90. f He, who frequently performs interefted 
rites, attains an equal Ration with the regents of 
the lower heaven : but he, who frequently per¬ 
forms difinterefted ads of religion, becomes for 
ever exempt from a body compofed of the five ele¬ 
ments : 

9U ‘ Equally perceiving the fupreme foul in 
all beings, and all beings in the fupreme foul, he 
facrifices his own fpirit by fixing it on the ipirit 
of GOD, and approaches the nature of that foie 
divinity who fhines by h;s own effulgence. 

92. ‘ Thus mult the chief of the twice born, 
though he neglecft the ceremonial rites mentioned 
in the SJlras, be diligent alike in attaining 
a knowledge of God, and in repeating the 
Vida : 

93. ‘ Such is the advantageous privilege of 
thofe, who have a double birth from their natu¬ 
ral mothers and from the gayatri their fpiritual 
mother , efpecially of a Brahmen ; fince the twice 
born man, by performing this duty, but not 
otherwife, may foon acquire endlcTs felicity. 

94. c To patriarchs, to deities, and to man¬ 
kind, the fcripture is an eye giving conftanc 
light; nor could the Vida Si/fra have been made 
by human faculties ; nor can it be meafured by 
human reafon unafffted by revealedglojfes and com¬ 
ments : this is a furc propofition. 

95. c Such codes of law as are not grounded 
on the Vida , and the various heterodox theories 
of men, produce no good fruit after death ; 
fo*r they all are declared to have their bafis on 
darkncfs. 


A a 3 


96 . ‘ AU 


358 ON TRANSMIGRATION 

o6. c All fyftems which are repugnant to the 
« muft bave been compofed by mortals, and 

* fhall loon perifh : their modern date proves 
€ them vain and falfe. 

97. c The three worlds, the four clafifes cf men, 

« and their four diftind orders, with all that has 
« been, ail that is, and ail that will be, are made 
1 known by the Veda : 

98. c The nature of found, of tangible and vifi- 

< ble lhape, of tafte, and of odour, the fifth objed 
«■ of fenfe, is clearly explained in the Veda alone, 

< together with the three qualities of mind, the 
« births attended with them, and the ads which 
€ they occafion. 

99. 4 All creatures are fufiiained by the prime- 
« val Veda Sdfira , which the wife therefore hold 
4 fupreme, becaufe it is the fupreme fource of prof- 
« perity to this creature, man. 

ico. 4 Command of armies, royal authority, 
c power of inflidting puniihment, and fovereign 
« dominion over all nations, he only well deferves, 
c who perfediy underftands the Veda Saftra. 

101. 4 As fire with augmented force burns up 
f even humid trees, thus he, who well knows 
« the Veda, burns out the taint of fin, which has 

< infeded his foul. 

102. 4 He who completely knows the fenfe of 
« the Veda Saftra, while he remains in any one of 

< the four orders, approaches the divine nature, 
« even though he fojourn in this low world. 

103. 4 They who have read many books, are 
« more exalted than fuch as have feldom ftudied 
« they who retain what they have read, than for- 
« getful readers; they who fully underftand, 
4 than fuch as only remember; and they who 

4 perform 


and final beatitude. 


59 


perform their known duty, thin fuch men as 
barely know it. 

104. c Devotion and facred knowledge are the 
beft means by which a Brahmen can arrive at 
beatitude : by devotion he may deftroy guilt ; 
by facred knowledge he may acquire immortal 
glory. 

105. c Three modes of proof, ocular demon- 
ftration, logical inference, and the authority of 
thole various books, which are deduced from the 
Vhla y mu ft be well underftood by that man who 
feeks a diftintt knowledge of all his duties. 

106. ‘ He alone comprehends the fyftem of 
duties, religious and civil, who can reafon, by 
rules of logic agreeable to the Veda, on the 
general heads of that fyftem, as revealed by the 
holv fages. 

107. 1 Thefe rules of conduft, which lead to 
fupreme blifs, have been exactly and compre- 
henlively declared : the more fecret learning of 
this Manava Sajira {hall now be difclofed. 

ic8 . ‘ If ic be afkcd, how the law ihall be af- 
certained, when particular cafes are not com- 
pnled under fifty of the general rules, tree an- 
fvjer is this: “ That, which well inftru&ed 
1 Brahmens propound, Ihall be held inconteftable 
‘ law -” 

109. ‘Well inftrutted Brahmens are they who 
can adduce ocular proof from the feripture it- 
l'elf, having thidied, as the law ordains, the Ve¬ 
das and their extended branches, or Vc'dangas , 
Mimdnfa, Nyayo, Dherma fiftra, Pur anas: 
no ‘ A point of law, before not exprefsly re¬ 
vealed, which Ihall be decided by an aflembly of 
ten fuch virtuous Brahmens under one chief, or, 
if ten be not procurable , of three luch, under one 
Dreftdent, let 00 man controvert. 

v 1 it. ‘ The 


$ 6 o ON TRANSMIGRATION 

hi, ‘ The a [Terribly of ten under a chief, 

4 either the king himfelfor a judge appointed by bm 3 
c muft confitf of three, each of them peculiarly 
4 converfant with one of the three Vedas ; of a 

* fourth, [killed in the Nydya , and a fifth in the Mi- 
c mdnjd philofophy ; of a fixth, who has particularly 
4 ftudied the Niruffa ; a feventh, who has applied 
c himfelf moft affiducufiy to the Dhermafcifira ; 

4 and of three univerfal Jcholars , who are in the 
c three firft orders. 

11a. c One, who has chiefly fiudied the Rjg - 
6 veda 3 a fecond who principally knows the Ya- 

* jujhy and a third befl: acquainted with the Saman, 

1 are the afiembly of three under a head, who may 
1 remove all doubts, both in law and cafuiftry. 

113. c Even the decifion of one prieft, if more can- 
4 not be ajfembled , who perfectly knows the princi- 
c pies of the Vedas> muff be confidered as law of 
< the highefl: authority 3 not the opinion of myri- 
c ads, who have no facred knowledge. 

114. c Many thoufands of Brahmens cannot 
‘ form a legal afiembly for the decifion of contefts, 
c if they have not performed the duties of a regu- 

* lar ftudentfhip, are unacquainted with fcriptural 
1 texts, and fubfift only by the yame of their lacer- 
c dotalclafs. 

115. f The fin of that man, to whom dunces, 
€ pervaded by the quality of darknefs, propound 
4 the law, of which they are themfelves ignorant, 
x fhall pafs, increafed a hundred-fold, to the wretches 
c who propound it. 

116. c This comprehenfive fyftem of duties, 
*■ the chief caufe of ultimate felicity, has been de- 
1 dared to you ; and the Brahmen , who never de- 

* parts from it, fhall attain a fuperiour ftate above. 

117. ( Thus did the all- wife Menu, who. pof- 

l * fefifes 



AND FINAL BEATITUDE. 


361 

ftfles extenfive dominion, and blazes with hea¬ 
venly Iplendour, dilclofe to me, from his bene¬ 
volence to mankind, this tranfcendenc fyftern of 
law, which mult be k<"pt devoutly concealed 
from perfons unfit to receive it. 

1 18. ‘ Let every Brahmen with fixed attention 
confider all nature, both vifible and invifible, as 
exifting in the divine fpirit; for, when he con¬ 
templates the boundlels univerfe exifting in the 
divine fpirit,he cannot give his heart to iniquity : 

119. ‘ The divine fpirit alone is the whole a fi¬ 
fe mblage of gods ; all worlds are feated in the 
divine fpirit; and the divine fpirit, no doubt, 
produces, hy a chain of c'ufes and effects confiftent 
with free-will , the connected feries of adh per¬ 
formed by imbodied fouls. 

120. c We may contemplate the fubtil ether in 
the cavities of his body ; the air in his mufcular 
motion and fenfitive nerves; the fupreme folar 
and igneous light, in his digeftive heat and his 
vifual organs; in his corporeal fluids, water; in 
the terrene parts of his fabric, earth; 

121. ‘ In his heart, the moon; in his auditory 
nerves, the guardians of eight regions; in h ; s pro- 
greffive motion, V shnuj in his mufcular force, 
Hara ; in his organs of fpeech, Acni ; in excre¬ 
tion, Mitra; in procreation, Brahma : 

122. ‘-But he muft confider the fupreme om- 
niprefenc intelligence as the fovereign lord of 
them all, by zvhofe energy alone they exifi ; a fpirit, 
by no means the objett of any fenfe, which can only 
be conceived by a mind wholly abfirarted from 
matter, and as it were Hum be ring; but which, 
for the purpofe of ajfifting his meditation , he may 
imagine more fubtil than the fineft conceivable 
eftence, and more bright than the pureft gold. 

123. c Him fome adore as tranfcendently pre- 

f fent 


ON TRANSMIGRATION, &C k 

c fent in elementary fire; others, in Menu, lord of 

* creatures, or an immediate agent in the creation ; 
c fome, as more diilinflly preient in Indra, regent 
< of the clouds and the atmcfphere; others, in pure 
c air; others, as the moft High Eternal Spirit. 

124. c It is He, who, pervading all beings in 
c five elemental forms, caufes them, by the gra- 

* dations of birth, growth, and diilolution, to re- 
‘ volve in this world until they deferve beatitude , 

* like the wheels of a car. 

12$. f Thus the man, who perceives in his 
c own foul the fupreme foul prcfent in all creatures, 
1 acquires equanimity toward them all, and fhall 

* be abfolved at laft in the higheft efience, even 
c that of the Almighty himfelf.* 

126. Here ended the facred inftru&or; and 
every twice born man, who, attentively reading 
this Manava Saftra> promulgated bv Bhrigu, 
ihall become habitually virtuous, will attain the 
beatitude which he feeks. 


[ 3*3 3 


GENERAL NOTE. 


The ^earned Hindus are unanimoufly of opi¬ 
nion, that many laws enadted by Menu, their old- 
eft reputed legiflator, were confined to the three 
4 firft ages of the world, and have no force in the 
prefent age, in which a few of them are certainly 
obfolete; and they ground their opinion on the 
following texts, which are collected in a work en¬ 
titled, Med ana r A ta a pradipa. 

1. Cratu : In the Cali age a fon muft not be 
begotten on a widow by the brother of the deceajed, 
hujband ; nor muft a damfel, once given away in 
marriage, be given a fecond time ; nor muft a bull 
be offered in a facrifice ; nor muft a water-pot be 
carried by a ftu dent in theology . 

II. Vrihaspati : i. Appointments of kin/men 
to beget children on widows, or married women , 
when the hufoands are deceajed or impotent, are men¬ 
tioned by the fage Menu, but forbidden by him- 
felt, with a view to the order of the four ages j no 
fuch adt can be legally done in this age by any 
others than the hujband. 

2. In the firft and fecond ages men were endued 
with true piety and found knowledge; fo they 
were in the third age; but in the fourth, a diminu¬ 
tion of their moral and intellectual powers was or¬ 
dained by their Creator: 


3. Thus 




GENERAL NOTE. 


364 

3. Thus were fons of many different forts 
made by ancient fages; but fuch cannot now be 
adopted by men deftitute of thofe eminent powers. 

III. Para'sara: i. A man, who has held in¬ 
ter courjc with a deadly /inner , mu ft abandon his 
country in the firft age; he muft leave his town 
in the fecond; his family in the third age; but in 
the fourth he needs only defert the offender. 

2. In the firft age, he is degraded by mere con- 
verfation with a degraded man ; in the fecond, by 
touching him; in the third, by receiving food 
from him ; but in the fourth* the finner alone bears 
his guilt. 

IV. Na rada : The procreation of a fon by a 
brother of the deceafed , the daughter of cattle in 
the entertainment of a gueft, the repaft on fiefti 
meat at funeral obfequies, and the order of a her¬ 
mit, areforbidden , or ohfolete , in the fourth age . 

V. A'ditya purcina: 1. What was a duty in the 
firft age, muft not, in all cafes> be done in a fourth ; 
fince, in the Cali yuga , both men and women are 
addufted to fin : 

2. Such are a ftudentfhip continued for a very 
long time, and the neceffity of carrying a water- 
pot, marriage with a paternal kinfwoman, or with 
a near maternal relation, and the facrifice of a bull, 

3. Or of a man, or of a horfe : and all fpirituous 
liquor muft, in the Cali age, be avoided by twice 
born men ; fo muft a fecond gift of a married 
young woman, whofe bufband has died before con¬ 
summation , and the larger portion of an deleft bro¬ 
ther, and procreation on a brother’s widow or 
wife. 

VI. Smrlti: 1. The appointment of a man to be¬ 
get a fon on the widow of his brother ; the gift of 
a young married woman to another bridegroom, if 
for hujbandJhould die while (he remains a virgin 5 

2. The 


GENERAL NOTE. ^5 

2. The marriage of twice born men with dam- 
fels not of the fame clafs ; the (laughter, in a re¬ 
ligious war, of Brahmens, who are affailants with in¬ 
tent to kill; 

j. Any intercourfe with a twice born man, who 
has paffed the fea in a fhip, even though he have 
performed an expiation ; performances of facri- 
fices for all forts of men ; and the neceffity of car¬ 
rying a water-pot; 

4. Walking on a pilgrimage till the pilgrim 
die; and the (laughter of a bull at a facrifice; the 
acceptance of fpirituous liquors, even at the cere¬ 
mony called Sautrdmani ; 

5. Receiving what has been licked off, at an ob¬ 
lation to fire, from the pot of clarified butter; en¬ 
trance into the third order, or that of a hermit, 
though ordained for the firft ages ; 

6 . The diminution of crimes in proportion to 
the religious a6ts and facred knowledge of the of¬ 
fenders ; the rule of expiation for a Brahmen ex¬ 
tending to death ; 

7. The fin of holding any intercourfe with Tin¬ 
ners ; the fecret expiation of any great crimes, ex¬ 
cept theft; the (laughter of cattle in honour of emi¬ 
nent guefts, or of ancedors ; 

8. The filiation of any but a Ton legally begot¬ 
ten, or given in adoption by his parents-, the defer- 
tion of a lawful wife for any offence lefs than ac¬ 
tual adultery: 

9. Thefe farts of ancient law were abrogated by 
wife legifiators, as the cafes arofe at the beginning 
of the Cali age, with an intent of fecuring man¬ 
kind from evil. 

On the preceding texts it mud be remarked, 
that none of them, except that of Vrihaspati, 
are cited by Cullu'ca, who never leems to have 
confidcrtd any other laws of Menu as redrained 

to 


GENERAL NOTE. 


366 

to the three firftages; that of the SmrHi> or facred 
code, is quoted without the name of the legifla- 
tor ; and that the prohibition, in any age, of felf - 
defence , even againft Brahmens , is repugnant to a 
text of Sumantu, to the precept and example of 
Crishna himfelf, according to the Mahdhhdrat % 
and even to a fentence in the Veda> by which 
every man is commanded to defend his own life 
frm all violent aggrefTors. 


THE END, 


CONTEXTS. 


Chapter 


I. 

On the Creation ; with a Summary of the 
Contents - 

i 

II. 

On Education ; or on the Fir ft Order 

*7 

III. 

On Marriage-, oronth t Second Order 

5 1 

IV. 

On Economicks, and Private Morale 

89 

V. 

On Diet , Purification , and 

123 

VI. 

On Devotion ; or on the Third and 
Fourth Orders 

145 

VII. 

On Government; or on the Military 
Clafs " ~ 

>59 

VIII. 

On Judicature ; and on Law, Private 
and Criminal 

189 

IX. 

On the Commercial and Servile Clafifes 

2 45 

X. 

On the Mixed Claffes, and on Times 
of Diftrejs - 

2S9 

XI. 

On Penance and Expiation 

307 

XII. 

On Tran/migration and final Beatitude 

345 









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BL1125.A3J7 j 

Institutes of Hindu law, or, The \ 



Princeton Theological Seminary-Speer Library 



1 1012 00108 3866 ;